Literatura

Sergio Ramírez: La literatura como oficio peligroso

El nombre de Sergio Ramírez volvió intempestivamente a los diarios del mundo cuando en septiembre de este año, se supo que el gobierno nicaragüense de Daniel Ortega había librado un pedido de captura sobre él, así como sobre varias decenas de opositores. Escritor, ensayista, periodista, Premio Cervantes 1997 y Alfaguara 1998, miembro de la revolución sandinista y exvicepresidente del mismo Ortega, Ramírez recibió un respaldo internacional tan unánime como contundente. Exiliado ahora en España, Ramírez aprovechó la ceremonia de este 25 de octubre en la que recibió la Medalla de Oro del Círculo de Bellas Artes de Madrid para leer este discurso reproducido a continuación en el que homenajea a los escritores sometidos por las tiranías y ofrece un poderoso alegato del modo en que la palabra sobrevive al poder.
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Escritor, ensayista, periodista, Premio Cervantes 1997 y Alfaguara 1998, miembro de la revoluci\u00f3n sandinista y exvicepresidente del mismo Ortega, Ram\u00edrez recibi\u00f3 un respaldo internacional tan un\u00e1nime como contundente. Exiliado ahora en Espa\u00f1a, Ram\u00edrez aprovech\u00f3 la ceremonia de este 25 de octubre en la que recibi\u00f3 la Medalla de Oro del C\u00edrculo de Bellas Artes de Madrid para leer este discurso reproducido a continuaci\u00f3n en el que homenajea a los escritores sometidos por las tiran\u00edas y ofrece un poderoso alegato del modo en que la palabra sobrevive al poder.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"uugcgu4\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><strong>Por\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/3800-sergio-ramirez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">SERGIO RAM\u00cdREZ<\/a><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4241-jose-carlos-yrigoyen\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><br 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primera reflexi\u00f3n de esta noche, al recibir la medalla del C\u00edrculo de Bellas Artes, un honor como pocos en mi vida de escritor, es que <strong>la literatura es un oficio peligroso cuando se enfrenta a las desmesuras del poder de las tiran\u00edas, que nunca dejan de sentirse amenazadas por las palabras.<\/strong> El poder, visto de esta manera, como una anomal\u00eda recurrente del <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/John-Dinges-Plan-Condor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">destino democr\u00e1tico de Am\u00e9rica Latina<\/a><\/span>, y que se ejerce con crueldades y excesos, tiene rostro de piedra y es contrario a la tolerancia, y contrario a las verdades y a la invenci\u00f3n, y al humor, y a la risa, que son cualidades cervantinas.\u00a0<\/p><p>Hablo delante de ustedes como un escritor forzado al exilio, y bajo una orden de prisi\u00f3n arbitraria, la misma que ha ca\u00eddo sobre la cabeza de m\u00e1s de 150 de mis compatriotas, <strong>presos por pensar diferente, por disentir, por hacer valer su derecho de opinar.<\/strong> Por creer en la democracia, y por defenderla. A m\u00ed, adem\u00e1s de todo eso, se me ha enjuiciado por mis palabras, por el hecho de escribir; por mostrar la realidad de un pa\u00eds sometido a la violencia de la tiran\u00eda, y por imaginar. Por crear. La invenci\u00f3n tambi\u00e9n tiene una precio, porque a los ojos del poder absoluto,\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">la novela se vuelve subversiva<\/span>.<\/a><\/p><p>No he podido dejar de recordar a Ovidio, el m\u00e1s antiguo de los escritores exiliados que viene a mi memoria, desterrado a los confines m\u00e1s inh\u00f3spitos del imperio romano en el Mar Negro, \u00aball\u00e1, donde ninguna otra cosa hay, sino fr\u00edo, enemigos y agua de mar que se congela en apretado hielo\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"j7ut2a3\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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poemas, o su irreverencia, o sus opiniones, eso ya nunca llegar\u00e1 a saberse de cierto, ofendieron al emperador Augusto, que lo juzg\u00f3 en secreto y lo sentenci\u00f3 al exilio, donde habr\u00eda de morir, afligido por las calamidades de la soledad y el ostracismo. Extra\u00f1ado. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/george-orwell-1984\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cuando a un escritor se le env\u00eda al exilio<\/a><\/span><strong>\u00a0la pretensi\u00f3n es convertirlo en un extra\u00f1o de su propia tierra, de su vida y de sus recuerdos.<\/strong><\/p><p>\u00abComo la nave podrida que es devorada por la invisible carcoma, como los acantilados socavados por el agua marina, como el hierro abandonado atacado por la mordaz herrumbre, y como el libro archivado devorado por la polilla\u00bb, dice de s\u00ed mismo en sus <em>Tristes,<\/em> porque a\u00fan en aquellas lejan\u00edas sigui\u00f3 escribiendo, un oficio al que no se renuncia nunca, a\u00fan en medio de las peores calamidades. M\u00e1s bien,<strong> la necesidad de escribir se exacerba entonces, si uno se debe a las palabras, o debe su vida a las palabras.<\/strong><\/p><p>Augusto, adem\u00e1s, desde la majestad de su poder omn\u00edmodo, mand\u00f3 a prohibir la circulaci\u00f3n de <em>El arte de amar,<\/em> uno de los libros capitales del poeta desterrado, y mand\u00f3 que se sacara de las bibliotecas p\u00fablicas. Prohibidas sus palabras, y alejado para siempre de su tierra, que era, seg\u00fan \u00e9l mismo lo dijo, como \u00abser llevado al sepulcro sin haber muerto\u00bb.<\/p><p>Pero sin ir m\u00e1s lejos en la historia, en Am\u00e9rica Latina se ha pagado siempre\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/el-mapa-de-sal-ivan-de-la-nuez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">un alto precio por la libertad<\/a><\/span> de palabra y por la libertad de la creaci\u00f3n literaria.<strong> Muerte, desaparici\u00f3n, c\u00e1rcel, destierro.<\/strong> Haroldo Conti y Rodolfo Walsh, asesinados por la dictadura del general Videla en 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destierro fue a dar dos veces R\u00f3mulo Gallegos, primero bajo la dictadura de Juan Vicente G\u00f3mez, y luego bajo la dictadura de Marcos P\u00e9rez Jim\u00e9nez, despu\u00e9s que fue derrocado de la presidencia de Venezuela que hab\u00eda ganado por abrumadora mayor\u00eda del voto popular.\u00a0<\/p><p>Hab\u00eda durado solamente nueve meses en el cargo, los mismos nueve meses que dur\u00f3 Juan Bosch, exiliado por la dictadura del general\u00edsimo Rafael Le\u00f3nidas Trujillo, y luego de muerto Trujillo, electo presidente de la Rep\u00fablica Dominicana, tambi\u00e9n por abrumadora mayor\u00eda, s\u00f3lo para ser derrocado por los militares trujillistas, y vuelto otra vez al exilio.<\/p><p><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/John-Dinges-Plan-Condor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">La lista es demasiado larga y s\u00f3lo cito los nombres que voy recordando<\/span>.<\/a>\u00a0Pablo Neruda se comprometi\u00f3 en 1946 con la candidatura de Gonz\u00e1lez Videla, y se involucr\u00f3 en su campa\u00f1a electoral, pero, ya en el poder, aquel lo mand\u00f3 perseguir y tuvo que huir a trav\u00e9s de la cordillera hacia Argentina.\u00a0<\/p><p>Exiliados tras el derrocamiento de Jacobo Arbenz en Guatemala Tito Monterroso y Luis Cardoza y Arag\u00f3n, por la dictadura de Castillo Armas. Exiliado Augusto Roa Bastos por la dictadura de Stroessner en el Paraguay. Exiliado Mario Benedetti del Uruguay, exiliado Juan Gelman de Argentina, su hijo asesinado y su nuera secuestrada y llevada al Uruguay donde dio a luz a una ni\u00f1a, secuestrada por largos a\u00f1os; y \u00e9l mismo canta mejor que nadie esa triste y desolada canci\u00f3n del exilio:<br \/><br \/><\/p><p><em>huesos que fuego a tanto amor han dado<\/em><\/p><p><em>exiliados del sur sin casa o n\u00famero<\/em><\/p><p><em>ahora desue\u00f1an tanto sue\u00f1o roto<\/em><\/p><p><em>una fatiga les distrae el alma<\/em><\/p><p><em>\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>por el dolor pasean como ni\u00f1os<\/em><\/p><p><em>bajo la lluvia ajena\/una mujer<\/em><\/p><p><em>habla en voz baja con sus pedacitos<\/em><\/p><p><em>como acun\u00e1ndoles no ser\/o nunca<\/em><\/p><p><em>\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>se fueron del pa\u00eds o patria o puma<\/em><\/p><p><em>que recorr\u00eda la belleza como<\/em><\/p><p><em>dicha infeliz\/pa\u00eds de la memoria<\/em><\/p><p><em>\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>donde nac\u00ed\/mor\u00ed\/tuve sustancia\/<\/em><\/p><p><em>huesitos que junt\u00e9 para encender\/<\/em><\/p><p><em>tierra que me entierraba para siempre.<br \/><br \/><\/em><br \/>Y exiliados de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/revolucion-cuba-patricio-fernandez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cuba<\/a><\/span> Rinaldo Arenas, y Guillermo Cabrera Infante, y Severo Sarduy; y de Venezuela, hoy, tantos escritores y artistas que forman una inmensa, e intensa, di\u00e1spora en Espa\u00f1a, Colombia, M\u00e9xico, Estados Unidos.<em><br \/><\/em><\/p><p>De modo que yo pertenezco a esa larga tradici\u00f3n <strong>de quienes pagan un precio por sus palabras, dos veces bajo orden de prisi\u00f3n, y dos veces obligado al exilio,<\/strong> primero en mi juventud por una dictadura familiar, y tantos a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s, por otra dictadura familiar. La historia mordi\u00e9ndose siempre la cola en un pa\u00eds desvalido, hermoso y tr\u00e1gico a la vez.<\/p><p>Pero hay algo de lo que nunca nadie podr\u00e1 exiliarme, <strong>ni el m\u00e1s tirano de los poderes, y es de mi propia lengua.<\/strong> Porque mi\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">lengua<\/a><\/span> de escribir realidades, de crear mundos imaginarios, de inventar universos nuevos, es una lengua que no conoce fronteras.\u00a0<\/p><p>Hay lenguas que tienen el pa\u00eds por c\u00e1rcel, lenguas que terminan donde terminan las fronteras. Claro que el tama\u00f1o de una lengua no se mide por sus l\u00edmites geogr\u00e1ficos, ni creo que haya lenguas peque\u00f1as. Todas tienen sus propios\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">registros m\u00e1gicos<\/a><\/span> e inmensas posibilidades literarias, pero \u00e9stas de las que hablo son lenguas hacia adentro.<\/p><p>No s\u00e9 lo que es vivir en uno de esos espacios verbales cerrados. Hay escritores que, desde all\u00ed, desde esos compartimentos, se han trasplantado a alguna de las grandes lenguas europeas, como es el caso de Milan Kundera, que vio sus libros prohibidos en su pa\u00eds natal, y luego dej\u00f3 de escribir en checo para hacerlo en franc\u00e9s.\u00a0<\/p><p>Son escritores que dejan de escribir en la lengua en que nacieron, y con la que nacieron, bajo un sentimiento de asfixia. <strong>El sentimiento de que su voz se escucha de cerca, pero no de lejos.<\/strong> Y no puedo verlo sino como una dolorosa mutilaci\u00f3n, como la que se practicaba a los castrati en el siglo diecisiete, que ganaban as\u00ed una nueva voz, pero perd\u00edan para siempre la propia. Mutilarse para sobrevivir, porque te proh\u00edben ser le\u00eddo en tu propio pa\u00eds. Pero peor que la castraci\u00f3n es la deslenguaci\u00f3n, la lengua cortada, suprimida, extirpada, desde su arranque y ra\u00edz.\u00a0<\/p><p>Que le quiten a uno su lengua por la fuerza. Otro de los grandes escritores centroeuropeos, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/co\/23171-sandor-marai\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">S\u00e1ndor M\u00e1rai<\/a><\/span>, sinti\u00f3 que hab\u00eda muerto cuando sus libros, que entonces s\u00f3lo pod\u00edan leerse en h\u00fangaro, tambi\u00e9n fueron prohibidos en su patria. Ya ten\u00edan sus novelas el pa\u00eds por c\u00e1rcel, y ahora las enviaban al cementerio.<strong> Le hab\u00edan extirpado la voz como castigo.<\/strong> No s\u00f3lo nadie podr\u00eda leerlo al otro lado de la guardarraya, ni siquiera en Polonia, o en Austria, donde no estaba traducido, sino que tampoco podr\u00eda ser le\u00eddo en su propio pa\u00eds. Como que no existiera.<strong> Y as\u00ed el mundo se perdi\u00f3 por muchos a\u00f1os la espl\u00e9ndida belleza de sus palabras, mientras \u00e9l decid\u00eda su suicidio en el exilio, ya sin lengua.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Nicaragua es un pa\u00eds m\u00e1s peque\u00f1o que la Hungr\u00eda de S\u00e1ndor M\u00e1rai, o de lo que fue la antigua Checoslovaquia de Milan Kundera, y por eso me intriga, y me aterra, esa posibilidad de que nadie pudiera o\u00edrme m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de mis fronteras, o la de quedarme alguna vez sin lengua. <strong>El limbo de las palabras, o su infierno.<\/strong><\/p><p>Pero yo, con mi lengua recorro todo un continente, atravieso el mar, y siempre me dejar\u00e9 escuchar. Y si mis libros est\u00e1n prohibidos en Nicaragua, las veredas clandestinas de las redes sociales hacen que lleguen a miles de lectores, <strong>igual que pasaba antes con los libros inscritos en las listas negras de la inquisici\u00f3n,<\/strong> que atravesaban de contrabando las fronteras a lomo de mula, o burlaban las aduanas escondidos en barriles de vino, de frutos secos, o de tocino.<\/p><p>Por eso que las palabras se vuelven tan temibles. <strong>Porque tienen filo, porque desaf\u00edan, porque no se las puede someter.<\/strong> Porque son la expresi\u00f3n misma de la libertad.<\/p><p>Al recibir esta medalla, doy las gracias al<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.circulobellasartes.com\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"> C\u00edrculo de Bellas Artes<\/a><\/span> por la distinci\u00f3n que me concede. Y doy las gracias a Espa\u00f1a por acogernos a mi esposa Tulita y a m\u00ed de la manera generosa y solidaria en que lo ha hecho.<\/p><p><strong>Para expresar esta gratitud, s\u00ed que no hay palabras.<\/strong><br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/Plagio-Hector-Aguilar-Camin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ning\u00fan derecho reservado: unos apuntes sobre el plagio en la literatura<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ricardo-piglia-ernest-hemingway-en-nuestro-tiempo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ricardo Piglia y Hemingway: el \u00faltimo (re)lector<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/La-campana-carlos-fuentes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La campa\u00f1a de Carlos Fuentes y las revoluciones latinoamericanas: la aventura contin\u00faa<\/a><\/span><\/li><\/ul><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1ofrqpi\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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12 minutos

Crédito: Daniel Mordzinski.

Mi primera reflexión de esta noche, al recibir la medalla del Círculo de Bellas Artes, un honor como pocos en mi vida de escritor, es que la literatura es un oficio peligroso cuando se enfrenta a las desmesuras del poder de las tiranías, que nunca dejan de sentirse amenazadas por las palabras. El poder, visto de esta manera, como una anomalía recurrente del destino democrático de América Latina, y que se ejerce con crueldades y excesos, tiene rostro de piedra y es contrario a la tolerancia, y contrario a las verdades y a la invención, y al humor, y a la risa, que son cualidades cervantinas. 

Hablo delante de ustedes como un escritor forzado al exilio, y bajo una orden de prisión arbitraria, la misma que ha caído sobre la cabeza de más de 150 de mis compatriotas, presos por pensar diferente, por disentir, por hacer valer su derecho de opinar. Por creer en la democracia, y por defenderla. A mí, además de todo eso, se me ha enjuiciado por mis palabras, por el hecho de escribir; por mostrar la realidad de un país sometido a la violencia de la tiranía, y por imaginar. Por crear. La invención también tiene una precio, porque a los ojos del poder absoluto, la novela se vuelve subversiva.

No he podido dejar de recordar a Ovidio, el más antiguo de los escritores exiliados que viene a mi memoria, desterrado a los confines más inhóspitos del imperio romano en el Mar Negro, «allá, donde ninguna otra cosa hay, sino frío, enemigos y agua de mar que se congela en apretado hielo».

Sus poemas, o su irreverencia, o sus opiniones, eso ya nunca llegará a saberse de cierto, ofendieron al emperador Augusto, que lo juzgó en secreto y lo sentenció al exilio, donde habría de morir, afligido por las calamidades de la soledad y el ostracismo. Extrañado. Cuando a un escritor se le envía al exilio la pretensión es convertirlo en un extraño de su propia tierra, de su vida y de sus recuerdos.

«Como la nave podrida que es devorada por la invisible carcoma, como los acantilados socavados por el agua marina, como el hierro abandonado atacado por la mordaz herrumbre, y como el libro archivado devorado por la polilla», dice de sí mismo en sus Tristes, porque aún en aquellas lejanías siguió escribiendo, un oficio al que no se renuncia nunca, aún en medio de las peores calamidades. Más bien, la necesidad de escribir se exacerba entonces, si uno se debe a las palabras, o debe su vida a las palabras.

Augusto, además, desde la majestad de su poder omnímodo, mandó a prohibir la circulación de El arte de amar, uno de los libros capitales del poeta desterrado, y mandó que se sacara de las bibliotecas públicas. Prohibidas sus palabras, y alejado para siempre de su tierra, que era, según él mismo lo dijo, como «ser llevado al sepulcro sin haber muerto».

Pero sin ir más lejos en la historia, en América Latina se ha pagado siempre un alto precio por la libertad de palabra y por la libertad de la creación literaria. Muerte, desaparición, cárcel, destierro. Haroldo Conti y Rodolfo Walsh, asesinados por la dictadura del general Videla en Argentina.

Al destierro fue a dar dos veces Rómulo Gallegos, primero bajo la dictadura de Juan Vicente Gómez, y luego bajo la dictadura de Marcos Pérez Jiménez, después que fue derrocado de la presidencia de Venezuela que había ganado por abrumadora mayoría del voto popular. 

Había durado solamente nueve meses en el cargo, los mismos nueve meses que duró Juan Bosch, exiliado por la dictadura del generalísimo Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, y luego de muerto Trujillo, electo presidente de la República Dominicana, también por abrumadora mayoría, sólo para ser derrocado por los militares trujillistas, y vuelto otra vez al exilio.

La lista es demasiado larga y sólo cito los nombres que voy recordando. Pablo Neruda se comprometió en 1946 con la candidatura de González Videla, y se involucró en su campaña electoral, pero, ya en el poder, aquel lo mandó perseguir y tuvo que huir a través de la cordillera hacia Argentina. 

Exiliados tras el derrocamiento de Jacobo Arbenz en Guatemala Tito Monterroso y Luis Cardoza y Aragón, por la dictadura de Castillo Armas. Exiliado Augusto Roa Bastos por la dictadura de Stroessner en el Paraguay. Exiliado Mario Benedetti del Uruguay, exiliado Juan Gelman de Argentina, su hijo asesinado y su nuera secuestrada y llevada al Uruguay donde dio a luz a una niña, secuestrada por largos años; y él mismo canta mejor que nadie esa triste y desolada canción del exilio:

huesos que fuego a tanto amor han dado

exiliados del sur sin casa o número

ahora desueñan tanto sueño roto

una fatiga les distrae el alma

 

por el dolor pasean como niños

bajo la lluvia ajena/una mujer

habla en voz baja con sus pedacitos

como acunándoles no ser/o nunca

 

se fueron del país o patria o puma

que recorría la belleza como

dicha infeliz/país de la memoria

 

donde nací/morí/tuve sustancia/

huesitos que junté para encender/

tierra que me entierraba para siempre.


Y exiliados de Cuba Rinaldo Arenas, y Guillermo Cabrera Infante, y Severo Sarduy; y de Venezuela, hoy, tantos escritores y artistas que forman una inmensa, e intensa, diáspora en España, Colombia, México, Estados Unidos.

De modo que yo pertenezco a esa larga tradición de quienes pagan un precio por sus palabras, dos veces bajo orden de prisión, y dos veces obligado al exilio, primero en mi juventud por una dictadura familiar, y tantos años después, por otra dictadura familiar. La historia mordiéndose siempre la cola en un país desvalido, hermoso y trágico a la vez.

Pero hay algo de lo que nunca nadie podrá exiliarme, ni el más tirano de los poderes, y es de mi propia lengua. Porque mi lengua de escribir realidades, de crear mundos imaginarios, de inventar universos nuevos, es una lengua que no conoce fronteras. 

Hay lenguas que tienen el país por cárcel, lenguas que terminan donde terminan las fronteras. Claro que el tamaño de una lengua no se mide por sus límites geográficos, ni creo que haya lenguas pequeñas. Todas tienen sus propios registros mágicos e inmensas posibilidades literarias, pero éstas de las que hablo son lenguas hacia adentro.

No sé lo que es vivir en uno de esos espacios verbales cerrados. Hay escritores que, desde allí, desde esos compartimentos, se han trasplantado a alguna de las grandes lenguas europeas, como es el caso de Milan Kundera, que vio sus libros prohibidos en su país natal, y luego dejó de escribir en checo para hacerlo en francés. 

Son escritores que dejan de escribir en la lengua en que nacieron, y con la que nacieron, bajo un sentimiento de asfixia. El sentimiento de que su voz se escucha de cerca, pero no de lejos. Y no puedo verlo sino como una dolorosa mutilación, como la que se practicaba a los castrati en el siglo diecisiete, que ganaban así una nueva voz, pero perdían para siempre la propia. Mutilarse para sobrevivir, porque te prohíben ser leído en tu propio país. Pero peor que la castración es la deslenguación, la lengua cortada, suprimida, extirpada, desde su arranque y raíz. 

Que le quiten a uno su lengua por la fuerza. Otro de los grandes escritores centroeuropeos, Sándor Márai, sintió que había muerto cuando sus libros, que entonces sólo podían leerse en húngaro, también fueron prohibidos en su patria. Ya tenían sus novelas el país por cárcel, y ahora las enviaban al cementerio. Le habían extirpado la voz como castigo. No sólo nadie podría leerlo al otro lado de la guardarraya, ni siquiera en Polonia, o en Austria, donde no estaba traducido, sino que tampoco podría ser leído en su propio país. Como que no existiera. Y así el mundo se perdió por muchos años la espléndida belleza de sus palabras, mientras él decidía su suicidio en el exilio, ya sin lengua. 

Nicaragua es un país más pequeño que la Hungría de Sándor Márai, o de lo que fue la antigua Checoslovaquia de Milan Kundera, y por eso me intriga, y me aterra, esa posibilidad de que nadie pudiera oírme más allá de mis fronteras, o la de quedarme alguna vez sin lengua. El limbo de las palabras, o su infierno.

Pero yo, con mi lengua recorro todo un continente, atravieso el mar, y siempre me dejaré escuchar. Y si mis libros están prohibidos en Nicaragua, las veredas clandestinas de las redes sociales hacen que lleguen a miles de lectores, igual que pasaba antes con los libros inscritos en las listas negras de la inquisición, que atravesaban de contrabando las fronteras a lomo de mula, o burlaban las aduanas escondidos en barriles de vino, de frutos secos, o de tocino.

Por eso que las palabras se vuelven tan temibles. Porque tienen filo, porque desafían, porque no se las puede someter. Porque son la expresión misma de la libertad.

Al recibir esta medalla, doy las gracias al Círculo de Bellas Artes por la distinción que me concede. Y doy las gracias a España por acogernos a mi esposa Tulita y a mí de la manera generosa y solidaria en que lo ha hecho.

Para expresar esta gratitud, sí que no hay palabras.



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