Literatura

«Los documentos de Aspern»: de cómo Henry James predijo la cultura de la cancelación

Las fronteras difusas que separan el ámbito privado del público es uno de los temas de mayor actualidad en nuestra sociedad. Sin embargo, no es un debate nuevo: lo que hoy conocemos como «cultura de la cancelación» (cierta intolerancia sociocultural y rechazo al debate libre) ya lo exponía Henry James —en pleno siglo XIX y de un modo magistral— en «Los documentos de Aspern». En un nuevo aniversario de su nacimiento (15 de abril de 1843), recuperamos esta introducción al título firmada por Teresa Gómez Reus para recordar al autor que supo con genialidad única vislumbrar un conflicto imperecedero. 

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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Cuando leemos a\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/936-henry-james\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Henry James<\/a><\/span> tenemos la impresi\u00f3n de estar leyendo una literatura que, como siempre ocurre con los cl\u00e1sicos, nunca termina de decir lo que tiene que decir. Y eso es precisamente lo que sucede con <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/grandes-clasicos\/226911-los-documentos-de-aspern\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/a><\/span><\/em>, una obra de una cualidad tan inagotable que es como si acabara de salir a la luz. Adem\u00e1s de una trama que nos atrapa a cada paso, en esta aclamada <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">nouvelle<\/i> \u2014el g\u00e9nero favorito de Henry James\u2014 convergen todos los elementos que han llevado a su c\u00e9lebre autor a las cotas m\u00e1s altas de perfecci\u00f3n art\u00edstica: el juego de luces y sombras, el manejo de la ambig\u00fcedad y de lo no dicho, y la incorporaci\u00f3n de ese punto de vista subjetivo y equ\u00edvoco que fue una de las mayores aportaciones suyas a la narrativa moderna. Se public\u00f3 por entregas en la revista estadounidense <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">The Atlantic Monthly<\/i> entre marzo y mayo de 1888; y en ese mismo a\u00f1o apareci\u00f3 en formato de libro, junto con los relatos \u00abLouisa Pallant\u00bb y \u00abLa advertencia moderna\u00bb. El texto fue minuciosamente revisado en la edici\u00f3n de obras escogidas <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">The Novels and Tales of Henry James<\/i>, conocida tambi\u00e9n como la Edici\u00f3n de Nueva York, una obra monumental de 24 vol\u00famenes que James prepar\u00f3 para la editorial Scribner\u2019s entre 1907 y 1909. <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i> se reedit\u00f3 en el volumen 12 de 1908, acompa\u00f1ado de <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">El mentiroso <\/i>(1888) y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/grandes-clasicos\/210084-otra-vuelta-de-tuerca-los-mejores-clasicos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Otra vuelta de tuerca<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0(1898), tres novelas cortas aparentemente dispares que, sin embargo, comparten cierta afinidad psicol\u00f3gica y moral: en los tres casos se trata de una narraci\u00f3n contada por un protagonista impulsado por una idea fija, cuyo punto de vista forma parte esencial del entramado de la historia que relata. <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Como sucede en muchas obras de Henry James, <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i> est\u00e1 basado en un hecho real. Se lo cont\u00f3 el poeta Eugene Lee-Hamilton, hermanastro de la escritora Vernon Lee, en Florencia en el invierno de 1887. Concierne a un librero bostoniano y apasionado de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/17509-frankenstein\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Shelley<\/a><\/span>, un tal capit\u00e1n Silsbee, que hab\u00eda descubierto que una antigua amante de Byron y cu\u00f1ada de Shelley, Claire Clairmont, ahora ya muy anciana, subsist\u00eda oculta en un viejo palacio en Florencia y pose\u00eda unas cartas cruzadas entre Byron y Shelley de valor incalculable. Con la intenci\u00f3n de hacerse con el preciado legado el hombre tram\u00f3 infiltrarse como inquilino en la casa de Claire, con resultados interesantes. Una versi\u00f3n de la historia aseguraba que una sobrina que viv\u00eda con ella de m\u00e1s de cincuenta a\u00f1os se hab\u00eda prendado del librero y le hab\u00eda propuesto, tras la muerte de su t\u00eda, entregarle todos los documentos si \u00e9l se casaba con ella. Al parecer, coment\u00f3 divertido Lee-Hamilton, el americano a\u00fan estaba corriendo. Lee-Hamilton record\u00f3 este episodio tras conocer Henry James en su casa a la condesa Gama, que era sobrina pol\u00edtica de quien hab\u00eda sido la \u00faltima amante de lord Byron, Teresa Giuccioli. La familia Gama ten\u00eda en su poder un fajo de cartas del famoso vate a Teresa que se negaban a mostrar a nadie. Tan escandalosas eran al parecer esas misivas que la condesa Gama reaccion\u00f3 con gran enfado cuando Lee-Hamilton le exhort\u00f3 a publicarlas. La condesa sosten\u00eda que eran un descr\u00e9dito para Byron, e incluso le confes\u00f3 que hab\u00eda quemado parte del preciado epistolario.<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn1;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn1\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a><o:p><\/o:p><\/p><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote-list;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><br clear=\\\"all\\\" \/><hr align=\\\"left\\\" size=\\\"1\\\" width=\\\"33%\\\" \/><!--[endif]--><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn1\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn1;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref1\\\" name=\\\"_ftn1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span lang=\\\"EN-US\\\" style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;\\\"> Leon Edel, <em>Henry James: A Life<\/em>, Nueva York, Harper & Row, 1985, pp. 337-338.<\/span><span lang=\\\"EN-US\\\" style=\\\"mso-ansi-language: 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">La an\u00e9cdota impresion\u00f3 a Henry James, quien la recogi\u00f3 en sus <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Cuadernos de notas<\/i> en la entrada correspondiente al 12 de enero de 1887. \u00abSin duda hay aqu\u00ed un temita: la pintura de las dos damas inglesas, mustias, raras, pobres y desacreditadas, sobreviviendo en medio de una generaci\u00f3n extra\u00f1a, en un mohoso rinc\u00f3n de una ciudad extranjera \u2014con esas cartas ilustres como m\u00e1s preciada posesi\u00f3n\u2014.\u00bb<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn1;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn1\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%;\\\" calibri=\\\"\\\" sans-serif=\\\"\\\" mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-font-family:calibri=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-font-family:=\\\"\\\" times=\\\"\\\" new=\\\"\\\" roman=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi=\\\"\\\" mso-ansi-language:es-ar=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-language:en-us=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-language:ar-sa=\\\"\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> Lo que en el cuaderno de notas aparece como un esbozo de tema se convierte, en manos del magistral novelista, en una trama oscura de intenciones ocultas y choque de voluntades. James funde las dos an\u00e9cdotas que le cuenta Lee-Hamilton, traslada la acci\u00f3n de Florencia a Venecia, y hace del autor de las codiciadas cartas un poeta ficticio estadounidense ya fallecido llamado Jeffrey Aspern. Con estos nuevos ingredientes crea un soberbio relato de intriga, casi un cuento de espionaje, en el que el desesperado intento de un devoto de Aspern por echar mano a las cartas de su adorado bardo deriva en un ovillo narrativo de implicaciones insospechadas.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote-list;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><br clear=\\\"all\\\" \/><hr align=\\\"left\\\" size=\\\"1\\\" width=\\\"33%\\\" \/><!--[endif]--><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn1\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn1;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref1\\\" name=\\\"_ftn1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%;\\\" calibri=\\\"\\\" sans-serif=\\\"\\\" mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-font-family:calibri=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-font-family:=\\\"\\\" times=\\\"\\\" new=\\\"\\\" roman=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi=\\\"\\\" mso-ansi-language:es-ar=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-language:en-us=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-language:ar-sa=\\\"\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"> Henry James, <em>Cuadernos de notas<\/em> (1878-1911), eds. F. O. Matthiessen y Kenneth B. Murdock, Madrid, Destino, 2009, p. 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Desde el principio sabemos de las intenciones nada rectas del americano, pues es \u00e9l quien narra los hechos en primera persona. Sabemos de sus artima\u00f1as, lisonjas y mentiras para introducirse, con una identidad falsa, como arrendatario en el decr\u00e9pito <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">palazzo<\/i> en el que viven, sin recursos y en el m\u00e1s completo aislamiento, la antigua amante del vate, la viej\u00edsima Juliana Bordereau, y su sobrina Tina. Lo que va confiriendo emoci\u00f3n y matiz a la trama es el juego del gato y el rat\u00f3n que entablan la suspicaz anciana y el buscador de revelaciones \u00edntimas, un careo vigilante en el que no resulta del todo evidente qui\u00e9n es el cazador y qui\u00e9n la v\u00edctima. A la ambici\u00f3n implacable del cr\u00edtico por encontrar las cartas se contrapone la codicia de Juliana, quien intenta sacarle todo el dinero que puede fijando una renta mensual de mil francos en oro, una cantidad desorbitada que \u00e9l \u2014rapi\u00f1a contra rapi\u00f1a\u2014 acepta con una sonrisa pues piensa llevarse los papeles por nada. Y como en Henry James no puede faltar un extra\u00f1o tri\u00e1ngulo, a la contienda muda entre estos dos adversarios se suma la entrada en el juego de la c\u00e1ndida sobrina. La insistencia solapada con que el cr\u00edtico persigue su objetivo y la pertinaz defensa que la astuta Juliana opone al asedio de su inquilino est\u00e1n modelados con trazo magistral, as\u00ed como la tensi\u00f3n dram\u00e1tica <em>in crescendo<\/em>, no exenta de turbios vuelcos, en la que nada acaba siendo lo que aparenta ser. Ambientado en verano, en una Venecia grandiosa pero tambi\u00e9n espectral, <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i> evoca un tema caracter\u00edstico en Henry James: el de la b\u00fasqueda de una realidad esencial que nunca acaba de plasmarse. Ni Winterbourne en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Daisy Miller<\/i> (1879), ni Oliver Lyon en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">El mentiroso <\/i>(1888), ni el innominado cr\u00edtico literario en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">La figura en la alfombra<\/i> (1896), ni John Marcher en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">La bestia en la jungla<\/i> (1903) satisfar\u00e1n sus anhelos por elucidar un secreto que se les escapa. La ofuscaci\u00f3n o torpeza del personaje central, aqu\u00e9l por cuyos ojos vemos la trama, frustrar\u00e1 lo que la se\u00f1ora Prest, la confidente en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i>, llama, en alusi\u00f3n a los papeles escondidos, \u00abla respuesta al enigma\u00bb (p. 35).<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Por supuesto, el elemento clave de esta novela es la figura del an\u00f3nimo narrador, el cazador de documentos que expone cuanto acontece desde su punto de vista subjetivo y limitado. Sus subterfugios, deformaciones y errores interpretativos contaminan el relato de hechos, impidiendo a los lectores el acceso a un conocimiento m\u00e1s amplio y certero. Ya desde las primeras anotaciones que hizo Henry James se observa c\u00f3mo el autor concibi\u00f3 al narrador como inseparable del tema: \u00abEl inter\u00e9s radicar\u00eda en cierto precio que la anciana \u2014o la sobreviviente\u2014 pone a los papeles y que el hombre debe pagar. Sus vacilaciones, su lucha interior \u2014pues realmente ser\u00eda capaz de darlo casi todo\u2014\u00bb.<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn1;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn1\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> En la novela la avidez del estudioso por esas cartas codiciadas lo lleva por un terreno moral brumoso y dif\u00edcil de cuantificar, porque lo transita y comenta \u00e9l mismo, un esteta que nunca dice su nombre (ni el verdadero ni el falso), y que tiene adem\u00e1s la peculiaridad de que se trata de alguien en quien podemos y no podemos confiar: hay parte de verdad que nos desvela y otra que est\u00e1 tan envuelta en velos que nos obliga a indagar en lo oscuro. Su proceder con Tina, por ejemplo, \u00bfes un mero galanteo que se le va de las manos en su impaciencia por arrancar los manuscritos de una vieja tozuda? \u00bfO estamos ante un hombre sin escr\u00fapulos que, como Morris Townsend en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Washington Square<\/i> (1881), manipula los afectos de una pobre mujer para sus propios fines ego\u00edstas?<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn2;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn2\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref2\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[2]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> A falta de un narrador omnisciente, nos compete a nosotros afinar nuestras dotes para el diagn\u00f3stico y poner la lupa en esas apostillas y omisiones inadvertidamente deslizadas en el texto que son un foco de atenci\u00f3n tan relevante como la historia que relata. (\u00abNo hay bajeza que no estar\u00eda dispuesto a cometer por Jeffrey Aspern\u00bb [p. 41], suelta en un momento el narrador.) <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote-list;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><br clear=\\\"all\\\" \/><hr align=\\\"left\\\" size=\\\"1\\\" width=\\\"33%\\\" \/><!--[endif]--><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn1\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn1;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref1\\\" name=\\\"_ftn1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\">\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Henry James,\u00a0<\/span><em>Cuadernos de notas<\/em><span style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">\u00a0(1878-1911), eds. F. O. Matthiessen y Kenneth B. Murdock, Madrid, Destino, 2009<\/span>, p. 106.<\/span><o:p><\/o:p><\/p><\/div><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn2\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn2;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref2\\\" name=\\\"_ftn2\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[2]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"> <\/span><span style=\\\"font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%;\\\">Para Wayne C. Booth, el narrador es un \u00abhermanastro\u00bb de Townsend. V\u00e9ase <em>La ret\u00f3rica de la ficci\u00f3n<\/em>, Barcelona, Antoni Bosch, 1978, p. 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style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Desde luego es una lecci\u00f3n del maestro contar el argumento a trav\u00e9s de este personaje, un cr\u00edtico literario que nos arrastra en su exaltada b\u00fasqueda de las cartas, que nos enreda en su voluntad por conocer su contenido. Seguimos fascinados con sus tejemanejes por el mortecino palacio, en el jard\u00edn que recrea para su farsa, en sus paseos en g\u00f3ndola con la arrebolada Tina, en una ciudad-escenario que flota artificiosa en el suntuoso crep\u00fasculo. El protagonista usa su posici\u00f3n superior de narrador para convencernos de que sus estratagemas no han tenido otro objeto que descubrir una verdad: el misterio de las cartas a Juliana. Afirma, asimismo, que obra en pro de la belleza y que su plan de apoderarse del legado es desinteresado (\u00abNo es que los quiera [las cartas] para m\u00ed ni tampoco deseo perjudicar con ello a nadie, sino que simplemente ser\u00edan de inmenso inter\u00e9s para el p\u00fablico\u00bb [p. 111]). 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Por otra parte, su obsesi\u00f3n por el ic\u00f3nico Aspern parece que oculta m\u00e1s de lo que dice. Como observa Sergio Pitol, el narrador \u2014un hombre nada varonil, que nunca ha mantenido relaciones emocionales con el sexo femenino y que tampoco ha escrito nada memorable\u2014 m\u00e1s bien se alza como un remedo par\u00f3dico del prol\u00edfico y er\u00f3tico Aspern,<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn1;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn1\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> cuya figura recuerda muchos rasgos de Byron, un poeta de vida ind\u00f3mita que fascinaba a Henry James. Esta atracci\u00f3n por un pasado rom\u00e1ntico y de pasiones genuinas lo saca a colaci\u00f3n el escritor en el prefacio de la Edici\u00f3n de Nueva York, donde, adem\u00e1s de recordar los actos del admirador de Shelley, se enzarza en una discusi\u00f3n acerca de sus propios esfuerzos para tender un puente con el tiempo de Shelley y Byron, y hacerlo \u00abvisitable\u00bb desde los par\u00e1metros de su propia modernidad prosaica.<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn2;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn2\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref2\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[2]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> Parte de su respuesta es la creaci\u00f3n de este protagonista tan ambiguo, un hombre que tiene algo del disparate rom\u00e1ntico en su pasi\u00f3n por Aspern, pero que es a su vez un personaje de duplicidad m\u00e1s que notable, a quien cuesta prestarle nuestro respaldo narrativo.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">La falta de probidad del narrador ha llevado a un sector de la cr\u00edtica a cargar las tintas sobre su figura, como el influyente Wayne C. Booth, quien adem\u00e1s de destacar su falta de escr\u00fapulos ha argumentado que la revisi\u00f3n que acometi\u00f3 Henry James en la Edici\u00f3n de Nueva York, las muchas alteraciones textuales que introdujo, \u00abnos llevan al conocimiento m\u00e1s perspicaz de la inmoralidad de este personaje\u00bb.<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn3;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn3\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref3\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[3]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> En la estela de Booth se han situado otros comentaristas, como Sergio Pitol, para quien el narrador es un hombre de \u00abvalores raqu\u00edticos\u00bb que m\u00e1s que aspirar a realzar la gloria de Aspern, \u00ablo que en el fondo desea es participar de ella, apropiarse de su halo y negociar con \u00e9l\u00bb.<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn4;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn4\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref4\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[4]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> Las flaquezas e inconsistencias del narrador est\u00e1n sin duda en el tablero. Sin embargo, conviene recordar que para el escritor neoyorquino \u00abla moralidad es caliente; el arte, g\u00e9lido\u00bb.<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn5;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn5\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref5\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[5]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> Por ello, m\u00e1s que leer la novela desde una perspectiva moralista, me gustar\u00eda destacar esa pericia tan elaborada y escrupulosamente elegida de Henry James para enturbiar lo aparentemente claro y sembrar incertidumbre, para dar intensidad a lo que no se declara; en suma, para contar una historia en la que nunca es posible dejar de hacerse preguntas. <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Una de estas ambig\u00fcedades ata\u00f1e al tipo de afiliaci\u00f3n que existe entre Juliana y Tina. Aunque el narrador de la historia \u2014un aspirante a bi\u00f3grafo\u2014 no parece tener, ir\u00f3nicamente, muchas aptitudes para lo que Henry James llamar\u00eda la observaci\u00f3n de lo humano, hay indicios que sugieren que la \u00absobrina\u00bb Tina, de edad indeterminada y sin padres referidos, bien podr\u00eda ser hija de Juliana y Aspern. Los datos cronol\u00f3gicos que introduce James \u2014una rareza en el conjunto de su obra literaria\u2014 har\u00edan factible esta conjetura. Sabemos que hacia 1825 corri\u00f3 el rumor de que Aspern \u00abhab\u00eda tratado mal\u00bb a Juliana, y que el donjuanesco poeta hab\u00eda \u00abservido\u00bb a varias otras damas con el mismo \u00abse\u00f1or\u00edo\u00bb (p. 37). Tambi\u00e9n se dice que esa vida amorosa fren\u00e9tica del poeta provoc\u00f3 en algunas mujeres \u00abaccidentes, algunos de ellos graves\u00bb (p. 37). Como la historia parece tener lugar hacia principios de 1880 (\u00abla era de los peri\u00f3dicos, los telegramas, las fotograf\u00edas y los entrevistadores\u00bb [p. 38]), y como la a\u00f1osa Tina debe de haber pasado ya los cincuenta a\u00f1os, cabe colegir que ese maltrato que al parecer sufri\u00f3 Juliana a manos de Aspern no fuera otro que su abandono cuando se qued\u00f3 embarazada de Tina. Esa maternidad oculta explicar\u00eda el retiro en que viven las dos expatriadas americanas y el inter\u00e9s que expresa la anciana Bordereau por proteger monetariamente a Tina.<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn6;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn6\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref6\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[6]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a><o:p><\/o:p><\/p><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote-list;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><br clear=\\\"all\\\" \/><hr align=\\\"left\\\" size=\\\"1\\\" width=\\\"33%\\\" \/><!--[endif]--><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn1\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn1;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref1\\\" name=\\\"_ftn1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt;\\\"> Sergio Pitol, <em>Siete escritores ingleses: de Jane Austen a Virginia Woolf<\/em>, M\u00e9xico, Sep Diana, 1982, p. 111.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn2\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn2;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref2\\\" name=\\\"_ftn2\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[2]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span lang=\\\"EN-US\\\" style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;\\\"> Henry James, \u00abPreface\u00bb, <em>The Aspern Papers<\/em>, Digereads, 2017, p. 8.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn3\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn3;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref3\\\" name=\\\"_ftn3\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[3]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span lang=\\\"EN-US\\\" style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;\\\">\u00a0Wayne C. Booth, <em>La ret\u00f3rica de la ficci\u00f3n<\/em>, Barcelona, Antoni Bosch, 1978, p. 337.<\/span><span lang=\\\"EN-US\\\" style=\\\"mso-ansi-language: EN-US;\\\"><o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn4\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn4;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref4\\\" name=\\\"_ftn4\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[4]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span lang=\\\"EN-US\\\" style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;\\\">\u00a0Sergio Pitol,\u00a0<em>Siete escritores ingleses: de Jane Austen a Virginia Woolf<\/em>, M\u00e9xico, Sep Diana, 1982, p. 111.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn5\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn5;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref5\\\" name=\\\"_ftn5\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[5]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span lang=\\\"EN-US\\\" style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;\\\"> Henry James, carta a Violet Paget (Vernon Lee), 10 de mayo de 1885, en <em>Henry James: Selected Letters<\/em>, ed. Leon Edel, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1987, p. 206. Trad. Teresa G\u00f3mez Reus.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn6\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn6;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref6\\\" name=\\\"_ftn6\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[6]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span lang=\\\"EN-US\\\" style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;\\\"> Este tema lo examina Diane G. Scholl en \u00abSecret Paternity in James\u2019s <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">The Aspern Papers<\/i>: Whose Letters? \u00bb, <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Modern Philology<\/i>, 111, 1, 2013, pp. 72-87. V\u00e9ase tambi\u00e9n Milton Reigelman, \u00abAn Unnoticed Clue Turns the Screw in Henry James\u2019s <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">The Asperns Papers\u00bb, Kentucky Philological Re-view<\/i>, 20, 2005, pp. 52-56.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><\/div>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"25\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"o1m7jfd\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abE<span style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">sa pericia tan elaborada y escrupulosamente elegida de Henry James para enturbiar lo aparentemente claro y sembrar incertidumbre, para dar intensidad a lo que no se declara; en suma, para contar una historia en la que nunca es posible dejar de hacerse preguntas.<\/span>\u00bb<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"y8surl0\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Asimismo, est\u00e1 la parca asignaci\u00f3n que las dos se\u00f1oritas Bordereau reciben cada trimestre de un abogado de Nueva York y que al parecer pertenece a Tina. No resulta descabellado deducir que ese dinero bien podr\u00eda venir del legado de Aspern, en se\u00f1al de deuda del padre con su hija. Que Tina pueda ser hija de Juliana cabe tambi\u00e9n desprenderse de las palabras que la enigm\u00e1tica anciana le dice al narrador: \u00ab\u00a1La he criado yo!\u00bb (p. 57), un verbo equ\u00edvoco que el americano no registra. Desde luego es una ocurrencia de Henry James idear este investigador tan artero y a la vez tan incapaz de atar cabos, como cuando \u00e9ste especula, en relaci\u00f3n a la huella que ha dejado Aspern en la vida de Juliana: \u00ab[...] \u00bfqu\u00e9 aventuras y sufrimientos la habr\u00edan dejado escaldada, qu\u00e9 acopio de recuerdos se habr\u00eda reservado para un futuro mon\u00f3tono?\u00bb (p. 77), y que formule estas preguntas precisamente frente a la casa en la que vive Juliana con una Bordereau m\u00e1s joven de origen tan difuso. Y en otra ocasi\u00f3n el narrador compara a la \u00abdivina Juliana\u00bb con lady Hamilton, amante de lord Nelson, con la reina Carolina, esposa de Jorge IV, y con la actriz Sarah Siddons, tres mujeres muy longevas que tuvieron hijas naturales, sin caer en las implicaciones de tal analog\u00eda.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Adem\u00e1s de estos indicios, est\u00e1 tambi\u00e9n las se\u00f1ales en el cuaderno de notas y en el prefacio. No parece casual que al anotar la an\u00e9cdota en Florencia James presente a Claire como \u00abamante <i>ci-devant<\/i> de Byron (y madre de Allegra)\u00bb,<a href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn1\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%;\\\" calibri=\\\"\\\" sans-serif=\\\"\\\" mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-font-family:calibri=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-font-family:=\\\"\\\" times=\\\"\\\" new=\\\"\\\" roman=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi=\\\"\\\" mso-ansi-language:es-ar=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-language:en-us=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-language:ar-sa=\\\"\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/a> una informaci\u00f3n, reiterada en el prefacio, que puede haber tenido la funci\u00f3n de recordarle al escritor, y luego al lector del prefacio, que Claire tuvo una hija. En la historia real Allegra muri\u00f3 a los cinco a\u00f1os, en un convento donde la hab\u00eda encerrado Byron. Sin embargo, dadas las posibilidades dram\u00e1ticas que conlleva el tema de la maternidad il\u00edcita \u2014un asunto en absoluto an\u00f3malo en la sociedad europea y americana del siglo XIX\u2014, es posible imaginar que James decidiera registrarlo con la intenci\u00f3n de dar otra vuelta de tuerca a su elaborada intriga. <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Esta inc\u00f3gnita en torno al origen de Tina, lejos de ser un elemento marginal, puede resultar central en una historia tan ambigua. De hecho, si pensamos en ella como hija de Juliana y asumimos que la hier\u00e1tica Juliana nada le cont\u00f3 de esa verdad (lo inferimos en el desinter\u00e9s que muestra Tina por las cartas y en el hecho de que, justo el d\u00eda antes de morir, Juliana quisiera decirle algo \u00abmuy importante [...] Algo m\u00e1s sobre los documentos\u00bb (p. 160), es posible saborear mejor las mordaces iron\u00edas del texto y sacar m\u00e1s jugo a su impactante y elusivo final. Por supuesto, no hay que perder de vista que navegamos entre nieblas porque, al igual que en su celeb\u00e9rrima <i>Otra vuelta de tuerca<\/i>, el mecanismo del narrador no fidedigno nos impide el acceso a una visi\u00f3n menos limitada. As\u00ed, nunca sabremos qu\u00e9 secreto ocultan los documentos \u2014si es que estos existen\u2014<a href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn2\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref2\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%;\\\" calibri=\\\"\\\" sans-serif=\\\"\\\" mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-font-family:calibri=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-font-family:=\\\"\\\" times=\\\"\\\" new=\\\"\\\" roman=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi=\\\"\\\" mso-ansi-language:es-ar=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-language:en-us=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-language:ar-sa=\\\"\\\">[2]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/a> ni qu\u00e9 transformaci\u00f3n profunda experimenta Tina tras su decepci\u00f3n con el narrador. Esa \u00abextra\u00f1a alteraci\u00f3n\u00bb que el americano observa en su \u00faltimo encuentro, esa \u00abexpresi\u00f3n de perd\u00f3n\u00bb (p. 169) que a sus ojos la embellece, \u00bfsugiere que Tina ha adquirido un entendimiento m\u00e1s cabal de las flaquezas del narrador? Es posible, dado los indicios que tenemos, que ella haya sentido no solo desencanto sino tambi\u00e9n piedad ante la derrota de ese fabricante de coartadas. Pero cabe tambi\u00e9n la posibilidad \u2014si aceptamos la premisa de la existencia de las cartas\u2014 de que la heredera de las mismas haya acabado leyendo en ellas algo fundamental que ata\u00f1e a su identidad. Estas cuestiones, enmarcadas en un escenario de puertas infranqueables y canales estrechos y oscuros, resultan imposibles de dilucidar. Sin embargo, en las \u00faltimas escenas se entrev\u00e9 que la \u00abpobre\u00bb e \u00abinsignificante\u00bb Tina ha adquirido una relevancia que hab\u00eda quedado desdibujada en el duelo entre el cr\u00edtico y la musa. Esta centralidad que se le otorga a Tina reequilibra la estructura de la obra, cerrando el tri\u00e1ngulo a la manera s\u00f3lidamente sim\u00e9trica y ordenada de James. Y al poner el acento en ella \u2014de hecho, al otorgarle el poder de decidir sobre los documentos\u2014 James reitera un tema que ve\u00edamos en <em>Washington Square<\/em>: la mujer que al principio parec\u00eda una nulidad se revela como \u00abtoda una novedad\u00bb (p. 170), un personaje que sin tener ninguna talla heroica resulta de enorme fuerza sugestiva. Al igual que Catherine Sloper, la heredera de <i>Washington Square <\/i>que acaba repudiando al insincero Townsend, Tina quema (literalmente) sus naves, y con este gesto logra su amargo triunfo: frustra el plan de Juliana de casarla a cambio de las cartas y al mismo tiempo hace imposible cualquier futuro intento del narrador de apropiarse del archivo. <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">En cuanto a \u00e9ste, su descripci\u00f3n de sus \u00faltimos encuentros con Tina supone un <i>tour de force<\/i> de todo cuanto ha omitido. Por un momento, cuando huye horrorizado tras la proposici\u00f3n de matrimonio que le hace Tina, parece asumir las consecuencias de sus actos: \u00abla falsa ilusi\u00f3n de Miss Tina, su enamoramiento, pod\u00eda haberse debido a mi imprudencia\u00bb, se dice. Pero esa introspecci\u00f3n resulta improductiva: \u00abNo, en modo alguno [...]; yo no le hab\u00eda dado motivo alguno, era evidente. Hab\u00eda dicho a la se\u00f1ora Prest que la cortejar\u00eda, pero hab\u00eda sido una broma intrascendente y nunca se lo hab\u00eda contado a mi v\u00edctima [\u00e9nfasis a\u00f1adido]\u00bb (p. 164). Al cerrar el relato con reticencias acerca de \u00abla p\u00e9rdida\u00bb sufrida (\u00abme refiero a los documentos\u00bb [p. 171]), sin reconocer otro tipo de p\u00e9rdida menos cuantificable pero quiz\u00e1 m\u00e1s perturbadora que le haya podido acarrear su fracasada aventura, sigue envolviendo sus palabras en sombras, un poco como en las frases escurridizas de Henry James, en las que, como escribe Italo Calvino, \u00abparece siempre estar a punto de decir algo que no dice\u00bb.<a href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn3\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref3\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%;\\\" calibri=\\\"\\\" sans-serif=\\\"\\\" mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-font-family:calibri=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-font-family:=\\\"\\\" times=\\\"\\\" new=\\\"\\\" roman=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi=\\\"\\\" mso-ansi-language:es-ar=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-language:en-us=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-language:ar-sa=\\\"\\\">[3]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/a> <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><\/p><div><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><br clear=\\\"all\\\" \/><hr align=\\\"left\\\" size=\\\"1\\\" width=\\\"33%\\\" \/><!--[endif]--><div id=\\\"ftn1\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref1\\\" name=\\\"_ftn1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%;\\\" calibri=\\\"\\\" sans-serif=\\\"\\\" mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-font-family:calibri=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-font-family:=\\\"\\\" times=\\\"\\\" new=\\\"\\\" roman=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi=\\\"\\\" mso-ansi-language:es-ar=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-language:en-us=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-language:ar-sa=\\\"\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\">\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Henry James,\u00a0<\/span><em>Cuadernos de notas<\/em><span style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">\u00a0(1878-1911), eds. F. O. Matthiessen y Kenneth B. Murdock, Madrid, Destino, 2009<\/span>, p. 105.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><div id=\\\"ftn2\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref2\\\" name=\\\"_ftn2\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%;\\\" calibri=\\\"\\\" sans-serif=\\\"\\\" mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-font-family:calibri=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-font-family:=\\\"\\\" times=\\\"\\\" new=\\\"\\\" roman=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi=\\\"\\\" mso-ansi-language:es-ar=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-language:en-us=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-language:ar-sa=\\\"\\\">[2]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%;\\\"> Hay algunos cr\u00edticos que han presentado la hip\u00f3tesis de que las cartas no existen, que solo tienen realidad en la mente del narrador. <\/span><span lang=\\\"EN-US\\\" style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;\\\">V\u00e9ase Jacob Korg, \u00abWhat Aspern Papers? A Hypothesis\u00bb, <i>College English<\/i>, 23, 5, 1962, pp. 378-381; Julie Rivkin, \u00abSpeaking with the Dead: Ethics and Representation in \u201cThe Aspern Papers\u201d\u00bb, <i>The Henry James Review<\/i>, 10, 2, 1989, p. 136. <\/span><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%;\\\">Agradezco a Jos\u00e9 Antonio \u00c1lvarez Amor\u00f3s que me haya facilitado informaci\u00f3n sobre esta l\u00ednea interpretativa.<br \/><\/span><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref3\\\" name=\\\"_ftn3\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%;\\\" calibri=\\\"\\\" sans-serif=\\\"\\\" mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-font-family:calibri=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-font-family:=\\\"\\\" times=\\\"\\\" new=\\\"\\\" roman=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi=\\\"\\\" mso-ansi-language:es-ar=\\\"\\\" mso-fareast-language:en-us=\\\"\\\" mso-bidi-language:ar-sa=\\\"\\\">[3]<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><\/span><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"> Italo Calvino, <i>Por qu\u00e9 leer los cl\u00e1sicos<\/i>, Madrid, Siruela, 2002, p. 182.<\/span><\/p><\/div><\/div><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote-list;\\\"><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn3\\\"><p 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\"><i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i> es en cierto modo una f\u00e1bula sobre la existencia de una obsesi\u00f3n que roza el crimen, un argumento que me parece recurrente en Henry James; pero m\u00e1s a ras de suelo la obra tambi\u00e9n supone una met\u00e1fora sobre los l\u00edmites de la privacidad y de la investigaci\u00f3n biogr\u00e1fico-literaria. La curiosidad del p\u00fablico por conocer secretos de autores muertos era una cuesti\u00f3n que preocupaba al escritor, quien defendi\u00f3 sus pensamientos y actos privados con tal celo que quiz\u00e1 sea el dato m\u00e1s llamativo que tengamos \u2014aparte de su innegociable compromiso art\u00edstico\u2014 sobre su persona. Consciente de vivir en una era en la que el nuevo periodismo empezaba a airear las intimidades de los personajes conocidos, puso todo su empe\u00f1o en parapetarse contra el escudri\u00f1o de la prensa, concediendo muy pocas entrevistas y usando alguna de \u00e9stas para expresar su convencimiento de que el disfrute de una obra de arte est\u00e1 desligado del conocimiento de las interioridades del artista. <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">El conflicto entre la persona y el personaje, entre lo que pertenece al \u00e1mbito privado y lo que es de car\u00e1cter p\u00fablico, as\u00ed como las fronteras difusas que separan la admiraci\u00f3n por un autor y su explotaci\u00f3n lucrativa lo aborda Henry James en distintos g\u00e9neros literarios. Adem\u00e1s de en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i>, lo encontramos, por ejemplo, en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Sir Dominick Ferrand<\/i> (1892) y <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Lo mejor de todo<\/i> (1899). Tambi\u00e9n emerge en uno de sus ensayos sobre George Sand, en el que el autor, disgustado con la forma en que se hab\u00edan pregonado los amores de la escritora, escribi\u00f3: \u00abHay secretos para la intimidad y para el silencio; dejemos que \u00e9stos sean cultivados solo por su abrumado due\u00f1o\u00bb.<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn1;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn1\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a>\u00a0En su correspondencia expres\u00f3 de nuevo esta inquietud, como en una carta escrita cuando ten\u00eda treinta y un a\u00f1os, donde aleg\u00f3 que \u00abun hombre tiene derecho a decidir qu\u00e9 debe saber el mundo sobre \u00e9l y qu\u00e9 no, y que por tanto no se debe perturbar los cajones de su secreter o el interior de sus bolsillos\u00bb<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn2;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn2\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref2\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[2]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> (precisamente lo que hace el \u00abliterato canalla\u00bb de esta narraci\u00f3n). Para evitar el saqueo de los \u00abcajones de su secreter\u00bb (una imagen de intimidad dentro de la intimidad) el escritor adopt\u00f3 medidas radicales, como prender fuego en su jard\u00edn de Lamb House a buena parte de su correspondencia y otros documentos que \u00e9l no deseaba dar a conocer, y pedir a sus amigos que destruyeran las comunicaciones m\u00e1s personales suyas. En una carta dirigida a una editora que le hab\u00eda solicitado las cartas que tuviera de la escritora Sarah Orne Jewett, fallecida meses atr\u00e1s, Henry James se refiri\u00f3 a esa hoguera erigida para frustrar los intentos de los curiosos <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">post mortem<\/i>:<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify; margin: 0cm 2.0cm 8.0pt 2.0cm;\\\">Sucede que he sometido al intercambio mantenido con mi admirable amiga a la misma ley que he decretado como tolerablemente inamovible en estos \u00faltimos a\u00f1os [...], la ley de no dejar documentos personales a merced de ning\u00fan accidente, ni siquiera de mis albaceas. Durante a\u00f1os guard\u00e9 casi todas las cartas, hasta que mis recept\u00e1culos ya no pudieron contenerlas; luego hice una pira gigantesca y desde entonces me he sentido m\u00e1s tranquilo, con excepci\u00f3n de cierto residuo que ten\u00eda que sobrevivir.<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn3;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn3\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref3\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[3]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a><o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">En esa hoguera se fueron centenares de cartas, como la correspondencia m\u00e1s personal con su gran amiga Edith Wharton, muchas de las cartas del bisexual Morton Fullerton (amante de Wharton) o la mayor parte de las misivas que recibi\u00f3 de amigos \u00edntimos, como el escultor Hendrik Andersen. Lo que no pudo controlar fue el destino de las much\u00edsimas cartas que \u00e9l envi\u00f3, \u00abm\u00e1s de diez mil cartas dispersas en m\u00faltiples colecciones y antolog\u00edas\u00bb que, como relata Jos\u00e9 Antonio \u00c1lvarez Amor\u00f3s, \u00abse est\u00e1n intentando reunir en una sola edici\u00f3n de car\u00e1cter definitivo\u00bb.<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn4;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn4\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref4\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[4]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> Un volumen que le hubiera consternado es <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Dearly Beloved Friends: Henry James\u2019s Letters to Younger Men<\/i>, editado por Susan Gunter y Steven H. Jobe (2001), que apuntala la impresi\u00f3n de que la sexualidad del escritor era tan ambigua como la de nuestro narrador o como lo que sucede en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Otra vuelta de tuerca<\/i>. <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote-list;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><br clear=\\\"all\\\" \/><hr align=\\\"left\\\" size=\\\"1\\\" width=\\\"33%\\\" \/><!--[endif]--><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn1\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn1;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref1\\\" name=\\\"_ftn1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"> Citado en Mar\u00eda Antonia \u00c1lvarez, \u00abIntroducci\u00f3n\u00bb,<em> Henry James: El arte de la ficci\u00f3n<\/em>, Le\u00f3n, Secretariado de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Le\u00f3n, 1992, p. 13. Trad. Teresa G\u00f3mez Reus.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn2\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn2;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref2\\\" name=\\\"_ftn2\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[2]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"> Citado en Mar\u00eda Antonia \u00c1lvarez, Ibid., p. 12. Trad. Teresa G\u00f3mez Reus.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn3\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn3;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref3\\\" name=\\\"_ftn3\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[3]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"> Carta a la se\u00f1ora J. T. Fields, 2 de enero de 1910, en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Henry James: Selected Letters<\/i>, p. 384. Trad. Teresa G\u00f3mez Reus.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn4\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn4;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref4\\\" name=\\\"_ftn4\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[4]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"> Jos\u00e9 Antonio \u00c1lvarez Amor\u00f3s, \u00abHenry James y las Bases Dram\u00e1ticas de la Novela Moderna\u00bb, en Henry James, <em>Lo que sab\u00eda Maisie<\/em>, ed. Jos\u00e9 Antonio \u00c1lvarez Amor\u00f3s, Madrid, C\u00e1tedra, 2016, p 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Si bien Henry James trat\u00f3 de silenciar aspectos de su vida personal, hay sentimientos y vivencias que se filtran en sus obras y <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i> no es una excepci\u00f3n. La invasi\u00f3n de la privacidad, como he comentado, est\u00e1 muy presente, as\u00ed como la inestabilidad inherente a los conceptos de \u00abp\u00fablico\u00bb y \u00abprivado\u00bb. Aunque Henry James ten\u00eda ideas firmes acerca del derecho a la intimidad de un escritor, su propia experiencia le llev\u00f3 a percibir que las fronteras entre lo p\u00fablico y lo privado son m\u00e1s porosas de lo que en algunas de sus cartas expres\u00f3. Siete a\u00f1os antes de componer <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i>, hab\u00eda elaborado un volumen sobre\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/36629-la-casa-de-los-siete-tejados-9788491051091\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Nathaniel Hawthorne<\/a><\/span> que el autor, a pesar de la orientaci\u00f3n biogr\u00e1fica del libro, calific\u00f3 de ensayo, en lugar de biograf\u00eda. Durante su preparaci\u00f3n hab\u00eda visitado a Julian Hawthorne, hijo de Nathaniel Hawthorne, con la esperanza de obtener documentos in\u00e9ditos del autor de <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">La letra escarlata<\/i>. Un poco como Juliana (y quiz\u00e1 el nombre no sea una casualidad), Julian se hab\u00eda negado a mostrarle nada. Esta circunstancia le permiti\u00f3 al escritor colocarse al otro lado de la barrera, en el lado del narrador, e incluso consignar en el prefacio de su libro (paradoja de las paradojas): \u00abLa actitud del bi\u00f3grafo es desear tantos documentos y materiales como sea posible\u00bb.<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn1;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn1\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote-list;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><br clear=\\\"all\\\" \/><hr align=\\\"left\\\" size=\\\"1\\\" width=\\\"33%\\\" \/><!--[endif]--><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn1\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn1;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref1\\\" name=\\\"_ftn1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"> Henry James, <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Hawthorne<\/i>, Nueva York, Harper, 1880, p. 40. <\/span><span lang=\\\"EN-US\\\" style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;\\\">Trad. Teresa G\u00f3mez 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">La relaci\u00f3n de Henry James con Julian Hawthorne nunca prosper\u00f3, y no solo por la negativa de Julian a facilitarle informaci\u00f3n nueva, sino tambi\u00e9n porque en 1884 el hijo de Hawthorne public\u00f3 una biograf\u00eda de sus padres en la que divulg\u00f3 cartas y notas muy personales que su padre no hubiera querido sacar a la luz.<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn1;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn1\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> La actuaci\u00f3n de este heredero codicioso capaz de \u2014como dir\u00eda Juliana Bordereau\u2014 \u00abprofanar una tumba\u00bb (p. 161) escandaliz\u00f3 a Henry James, permiti\u00e9ndole observar a campo abierto lo que pueden hacer editores y herederos con los documentos p\u00f3stumos de un gran escritor. De modo que, a la pugna entre el deseo de saber y la negativa a revelar vivida por Henry James como bi\u00f3grafo, tenemos esta nueva contienda observada en la distancia entre la ambici\u00f3n de publicitar manuscritos relevantes y la erosi\u00f3n del c\u00f3digo de conducta que ese af\u00e1n publicador puede producir. Se trata de una tensi\u00f3n que est\u00e1 en la m\u00e9dula misma de <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i>, una obra que late tan viva porque es como una porci\u00f3n, perfectamente ensamblada, de la escena humana. Que James transmut\u00f3 parte de esos sucesos en material literario cabe deducirse de ciertos paralelismos entre escritor y narrador, sobre todo la b\u00fasqueda de documentos sobre un escritor al que admiran y que, en el caso de la novela, no por nada, tiene ecos de Nathaniel Hawthorne. Como se ha documentado,<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn2;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn2\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref2\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[2]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> la figura de Aspern, adem\u00e1s de inspirarse en Byron, recupera muchos rasgos de Hawthorne, un escritor muy apuesto del romanticismo americano que escribi\u00f3, como se dice de Aspern, cuando Estados Unidos \u00abera un erial rudo y provinciano\u00bb (p. 79).<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn3;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn3\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref3\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[3]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Al transformar la an\u00e9cdota del fan\u00e1tico de Shelley en <em>Los documentos de Aspern<\/em>, por otra parte, James tambi\u00e9n transfiri\u00f3 algunos detalles de su vida en el momento de escribirlo. Como ha documentado Leon Edel,<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn4;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn4\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref4\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[4]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a> el relato lo compuso en la primavera de 1887 durante una estancia de seis semanas en una antigua villa que la novelista Constance Fenimore Woolson ten\u00eda alquilada en Bellosguardo, en las colinas de Florencia. La idea de subarrendarle a la escritora unas habitaciones no era casual: en mayo de 1880 se hab\u00edan conocido en Florencia, James la hab\u00eda invitado a salir casi a diario y desde entonces se hab\u00edan visitado y escrito con cierta asiduidad. Para James, que acababa de estar enfermo en Venecia, el bienestar dom\u00e9stico que le proporcion\u00f3 Constance fue como un b\u00e1lsamo, pero al mismo tiempo la situaci\u00f3n en esa casa a solas debi\u00f3 de tornarse progresivamente ambigua: como deduce Edel, es dif\u00edcil que Henry James no se percatara de las repercusiones emocionales que su presencia pod\u00eda tener en ella, una mujer vulnerable en cuyas cartas \u2014las pocas que han sobrevivido\u2014 le hab\u00eda expresado <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">sotto voce<\/i> su necesidad de m\u00e1s afecto y cercan\u00eda. Es de imaginar que el escritor debi\u00f3 de sentirse en un punto inc\u00f3modo pues antes de lo previsto abandon\u00f3 la casa para no volver m\u00e1s. Pero de esa escapada de una mujer entrada en a\u00f1os, sola y que esperaba m\u00e1s de \u00e9l, de esa amenaza para un hombre sexualmente tibio hay resonancias en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i> (\u00ab\u00a1Sal de este aprieto como puedas, querido!\u00bb [p. 161], se dice el narrador, un sentimiento que hubiera podido formular el propio Henry James en Bellosguardo). El escritor ocupaba una parte de una antigua propiedad con salida al jard\u00edn y vistas panor\u00e1micas de c\u00fapulas y enjambres de tejados, como el inquilino del relato, y Constance Fenimore Woolson, adem\u00e1s de ser unos a\u00f1os mayor que \u00e9l, era una expatriada estadounidense y era sobrina nieta de un escritor pionero del romanticismo americano, James Fenimore Cooper. <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Los bi\u00f3grafos de Henry James y una biograf\u00eda reciente de Fenimore Woolson han coincidido en que la relaci\u00f3n entre ambos fue extra\u00f1a y desigual, de apoyo y estima incondicional por parte de ella, pero reticente por parte del escritor.<a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn5;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftn5\\\" name=\\\"_ftnref5\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[5]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/a><o:p><\/o:p><\/p><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote-list;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><br clear=\\\"all\\\" \/><hr align=\\\"left\\\" size=\\\"1\\\" width=\\\"33%\\\" \/><!--[endif]--><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn1\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn1;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref1\\\" name=\\\"_ftn1\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[1]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;\\\"> <span lang=\\\"EN-US\\\">V\u00e9ase Gary Scharnhorst, \u00abJames, \u201cThe Aspern Papers\u201d, and the Ethics of Literary Biography\u00bb, <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Modern Fiction Studies<\/i>, 36, 2, 1990, pp. 211-217.<\/span><\/span><span lang=\\\"EN-US\\\" style=\\\"mso-ansi-language: EN-US;\\\"><o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn2\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn2;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref2\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[2]<\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a>\u00a0<\/span><\/span><\/span><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><em>Ibid<\/em>., pp. 211-212.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn3\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn3;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref3\\\" name=\\\"_ftn3\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[3]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"> Esta percepci\u00f3n de Hawthorne como autor admirable que compon\u00eda en un pa\u00eds sin tradici\u00f3n art\u00edstica alguna aparece de forma insistente en la obra de James Hawthorne. V\u00e9ase especialmente sus comentarios vertidos en pp. 43-44.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn4\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn4;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref4\\\" name=\\\"_ftn4\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[4]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\">\u00a0Leon Edel,\u00a0<em>Henry James: A Life<\/em>, Nueva York, Harper & Row, 1985, pp. 336-341.<o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><div style=\\\"mso-element: footnote;\\\" id=\\\"ftn5\\\"><p class=\\\"MsoFootnoteText\\\"><a style=\\\"mso-footnote-id: ftn5;\\\" href=\\\"https:\/\/penguinrandomhouse-my.sharepoint.com\/personal\/florencia_trimarco_penguinrandomhouse_com\/Documents\/Documents\/Lengua\/Los%20documentos%20de%20Aspern_James.docx#_ftnref5\\\" name=\\\"_ftn5\\\" title=\\\"\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;\\\"><span style=\\\"mso-special-character: footnote;\\\"><!-- [if !supportFootnotes]--><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span class=\\\"MsoFootnoteReference\\\"><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 107%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language: ES-AR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;\\\">[5]<\/span><\/span><\/span><!--[endif]--><\/span><\/span><\/span><\/a><span style=\\\"font-size: 9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;\\\"> <span lang=\\\"EN-US\\\">Lyndall Gordon<i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">, A Private Life of Henry James<\/i>, Londres, Vintage, 1999; Anne Boyd Rioux, <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Constance Fenimore Woolson: Portrait of a Lady Novelist<\/i>, Nueva York, Norton, 2016.<\/span><\/span><span lang=\\\"EN-US\\\" style=\\\"mso-ansi-language: EN-US;\\\"><o:p><\/o:p><\/span><\/p><\/div><\/div>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xnwoaw4\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00ab<span style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Henry James ten\u00eda ideas firmes acerca del derecho a la intimidad de un escritor, su propia experiencia le llev\u00f3 a percibir que las fronteras entre lo p\u00fablico y lo privado son m\u00e1s porosas de lo que en algunas de sus cartas expres\u00f3.<\/span>\u00bb<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"g31e6oy\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Aunque hab\u00eda habido encuentros a solas por Europa y aunque James disfrutaba de la compa\u00f1\u00eda inteligente de la autora, \u00e9l la mantuvo en la periferia de su vasto c\u00edrculo de amistades, seguramente temeroso de que lo asociaran sentimentalmente con ella. A pesar de que no se puede atribuir nada amoroso en sus encuentros, parece que los lazos entre ellos fueron m\u00e1s fuertes de lo que se ha podido conocer. Desde luego, es toda una apostilla a <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i> el hecho de que, tras el suicidio de Constance en Venecia \u2014se arroj\u00f3 al vac\u00edo en 1894\u2014, un espantado Henry James viajara all\u00ed de inmediato para ofrecerse a una hermana y sobrina de la difunta novelista a ocuparse de los archivos de su t\u00eda; en suma, para decidir qu\u00e9 hab\u00eda que conservar y qu\u00e9 hab\u00eda que quemar. <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i> es como una premonici\u00f3n oscura de que en alg\u00fan rinc\u00f3n de una casa veneciana hab\u00eda papeles muy personales que de ninguna manera pod\u00edan salir a la luz.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">La b\u00fasqueda del misterio, la musa insondable de ojos velados, las cartas secretas y por siempre incognoscibles... todos esos elementos han seguido dando vueltas en la imaginaci\u00f3n literaria. Edith Wharton compuso sus propias versiones de esta famosa <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">nouvelle<\/i>. En <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">La piedra de toque<\/i>, escrita dos a\u00f1os m\u00e1s tarde que <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i> y publicada en 1990, es una mujer poeta ya muerta, no un poeta var\u00f3n, la autora de unas cartas explosivas que acaban por ser publicadas, y el hombre poco escrupuloso que las publica \u2014el destinatario de las mismas\u2014 encuentra su redenci\u00f3n en el matrimonio, en lugar de escapar de \u00e9l. En \u00abLa tragedia de la musa\u00bb (1892), en cuyo t\u00edtulo se alude a <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">La musa tr\u00e1gica<\/i> (1890) de Henry James, Edith Wharton vuelve a <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i> para acometer una reflexi\u00f3n aguda sobre el potencial escondido del intelecto femenino y del poder de la escritura. Parcialmente situado en Venecia, este relato presenta una musa que, en lugar de inspirar con su belleza a un excelso poeta, fue su fuente secreta de ideas y su inspiraci\u00f3n intelectual. La tragedia de la musa es su invisibilidad cultural, pero tambi\u00e9n, como le sucede al fan\u00e1tico de Aspern, su falta de integridad, pues tambi\u00e9n ella enamora falsamente y utiliza \u2014y en su caso manipula\u2014 cartas de un poeta para asegurarse un lugar en la historia literaria. <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">La mara\u00f1a de deserciones y duplicidades en la trama y el subfondo de <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de<\/i> <em>Aspern<\/em> ha tenido una continuidad m\u00e1s reciente en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Felony<\/i> (2003) de Emma Tennant, cuyo subt\u00edtulo es \u00abLa historia privada de los documentos de Aspern\u00bb. Contada en parte desde el punto de vista de una sobrina nieta de Claire Clairmont y en parte desde la perspectiva de un personaje llamado Henry James, esta novela hist\u00f3rica presenta un doble argumento: por un lado, tematiza la vileza de Silsbee, el admirador de Shelley que se introduce en casa de Claire Clairmont para apoderarse de las cartas del poeta, y por otro, investiga la relaci\u00f3n entre Henry James y Constance Fenimore Woolson, as\u00ed como las circunstancias que rodearon la creaci\u00f3n de <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i>. Las analog\u00edas entre Silsbee y Henry James entretejen la novela: ambos traicionan la confianza de la mujer en cuya casa se alojan y ambos sienten obsesi\u00f3n por encontrar documentos personales de un escritor c\u00e9lebre (en el caso de James, escritos que pudieran comprometerle). Aunque <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Felony<\/i> intenta vindicar la figura de Constance Fenimore Woolson, el efecto es problem\u00e1tico, pues esta interesante y poco conocida novelista aparece como una lastimosa v\u00edctima de un reprimido Henry James. Con una vuelta de tuerca ir\u00f3nica, en <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Felony<\/i> (<i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Felon\u00eda<\/i>, en castellano) Tennant comete en el fondo un perjuicio con esa sobrina ilustre que fue Fenimore Woolson, siguiendo as\u00ed la cadena de utilizaci\u00f3n de mujeres que pone en marcha el brib\u00f3n publicador de la an\u00e9cdota en que se basa <i style=\\\"mso-bidi-font-style: normal;\\\">Los documentos de Aspern<\/i>. <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\" style=\\\"text-align: justify;\\\">Estas reescrituras, junto con las muchas adaptaciones que con fortuna desigual se han llevado al cine, al teatro, a la \u00f3pera y a la peque\u00f1a pantalla, atestiguan la vitalidad de esta obra atemporal. A pesar de hallarnos cada vez m\u00e1s distanciados del mundo de Henry James, y no digamos del pasado byroniano que \u00e9ste evoca, esta novela corta resulta tan moderna e inasible en lo que esconde, tan sorpresiva en las constelaciones de su trama y tan evocadora en sus detalles de Venecia que, al concluirla, uno desear\u00eda seguir rebuscando en esas aguas turbias, aun sabiendo que no se puede ver del todo el 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10 minutos

Henry James. Crédito: Getty Images.

Por TERESA GOMEZ REUS

Cuando leemos a Henry James tenemos la impresión de estar leyendo una literatura que, como siempre ocurre con los clásicos, nunca termina de decir lo que tiene que decir. Y eso es precisamente lo que sucede con Los documentos de Aspern, una obra de una cualidad tan inagotable que es como si acabara de salir a la luz. Además de una trama que nos atrapa a cada paso, en esta aclamada nouvelle —el género favorito de Henry James— convergen todos los elementos que han llevado a su célebre autor a las cotas más altas de perfección artística: el juego de luces y sombras, el manejo de la ambigüedad y de lo no dicho, y la incorporación de ese punto de vista subjetivo y equívoco que fue una de las mayores aportaciones suyas a la narrativa moderna. Se publicó por entregas en la revista estadounidense The Atlantic Monthly entre marzo y mayo de 1888; y en ese mismo año apareció en formato de libro, junto con los relatos «Louisa Pallant» y «La advertencia moderna». El texto fue minuciosamente revisado en la edición de obras escogidas The Novels and Tales of Henry James, conocida también como la Edición de Nueva York, una obra monumental de 24 volúmenes que James preparó para la editorial Scribner’s entre 1907 y 1909. Los documentos de Aspern se reeditó en el volumen 12 de 1908, acompañado de El mentiroso (1888) y Otra vuelta de tuerca (1898), tres novelas cortas aparentemente dispares que, sin embargo, comparten cierta afinidad psicológica y moral: en los tres casos se trata de una narración contada por un protagonista impulsado por una idea fija, cuyo punto de vista forma parte esencial del entramado de la historia que relata.

Como sucede en muchas obras de Henry James, Los documentos de Aspern está basado en un hecho real. Se lo contó el poeta Eugene Lee-Hamilton, hermanastro de la escritora Vernon Lee, en Florencia en el invierno de 1887. Concierne a un librero bostoniano y apasionado de Shelley, un tal capitán Silsbee, que había descubierto que una antigua amante de Byron y cuñada de Shelley, Claire Clairmont, ahora ya muy anciana, subsistía oculta en un viejo palacio en Florencia y poseía unas cartas cruzadas entre Byron y Shelley de valor incalculable. Con la intención de hacerse con el preciado legado el hombre tramó infiltrarse como inquilino en la casa de Claire, con resultados interesantes. Una versión de la historia aseguraba que una sobrina que vivía con ella de más de cincuenta años se había prendado del librero y le había propuesto, tras la muerte de su tía, entregarle todos los documentos si él se casaba con ella. Al parecer, comentó divertido Lee-Hamilton, el americano aún estaba corriendo. Lee-Hamilton recordó este episodio tras conocer Henry James en su casa a la condesa Gama, que era sobrina política de quien había sido la última amante de lord Byron, Teresa Giuccioli. La familia Gama tenía en su poder un fajo de cartas del famoso vate a Teresa que se negaban a mostrar a nadie. Tan escandalosas eran al parecer esas misivas que la condesa Gama reaccionó con gran enfado cuando Lee-Hamilton le exhortó a publicarlas. La condesa sostenía que eran un descrédito para Byron, e incluso le confesó que había quemado parte del preciado epistolario.[1]



[1] Leon Edel, Henry James: A Life, Nueva York, Harper & Row, 1985, pp. 337-338.

«La de Henry James es una literatura que, como siempre ocurre con los clásicos, nunca termina de decir lo que tiene que decir.»

La anécdota impresionó a Henry James, quien la recogió en sus Cuadernos de notas en la entrada correspondiente al 12 de enero de 1887. «Sin duda hay aquí un temita: la pintura de las dos damas inglesas, mustias, raras, pobres y desacreditadas, sobreviviendo en medio de una generación extraña, en un mohoso rincón de una ciudad extranjera —con esas cartas ilustres como más preciada posesión—.»[1] Lo que en el cuaderno de notas aparece como un esbozo de tema se convierte, en manos del magistral novelista, en una trama oscura de intenciones ocultas y choque de voluntades. James funde las dos anécdotas que le cuenta Lee-Hamilton, traslada la acción de Florencia a Venecia, y hace del autor de las codiciadas cartas un poeta ficticio estadounidense ya fallecido llamado Jeffrey Aspern. Con estos nuevos ingredientes crea un soberbio relato de intriga, casi un cuento de espionaje, en el que el desesperado intento de un devoto de Aspern por echar mano a las cartas de su adorado bardo deriva en un ovillo narrativo de implicaciones insospechadas.



[1] Henry James, Cuadernos de notas (1878-1911), eds. F. O. Matthiessen y Kenneth B. Murdock, Madrid, Destino, 2009, p. 105.

Desde el principio sabemos de las intenciones nada rectas del americano, pues es él quien narra los hechos en primera persona. Sabemos de sus artimañas, lisonjas y mentiras para introducirse, con una identidad falsa, como arrendatario en el decrépito palazzo en el que viven, sin recursos y en el más completo aislamiento, la antigua amante del vate, la viejísima Juliana Bordereau, y su sobrina Tina. Lo que va confiriendo emoción y matiz a la trama es el juego del gato y el ratón que entablan la suspicaz anciana y el buscador de revelaciones íntimas, un careo vigilante en el que no resulta del todo evidente quién es el cazador y quién la víctima. A la ambición implacable del crítico por encontrar las cartas se contrapone la codicia de Juliana, quien intenta sacarle todo el dinero que puede fijando una renta mensual de mil francos en oro, una cantidad desorbitada que él —rapiña contra rapiña— acepta con una sonrisa pues piensa llevarse los papeles por nada. Y como en Henry James no puede faltar un extraño triángulo, a la contienda muda entre estos dos adversarios se suma la entrada en el juego de la cándida sobrina. La insistencia solapada con que el crítico persigue su objetivo y la pertinaz defensa que la astuta Juliana opone al asedio de su inquilino están modelados con trazo magistral, así como la tensión dramática in crescendo, no exenta de turbios vuelcos, en la que nada acaba siendo lo que aparenta ser. Ambientado en verano, en una Venecia grandiosa pero también espectral, Los documentos de Aspern evoca un tema característico en Henry James: el de la búsqueda de una realidad esencial que nunca acaba de plasmarse. Ni Winterbourne en Daisy Miller (1879), ni Oliver Lyon en El mentiroso (1888), ni el innominado crítico literario en La figura en la alfombra (1896), ni John Marcher en La bestia en la jungla (1903) satisfarán sus anhelos por elucidar un secreto que se les escapa. La ofuscación o torpeza del personaje central, aquél por cuyos ojos vemos la trama, frustrará lo que la señora Prest, la confidente en Los documentos de Aspern, llama, en alusión a los papeles escondidos, «la respuesta al enigma» (p. 35).

Por supuesto, el elemento clave de esta novela es la figura del anónimo narrador, el cazador de documentos que expone cuanto acontece desde su punto de vista subjetivo y limitado. Sus subterfugios, deformaciones y errores interpretativos contaminan el relato de hechos, impidiendo a los lectores el acceso a un conocimiento más amplio y certero. Ya desde las primeras anotaciones que hizo Henry James se observa cómo el autor concibió al narrador como inseparable del tema: «El interés radicaría en cierto precio que la anciana —o la sobreviviente— pone a los papeles y que el hombre debe pagar. Sus vacilaciones, su lucha interior —pues realmente sería capaz de darlo casi todo—».[1] En la novela la avidez del estudioso por esas cartas codiciadas lo lleva por un terreno moral brumoso y difícil de cuantificar, porque lo transita y comenta él mismo, un esteta que nunca dice su nombre (ni el verdadero ni el falso), y que tiene además la peculiaridad de que se trata de alguien en quien podemos y no podemos confiar: hay parte de verdad que nos desvela y otra que está tan envuelta en velos que nos obliga a indagar en lo oscuro. Su proceder con Tina, por ejemplo, ¿es un mero galanteo que se le va de las manos en su impaciencia por arrancar los manuscritos de una vieja tozuda? ¿O estamos ante un hombre sin escrúpulos que, como Morris Townsend en Washington Square (1881), manipula los afectos de una pobre mujer para sus propios fines egoístas?[2] A falta de un narrador omnisciente, nos compete a nosotros afinar nuestras dotes para el diagnóstico y poner la lupa en esas apostillas y omisiones inadvertidamente deslizadas en el texto que son un foco de atención tan relevante como la historia que relata. («No hay bajeza que no estaría dispuesto a cometer por Jeffrey Aspern» [p. 41], suelta en un momento el narrador.)



[1] Henry James, Cuadernos de notas (1878-1911), eds. F. O. Matthiessen y Kenneth B. Murdock, Madrid, Destino, 2009, p. 106.

[2] Para Wayne C. Booth, el narrador es un «hermanastro» de Townsend. Véase La retórica de la ficción, Barcelona, Antoni Bosch, 1978, p. 337.

Desde luego es una lección del maestro contar el argumento a través de este personaje, un crítico literario que nos arrastra en su exaltada búsqueda de las cartas, que nos enreda en su voluntad por conocer su contenido. Seguimos fascinados con sus tejemanejes por el mortecino palacio, en el jardín que recrea para su farsa, en sus paseos en góndola con la arrebolada Tina, en una ciudad-escenario que flota artificiosa en el suntuoso crepúsculo. El protagonista usa su posición superior de narrador para convencernos de que sus estratagemas no han tenido otro objeto que descubrir una verdad: el misterio de las cartas a Juliana. Afirma, asimismo, que obra en pro de la belleza y que su plan de apoderarse del legado es desinteresado («No es que los quiera [las cartas] para mí ni tampoco deseo perjudicar con ello a nadie, sino que simplemente serían de inmenso interés para el público» [p. 111]). Sin embargo, su rocambolesco proceder se da de bruces con la imagen que tenía James del auténtico admirador del arte, que no es un hombre de acción, y menos todavía de ardides, sino un contemplador que vive en la renuncia, inmune a toda gratificación social.

Por otra parte, su obsesión por el icónico Aspern parece que oculta más de lo que dice. Como observa Sergio Pitol, el narrador —un hombre nada varonil, que nunca ha mantenido relaciones emocionales con el sexo femenino y que tampoco ha escrito nada memorable— más bien se alza como un remedo paródico del prolífico y erótico Aspern,[1] cuya figura recuerda muchos rasgos de Byron, un poeta de vida indómita que fascinaba a Henry James. Esta atracción por un pasado romántico y de pasiones genuinas lo saca a colación el escritor en el prefacio de la Edición de Nueva York, donde, además de recordar los actos del admirador de Shelley, se enzarza en una discusión acerca de sus propios esfuerzos para tender un puente con el tiempo de Shelley y Byron, y hacerlo «visitable» desde los parámetros de su propia modernidad prosaica.[2] Parte de su respuesta es la creación de este protagonista tan ambiguo, un hombre que tiene algo del disparate romántico en su pasión por Aspern, pero que es a su vez un personaje de duplicidad más que notable, a quien cuesta prestarle nuestro respaldo narrativo.

La falta de probidad del narrador ha llevado a un sector de la crítica a cargar las tintas sobre su figura, como el influyente Wayne C. Booth, quien además de destacar su falta de escrúpulos ha argumentado que la revisión que acometió Henry James en la Edición de Nueva York, las muchas alteraciones textuales que introdujo, «nos llevan al conocimiento más perspicaz de la inmoralidad de este personaje».[3] En la estela de Booth se han situado otros comentaristas, como Sergio Pitol, para quien el narrador es un hombre de «valores raquíticos» que más que aspirar a realzar la gloria de Aspern, «lo que en el fondo desea es participar de ella, apropiarse de su halo y negociar con él».[4] Las flaquezas e inconsistencias del narrador están sin duda en el tablero. Sin embargo, conviene recordar que para el escritor neoyorquino «la moralidad es caliente; el arte, gélido».[5] Por ello, más que leer la novela desde una perspectiva moralista, me gustaría destacar esa pericia tan elaborada y escrupulosamente elegida de Henry James para enturbiar lo aparentemente claro y sembrar incertidumbre, para dar intensidad a lo que no se declara; en suma, para contar una historia en la que nunca es posible dejar de hacerse preguntas.

Una de estas ambigüedades atañe al tipo de afiliación que existe entre Juliana y Tina. Aunque el narrador de la historia —un aspirante a biógrafo— no parece tener, irónicamente, muchas aptitudes para lo que Henry James llamaría la observación de lo humano, hay indicios que sugieren que la «sobrina» Tina, de edad indeterminada y sin padres referidos, bien podría ser hija de Juliana y Aspern. Los datos cronológicos que introduce James —una rareza en el conjunto de su obra literaria— harían factible esta conjetura. Sabemos que hacia 1825 corrió el rumor de que Aspern «había tratado mal» a Juliana, y que el donjuanesco poeta había «servido» a varias otras damas con el mismo «señorío» (p. 37). También se dice que esa vida amorosa frenética del poeta provocó en algunas mujeres «accidentes, algunos de ellos graves» (p. 37). Como la historia parece tener lugar hacia principios de 1880 («la era de los periódicos, los telegramas, las fotografías y los entrevistadores» [p. 38]), y como la añosa Tina debe de haber pasado ya los cincuenta años, cabe colegir que ese maltrato que al parecer sufrió Juliana a manos de Aspern no fuera otro que su abandono cuando se quedó embarazada de Tina. Esa maternidad oculta explicaría el retiro en que viven las dos expatriadas americanas y el interés que expresa la anciana Bordereau por proteger monetariamente a Tina.[6]



[1] Sergio Pitol, Siete escritores ingleses: de Jane Austen a Virginia Woolf, México, Sep Diana, 1982, p. 111.

[2] Henry James, «Preface», The Aspern Papers, Digereads, 2017, p. 8.

[3] Wayne C. Booth, La retórica de la ficción, Barcelona, Antoni Bosch, 1978, p. 337.

[4] Sergio Pitol, Siete escritores ingleses: de Jane Austen a Virginia Woolf, México, Sep Diana, 1982, p. 111.

[5] Henry James, carta a Violet Paget (Vernon Lee), 10 de mayo de 1885, en Henry James: Selected Letters, ed. Leon Edel, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1987, p. 206. Trad. Teresa Gómez Reus.

[6] Este tema lo examina Diane G. Scholl en «Secret Paternity in James’s The Aspern Papers: Whose Letters? », Modern Philology, 111, 1, 2013, pp. 72-87. Véase también Milton Reigelman, «An Unnoticed Clue Turns the Screw in Henry James’s The Asperns Papers», Kentucky Philological Re-view, 20, 2005, pp. 52-56.

«Esa pericia tan elaborada y escrupulosamente elegida de Henry James para enturbiar lo aparentemente claro y sembrar incertidumbre, para dar intensidad a lo que no se declara; en suma, para contar una historia en la que nunca es posible dejar de hacerse preguntas.»

Asimismo, está la parca asignación que las dos señoritas Bordereau reciben cada trimestre de un abogado de Nueva York y que al parecer pertenece a Tina. No resulta descabellado deducir que ese dinero bien podría venir del legado de Aspern, en señal de deuda del padre con su hija. Que Tina pueda ser hija de Juliana cabe también desprenderse de las palabras que la enigmática anciana le dice al narrador: «¡La he criado yo!» (p. 57), un verbo equívoco que el americano no registra. Desde luego es una ocurrencia de Henry James idear este investigador tan artero y a la vez tan incapaz de atar cabos, como cuando éste especula, en relación a la huella que ha dejado Aspern en la vida de Juliana: «[...] ¿qué aventuras y sufrimientos la habrían dejado escaldada, qué acopio de recuerdos se habría reservado para un futuro monótono?» (p. 77), y que formule estas preguntas precisamente frente a la casa en la que vive Juliana con una Bordereau más joven de origen tan difuso. Y en otra ocasión el narrador compara a la «divina Juliana» con lady Hamilton, amante de lord Nelson, con la reina Carolina, esposa de Jorge IV, y con la actriz Sarah Siddons, tres mujeres muy longevas que tuvieron hijas naturales, sin caer en las implicaciones de tal analogía.

Además de estos indicios, está también las señales en el cuaderno de notas y en el prefacio. No parece casual que al anotar la anécdota en Florencia James presente a Claire como «amante ci-devant de Byron (y madre de Allegra)»,[1] una información, reiterada en el prefacio, que puede haber tenido la función de recordarle al escritor, y luego al lector del prefacio, que Claire tuvo una hija. En la historia real Allegra murió a los cinco años, en un convento donde la había encerrado Byron. Sin embargo, dadas las posibilidades dramáticas que conlleva el tema de la maternidad ilícita —un asunto en absoluto anómalo en la sociedad europea y americana del siglo XIX—, es posible imaginar que James decidiera registrarlo con la intención de dar otra vuelta de tuerca a su elaborada intriga.

Esta incógnita en torno al origen de Tina, lejos de ser un elemento marginal, puede resultar central en una historia tan ambigua. De hecho, si pensamos en ella como hija de Juliana y asumimos que la hierática Juliana nada le contó de esa verdad (lo inferimos en el desinterés que muestra Tina por las cartas y en el hecho de que, justo el día antes de morir, Juliana quisiera decirle algo «muy importante [...] Algo más sobre los documentos» (p. 160), es posible saborear mejor las mordaces ironías del texto y sacar más jugo a su impactante y elusivo final. Por supuesto, no hay que perder de vista que navegamos entre nieblas porque, al igual que en su celebérrima Otra vuelta de tuerca, el mecanismo del narrador no fidedigno nos impide el acceso a una visión menos limitada. Así, nunca sabremos qué secreto ocultan los documentos —si es que estos existen—[2] ni qué transformación profunda experimenta Tina tras su decepción con el narrador. Esa «extraña alteración» que el americano observa en su último encuentro, esa «expresión de perdón» (p. 169) que a sus ojos la embellece, ¿sugiere que Tina ha adquirido un entendimiento más cabal de las flaquezas del narrador? Es posible, dado los indicios que tenemos, que ella haya sentido no solo desencanto sino también piedad ante la derrota de ese fabricante de coartadas. Pero cabe también la posibilidad —si aceptamos la premisa de la existencia de las cartas— de que la heredera de las mismas haya acabado leyendo en ellas algo fundamental que atañe a su identidad. Estas cuestiones, enmarcadas en un escenario de puertas infranqueables y canales estrechos y oscuros, resultan imposibles de dilucidar. Sin embargo, en las últimas escenas se entrevé que la «pobre» e «insignificante» Tina ha adquirido una relevancia que había quedado desdibujada en el duelo entre el crítico y la musa. Esta centralidad que se le otorga a Tina reequilibra la estructura de la obra, cerrando el triángulo a la manera sólidamente simétrica y ordenada de James. Y al poner el acento en ella —de hecho, al otorgarle el poder de decidir sobre los documentos— James reitera un tema que veíamos en Washington Square: la mujer que al principio parecía una nulidad se revela como «toda una novedad» (p. 170), un personaje que sin tener ninguna talla heroica resulta de enorme fuerza sugestiva. Al igual que Catherine Sloper, la heredera de Washington Square que acaba repudiando al insincero Townsend, Tina quema (literalmente) sus naves, y con este gesto logra su amargo triunfo: frustra el plan de Juliana de casarla a cambio de las cartas y al mismo tiempo hace imposible cualquier futuro intento del narrador de apropiarse del archivo.

En cuanto a éste, su descripción de sus últimos encuentros con Tina supone un tour de force de todo cuanto ha omitido. Por un momento, cuando huye horrorizado tras la proposición de matrimonio que le hace Tina, parece asumir las consecuencias de sus actos: «la falsa ilusión de Miss Tina, su enamoramiento, podía haberse debido a mi imprudencia», se dice. Pero esa introspección resulta improductiva: «No, en modo alguno [...]; yo no le había dado motivo alguno, era evidente. Había dicho a la señora Prest que la cortejaría, pero había sido una broma intrascendente y nunca se lo había contado a mi víctima [énfasis añadido]» (p. 164). Al cerrar el relato con reticencias acerca de «la pérdida» sufrida («me refiero a los documentos» [p. 171]), sin reconocer otro tipo de pérdida menos cuantificable pero quizá más perturbadora que le haya podido acarrear su fracasada aventura, sigue envolviendo sus palabras en sombras, un poco como en las frases escurridizas de Henry James, en las que, como escribe Italo Calvino, «parece siempre estar a punto de decir algo que no dice».[3]



[1] Henry James, Cuadernos de notas (1878-1911), eds. F. O. Matthiessen y Kenneth B. Murdock, Madrid, Destino, 2009, p. 105.

[2] Hay algunos críticos que han presentado la hipótesis de que las cartas no existen, que solo tienen realidad en la mente del narrador. Véase Jacob Korg, «What Aspern Papers? A Hypothesis», College English, 23, 5, 1962, pp. 378-381; Julie Rivkin, «Speaking with the Dead: Ethics and Representation in “The Aspern Papers”», The Henry James Review, 10, 2, 1989, p. 136. Agradezco a José Antonio Álvarez Amorós que me haya facilitado información sobre esta línea interpretativa.
[3] Italo Calvino, Por qué leer los clásicos, Madrid, Siruela, 2002, p. 182.

Retrato de la novelista americana Constance Fenimore Woolson. Crédito: Getty Images.

Los documentos de Aspern es en cierto modo una fábula sobre la existencia de una obsesión que roza el crimen, un argumento que me parece recurrente en Henry James; pero más a ras de suelo la obra también supone una metáfora sobre los límites de la privacidad y de la investigación biográfico-literaria. La curiosidad del público por conocer secretos de autores muertos era una cuestión que preocupaba al escritor, quien defendió sus pensamientos y actos privados con tal celo que quizá sea el dato más llamativo que tengamos —aparte de su innegociable compromiso artístico— sobre su persona. Consciente de vivir en una era en la que el nuevo periodismo empezaba a airear las intimidades de los personajes conocidos, puso todo su empeño en parapetarse contra el escudriño de la prensa, concediendo muy pocas entrevistas y usando alguna de éstas para expresar su convencimiento de que el disfrute de una obra de arte está desligado del conocimiento de las interioridades del artista.

El conflicto entre la persona y el personaje, entre lo que pertenece al ámbito privado y lo que es de carácter público, así como las fronteras difusas que separan la admiración por un autor y su explotación lucrativa lo aborda Henry James en distintos géneros literarios. Además de en Los documentos de Aspern, lo encontramos, por ejemplo, en Sir Dominick Ferrand (1892) y Lo mejor de todo (1899). También emerge en uno de sus ensayos sobre George Sand, en el que el autor, disgustado con la forma en que se habían pregonado los amores de la escritora, escribió: «Hay secretos para la intimidad y para el silencio; dejemos que éstos sean cultivados solo por su abrumado dueño».[1] En su correspondencia expresó de nuevo esta inquietud, como en una carta escrita cuando tenía treinta y un años, donde alegó que «un hombre tiene derecho a decidir qué debe saber el mundo sobre él y qué no, y que por tanto no se debe perturbar los cajones de su secreter o el interior de sus bolsillos»[2] (precisamente lo que hace el «literato canalla» de esta narración). Para evitar el saqueo de los «cajones de su secreter» (una imagen de intimidad dentro de la intimidad) el escritor adoptó medidas radicales, como prender fuego en su jardín de Lamb House a buena parte de su correspondencia y otros documentos que él no deseaba dar a conocer, y pedir a sus amigos que destruyeran las comunicaciones más personales suyas. En una carta dirigida a una editora que le había solicitado las cartas que tuviera de la escritora Sarah Orne Jewett, fallecida meses atrás, Henry James se refirió a esa hoguera erigida para frustrar los intentos de los curiosos post mortem:

Sucede que he sometido al intercambio mantenido con mi admirable amiga a la misma ley que he decretado como tolerablemente inamovible en estos últimos años [...], la ley de no dejar documentos personales a merced de ningún accidente, ni siquiera de mis albaceas. Durante años guardé casi todas las cartas, hasta que mis receptáculos ya no pudieron contenerlas; luego hice una pira gigantesca y desde entonces me he sentido más tranquilo, con excepción de cierto residuo que tenía que sobrevivir.[3]

En esa hoguera se fueron centenares de cartas, como la correspondencia más personal con su gran amiga Edith Wharton, muchas de las cartas del bisexual Morton Fullerton (amante de Wharton) o la mayor parte de las misivas que recibió de amigos íntimos, como el escultor Hendrik Andersen. Lo que no pudo controlar fue el destino de las muchísimas cartas que él envió, «más de diez mil cartas dispersas en múltiples colecciones y antologías» que, como relata José Antonio Álvarez Amorós, «se están intentando reunir en una sola edición de carácter definitivo».[4] Un volumen que le hubiera consternado es Dearly Beloved Friends: Henry James’s Letters to Younger Men, editado por Susan Gunter y Steven H. Jobe (2001), que apuntala la impresión de que la sexualidad del escritor era tan ambigua como la de nuestro narrador o como lo que sucede en Otra vuelta de tuerca.



[1] Citado en María Antonia Álvarez, «Introducción», Henry James: El arte de la ficción, León, Secretariado de Publicaciones de la Universidad de León, 1992, p. 13. Trad. Teresa Gómez Reus.

[2] Citado en María Antonia Álvarez, Ibid., p. 12. Trad. Teresa Gómez Reus.

[3] Carta a la señora J. T. Fields, 2 de enero de 1910, en Henry James: Selected Letters, p. 384. Trad. Teresa Gómez Reus.

[4] José Antonio Álvarez Amorós, «Henry James y las Bases Dramáticas de la Novela Moderna», en Henry James, Lo que sabía Maisie, ed. José Antonio Álvarez Amorós, Madrid, Cátedra, 2016, p 31.

Si bien Henry James trató de silenciar aspectos de su vida personal, hay sentimientos y vivencias que se filtran en sus obras y Los documentos de Aspern no es una excepción. La invasión de la privacidad, como he comentado, está muy presente, así como la inestabilidad inherente a los conceptos de «público» y «privado». Aunque Henry James tenía ideas firmes acerca del derecho a la intimidad de un escritor, su propia experiencia le llevó a percibir que las fronteras entre lo público y lo privado son más porosas de lo que en algunas de sus cartas expresó. Siete años antes de componer Los documentos de Aspern, había elaborado un volumen sobre Nathaniel Hawthorne que el autor, a pesar de la orientación biográfica del libro, calificó de ensayo, en lugar de biografía. Durante su preparación había visitado a Julian Hawthorne, hijo de Nathaniel Hawthorne, con la esperanza de obtener documentos inéditos del autor de La letra escarlata. Un poco como Juliana (y quizá el nombre no sea una casualidad), Julian se había negado a mostrarle nada. Esta circunstancia le permitió al escritor colocarse al otro lado de la barrera, en el lado del narrador, e incluso consignar en el prefacio de su libro (paradoja de las paradojas): «La actitud del biógrafo es desear tantos documentos y materiales como sea posible».[1]



[1] Henry James, Hawthorne, Nueva York, Harper, 1880, p. 40. Trad. Teresa Gómez Reus.

La relación de Henry James con Julian Hawthorne nunca prosperó, y no solo por la negativa de Julian a facilitarle información nueva, sino también porque en 1884 el hijo de Hawthorne publicó una biografía de sus padres en la que divulgó cartas y notas muy personales que su padre no hubiera querido sacar a la luz.[1] La actuación de este heredero codicioso capaz de —como diría Juliana Bordereau— «profanar una tumba» (p. 161) escandalizó a Henry James, permitiéndole observar a campo abierto lo que pueden hacer editores y herederos con los documentos póstumos de un gran escritor. De modo que, a la pugna entre el deseo de saber y la negativa a revelar vivida por Henry James como biógrafo, tenemos esta nueva contienda observada en la distancia entre la ambición de publicitar manuscritos relevantes y la erosión del código de conducta que ese afán publicador puede producir. Se trata de una tensión que está en la médula misma de Los documentos de Aspern, una obra que late tan viva porque es como una porción, perfectamente ensamblada, de la escena humana. Que James transmutó parte de esos sucesos en material literario cabe deducirse de ciertos paralelismos entre escritor y narrador, sobre todo la búsqueda de documentos sobre un escritor al que admiran y que, en el caso de la novela, no por nada, tiene ecos de Nathaniel Hawthorne. Como se ha documentado,[2] la figura de Aspern, además de inspirarse en Byron, recupera muchos rasgos de Hawthorne, un escritor muy apuesto del romanticismo americano que escribió, como se dice de Aspern, cuando Estados Unidos «era un erial rudo y provinciano» (p. 79).[3]

Al transformar la anécdota del fanático de Shelley en Los documentos de Aspern, por otra parte, James también transfirió algunos detalles de su vida en el momento de escribirlo. Como ha documentado Leon Edel,[4] el relato lo compuso en la primavera de 1887 durante una estancia de seis semanas en una antigua villa que la novelista Constance Fenimore Woolson tenía alquilada en Bellosguardo, en las colinas de Florencia. La idea de subarrendarle a la escritora unas habitaciones no era casual: en mayo de 1880 se habían conocido en Florencia, James la había invitado a salir casi a diario y desde entonces se habían visitado y escrito con cierta asiduidad. Para James, que acababa de estar enfermo en Venecia, el bienestar doméstico que le proporcionó Constance fue como un bálsamo, pero al mismo tiempo la situación en esa casa a solas debió de tornarse progresivamente ambigua: como deduce Edel, es difícil que Henry James no se percatara de las repercusiones emocionales que su presencia podía tener en ella, una mujer vulnerable en cuyas cartas —las pocas que han sobrevivido— le había expresado sotto voce su necesidad de más afecto y cercanía. Es de imaginar que el escritor debió de sentirse en un punto incómodo pues antes de lo previsto abandonó la casa para no volver más. Pero de esa escapada de una mujer entrada en años, sola y que esperaba más de él, de esa amenaza para un hombre sexualmente tibio hay resonancias en Los documentos de Aspern («¡Sal de este aprieto como puedas, querido!» [p. 161], se dice el narrador, un sentimiento que hubiera podido formular el propio Henry James en Bellosguardo). El escritor ocupaba una parte de una antigua propiedad con salida al jardín y vistas panorámicas de cúpulas y enjambres de tejados, como el inquilino del relato, y Constance Fenimore Woolson, además de ser unos años mayor que él, era una expatriada estadounidense y era sobrina nieta de un escritor pionero del romanticismo americano, James Fenimore Cooper.

Los biógrafos de Henry James y una biografía reciente de Fenimore Woolson han coincidido en que la relación entre ambos fue extraña y desigual, de apoyo y estima incondicional por parte de ella, pero reticente por parte del escritor.[5]



[1] Véase Gary Scharnhorst, «James, “The Aspern Papers”, and the Ethics of Literary Biography», Modern Fiction Studies, 36, 2, 1990, pp. 211-217.

[2] Ibid., pp. 211-212.

[3] Esta percepción de Hawthorne como autor admirable que componía en un país sin tradición artística alguna aparece de forma insistente en la obra de James Hawthorne. Véase especialmente sus comentarios vertidos en pp. 43-44.

[4] Leon Edel, Henry James: A Life, Nueva York, Harper & Row, 1985, pp. 336-341.

[5] Lyndall Gordon, A Private Life of Henry James, Londres, Vintage, 1999; Anne Boyd Rioux, Constance Fenimore Woolson: Portrait of a Lady Novelist, Nueva York, Norton, 2016.

«Henry James tenía ideas firmes acerca del derecho a la intimidad de un escritor, su propia experiencia le llevó a percibir que las fronteras entre lo público y lo privado son más porosas de lo que en algunas de sus cartas expresó.»

Aunque había habido encuentros a solas por Europa y aunque James disfrutaba de la compañía inteligente de la autora, él la mantuvo en la periferia de su vasto círculo de amistades, seguramente temeroso de que lo asociaran sentimentalmente con ella. A pesar de que no se puede atribuir nada amoroso en sus encuentros, parece que los lazos entre ellos fueron más fuertes de lo que se ha podido conocer. Desde luego, es toda una apostilla a Los documentos de Aspern el hecho de que, tras el suicidio de Constance en Venecia —se arrojó al vacío en 1894—, un espantado Henry James viajara allí de inmediato para ofrecerse a una hermana y sobrina de la difunta novelista a ocuparse de los archivos de su tía; en suma, para decidir qué había que conservar y qué había que quemar. Los documentos de Aspern es como una premonición oscura de que en algún rincón de una casa veneciana había papeles muy personales que de ninguna manera podían salir a la luz.

La búsqueda del misterio, la musa insondable de ojos velados, las cartas secretas y por siempre incognoscibles... todos esos elementos han seguido dando vueltas en la imaginación literaria. Edith Wharton compuso sus propias versiones de esta famosa nouvelle. En La piedra de toque, escrita dos años más tarde que Los documentos de Aspern y publicada en 1990, es una mujer poeta ya muerta, no un poeta varón, la autora de unas cartas explosivas que acaban por ser publicadas, y el hombre poco escrupuloso que las publica —el destinatario de las mismas— encuentra su redención en el matrimonio, en lugar de escapar de él. En «La tragedia de la musa» (1892), en cuyo título se alude a La musa trágica (1890) de Henry James, Edith Wharton vuelve a Los documentos de Aspern para acometer una reflexión aguda sobre el potencial escondido del intelecto femenino y del poder de la escritura. Parcialmente situado en Venecia, este relato presenta una musa que, en lugar de inspirar con su belleza a un excelso poeta, fue su fuente secreta de ideas y su inspiración intelectual. La tragedia de la musa es su invisibilidad cultural, pero también, como le sucede al fanático de Aspern, su falta de integridad, pues también ella enamora falsamente y utiliza —y en su caso manipula— cartas de un poeta para asegurarse un lugar en la historia literaria.

La maraña de deserciones y duplicidades en la trama y el subfondo de Los documentos de Aspern ha tenido una continuidad más reciente en Felony (2003) de Emma Tennant, cuyo subtítulo es «La historia privada de los documentos de Aspern». Contada en parte desde el punto de vista de una sobrina nieta de Claire Clairmont y en parte desde la perspectiva de un personaje llamado Henry James, esta novela histórica presenta un doble argumento: por un lado, tematiza la vileza de Silsbee, el admirador de Shelley que se introduce en casa de Claire Clairmont para apoderarse de las cartas del poeta, y por otro, investiga la relación entre Henry James y Constance Fenimore Woolson, así como las circunstancias que rodearon la creación de Los documentos de Aspern. Las analogías entre Silsbee y Henry James entretejen la novela: ambos traicionan la confianza de la mujer en cuya casa se alojan y ambos sienten obsesión por encontrar documentos personales de un escritor célebre (en el caso de James, escritos que pudieran comprometerle). Aunque Felony intenta vindicar la figura de Constance Fenimore Woolson, el efecto es problemático, pues esta interesante y poco conocida novelista aparece como una lastimosa víctima de un reprimido Henry James. Con una vuelta de tuerca irónica, en Felony (Felonía, en castellano) Tennant comete en el fondo un perjuicio con esa sobrina ilustre que fue Fenimore Woolson, siguiendo así la cadena de utilización de mujeres que pone en marcha el bribón publicador de la anécdota en que se basa Los documentos de Aspern.

Estas reescrituras, junto con las muchas adaptaciones que con fortuna desigual se han llevado al cine, al teatro, a la ópera y a la pequeña pantalla, atestiguan la vitalidad de esta obra atemporal. A pesar de hallarnos cada vez más distanciados del mundo de Henry James, y no digamos del pasado byroniano que éste evoca, esta novela corta resulta tan moderna e inasible en lo que esconde, tan sorpresiva en las constelaciones de su trama y tan evocadora en sus detalles de Venecia que, al concluirla, uno desearía seguir rebuscando en esas aguas turbias, aun sabiendo que no se puede ver del todo el fondo.