Cómic

Una historia persa del bien y del mal (según Marjane Satrapi)

El 16 de septiembre de 2022, la policía de la moral de Irán mató a golpes a Mahsa Amini por no llevar «bien» el velo. Su muerte desató una oleada de protestas en todo el país que se transformó en una revolución feminista sin precedentes. Con el fin de narrar este acontecimiento fundamental para Irán (y para todas nosotras y todos nosotros), Marjane Satrapi decidió crear un volumen colectivo de no ficción gráfica que conmemorase el inicio de la revolución del velo en Irán. Para darle forma, la autora de «Persépolis» contó con la colaboración de tres especialistas en cultura persa -el politólogo Farid Vahid, el reportero Jean-Pierre Perrin y el historiador Abbas Milani- y de 17 de los más prestigiosos talentos del cómic internacional. El resultado de esta colisión de sabiduría y creatividad es «Mujer Vida Libertad» (Reservoir Books, 2023), un título refleja y contextualiza lo que pasa en este rincón de Oriente Medio: precisamente, el texto que aquí sigue, firmado por Satrapi y Milani a modo de introducción del libro, se titula «Una historia persa del bien y del mal» y nos presenta a todas esas mujeres que han defendido sus derechos… aun a riesgo de perderlo todo.

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necesario un desconocimiento profundo de la historia para comparar movimientos tan inspiradores y potentes como Mujer Vida Libertad con explosiones sociales repentinas. Es probable que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ulises-carlos-gamerro-salas-subirat\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">James Joyce<\/a><\/span> tuviera raz\u00f3n cuando dijo: \u00abLa historia es una pesadilla de la que intent[amos] despertar\u00bb. Para las iran\u00edes, al igual que para todas las mujeres del mundo, esa pesadilla se agrava debido a la misoginia y la concepci\u00f3n faloc\u00e9ntrica de la historia. En Ir\u00e1n, como en todas partes, las mujeres luchan no solo para liberarse a s\u00ed mismas, sino tambi\u00e9n para ayudar a los hombres a escapar de la casa-c\u00e1rcel levantada por su chovinismo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Dicen que los mitos son el espejo de un pa\u00eds. Algunos de ellos enaltecen a sus guerreros; otros, a sus cl\u00e9rigos. La mitohistoria iran\u00ed est\u00e1 llena hasta rebosar de mujeres liberadas y liberadoras. Todo empez\u00f3 con Anahita, fuente divina de la luz y el logos, del agua y la fertilidad. Despu\u00e9s lleg\u00f3 la epopeya del <em>Shahnam\u00e9<\/em> [ver notas a pie de texto: 1] de Ferdus\u00ed, una obra conocida en el mundo entero. Lo que es menos conocido es que la musa del poeta era una erudita aficionada al vino que animaba a su amante a escribir. Son muchos los que conocen a Rostam y a Sohrab, el padre y el hijo h\u00e9roes del <em>Shahnam\u00e9,<\/em> pero pocos saben o recuerdan que Tahmina, la madre de Sohrab, era hija de un rey: cuando el c\u00e9lebre Rostam, una especie de Heracles, lleg\u00f3 a su ciudad, lament\u00e1ndose por haber perdido su caballo, Tahmina fue a su cuarto en plena noche y lo despert\u00f3; al cabo de nueve meses dio a luz a su hijo. Lo llam\u00f3 Sohrab. Rostam, figura de padre ausente, conoc\u00eda bien a las mujeres liberadas, seguras de s\u00ed mismas y sin complejos. 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espejo de los mitos a las realidades de la historia hay todo un largo linaje de mujeres como estas, seguras de s\u00ed mismas. En la \u00e9poca de las invasiones \u00e1rabes, Ir\u00e1n estaba gobernado por la emperatriz Purandojt, inteligente, astuta, diplom\u00e1tica y decidida a lograr sus objetivos. Parece ser que cuando Mahoma, el profeta de la nueva religi\u00f3n isl\u00e1mica de Arabia, oy\u00f3 hablar de ella dijo: \u00abAy del pa\u00eds gobernado por mujeres\u00bb. Sin embargo, Purandojt no fue la \u00fanica mujer que se sent\u00f3 en el trono o tuvo las riendas del poder.\u00a0<\/p><p>Adem\u00e1s, la poes\u00eda y el poder no eran los \u00fanicos campos que les interesaban a las mujeres de Ir\u00e1n. En el siglo XII, uno de los principales observatorios del mundo se encontraba en la ciudad de Maragheh, en el noroeste del pa\u00eds. Lo dirig\u00eda una mujer. Un milenio m\u00e1s tarde, la escena p\u00fablica tambi\u00e9n estaba ocupada por mujeres que luchaban por la igualdad. En la \u00e9poca en que se celebr\u00f3 la Convenci\u00f3n de Seneca Falls (punto de partida en Estados Unidos del movimiento feminista, o al menos del movimiento feminista blanco), en Ir\u00e1n, en el pueblo de Badasht, una mujer erudita, versada en poes\u00eda y teolog\u00eda, pero convertida a la nueva fe bab\u00ed, pronunci\u00f3 en 1848 un serm\u00f3n sin llevar el velo. Se trataba de Fatemeh Baragani, llamada Tahereh [2]. \u00a1Esa visi\u00f3n era tan perturbadora para los hombres que uno de ellos se abalanz\u00f3 sobre el escenario para clavarle un cuchillo en el cuello y otro intent\u00f3 matarse! El libidinoso monarca del momento, Naseruddin Sah, primero dese\u00f3 a Fatemeh, pero despu\u00e9s se asust\u00f3 de su bravura. Y la conden\u00f3 a muerte. Fue asfixiada, un m\u00e9todo de ejecuci\u00f3n reservado a las mujeres que se atrev\u00edan a hablar.\u00a0<\/p><p>Entre los numerosos hijos de Naseruddin Sah estaba Taj-us-Saltaneh [3]. La casaron a los nueve a\u00f1os, pero opuso resistencia y logr\u00f3 huir de aquel matrimonio forzado tan precoz; del mismo modo, no quiso aceptar a ninguno de los incautos con los que quisieron obligarla a verse o a casarse. Escribi\u00f3 unas memorias, de una franqueza descarnada, en las que denunciaba los muchos absurdos de la vida en la corte y defend\u00eda los derechos de las mujeres y las ideas democr\u00e1ticas de la revoluci\u00f3n constitucional (1905-1911). No fue ninguna sorpresa que la acusaran de hereje, el \u00faltimo recurso de los canallas asustados por las mujeres liberadas. En aquella revoluci\u00f3n, las mujeres tuvieron un papel activo y a menudo desconocido. Cuando el nuevo parlamento vacilaba frente a la defensa de las libertades reci\u00e9n conquistadas, un grupo de mujeres lo tom\u00f3 por asalto... con armas que hab\u00edan escondido debajo del hiyab. 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figura a\u00fan m\u00e1s extraordinaria de aquel periodo es Bibi Mariam Bajtiari, tambi\u00e9n llamada Sardar [4] Mariam Bajtiari. Miembro de la etnia n\u00f3mada bajtiari, mont\u00f3 un grupo de combatientes propio (a pesar de la oposici\u00f3n feroz de su marido y de otros hombres de la tribu), lo condujo a Teher\u00e1n y ayud\u00f3 a salvar la revoluci\u00f3n frente a una alianza reaccionaria de los dirigentes religiosos, Rusia y los restos del despotismo real. Sus memorias dan fe de su vida poco ordinaria y de su lucha por la democracia y la igualdad de derechos.\u00a0<\/p><p>Sediqeh Doulatabadi, otra pionera y militante de aquella revoluci\u00f3n, cre\u00f3 y public\u00f3 en 1919 la revista femenina llamada con iron\u00eda <em>Zaban-e Zanan<\/em> (La Lengua de las Mujeres). \u00abMujer de lengua larga\u00bb era un t\u00e9rmino peyorativo utilizado con frecuencia para referirse a las mujeres liberadas y seguras de s\u00ed mismas. Y a esas mujeres de lengua larga a menudo las asfixiaban cuando se atrev\u00edan a decir la verdad al poder. Sin embargo, Sediqeh no dej\u00f3 que esas brutalidades la desanimaran. 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Cr\u00e9dito: Patricia Bola\u00f1os y Farid Vahid \/ Shabnam Adiban y Farid Vahid \/ cortes\u00eda de Reservoir Books.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"jlmgic8\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">P\u00e1ginas interiores de <em>Mujer Vida Libertad.<\/em> Cr\u00e9dito: Patricia Bola\u00f1os y Farid Vahid \/ Shabnam Adiban y Farid Vahid \/ cortes\u00eda de Reservoir Books.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"2\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"10\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zwempam\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Farrojzad y, antes que ella, Qamar [6] fueron dos luchadoras intr\u00e9pidas contra esa tradici\u00f3n tan sofocante que es la misoginia. A mediados de los a\u00f1os veinte, para deleite de muchos y disgusto del mul\u00e1, Qamar, icono de la m\u00fasica cl\u00e1sica persa, cant\u00f3 en p\u00fablico sin velo por primera vez. Todav\u00eda hoy, su voz inimitable, como la de Piaf, es todo un referente de su \u00e9poca. En los a\u00f1os cincuenta, Forough Farrojzad Forugh, joven poeta de 19 a\u00f1os, reconoci\u00f3 que disfrutaba con los placeres de la carne, dijo \u00abHe pecado\u00bb y a\u00f1adi\u00f3 sin iron\u00eda hasta qu\u00e9 punto era un pecado placentero. En los cincuenta, los sesenta y los setenta, nuevas generaciones de escritoras, poetas, pintoras, emprendedoras, pol\u00edticas y revolucionarias desafiaron la adversidad, plantaron cara a los obst\u00e1culos y crearon nuevas expectativas. La poligamia, el placer de los hombres insaciables, pr\u00e1cticamente se ilegaliz\u00f3. Algunas de las desigualdades m\u00e1s flagrantes que sufr\u00edan las mujeres se atenuaron, ya fuera en la pr\u00e1ctica o por ley. Las mujeres eran libres de llevar lo que quisieran: un vestido sencillo, una minifalda de colores o un chador oscuro. Todo cambi\u00f3 cuando se restableci\u00f3 <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/revolucion-islamica-iran-1979-el-jardin-del-fin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">el despotismo despu\u00e9s de la revoluci\u00f3n de 1979<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0<\/p><p>Las primeras leyes abolidas fueron las que otorgaban a las mujeres algunos de los derechos alcanzados con mucho esfuerzo. El hiyab pas\u00f3 a ser obligatorio y se \u00abinvit\u00f3\u00bb a las mujeres a abandonar el espacio p\u00fablico y a limitarse a ser madres procreadoras y esposas obedientes.\u00a0<\/p><p>La edad legal para casarse volvi\u00f3 a ser los nueve a\u00f1os, pero las descendientes de Rudabeh y de Anahita no ten\u00edan la menor intenci\u00f3n de tolerar esas agresiones. Y as\u00ed naci\u00f3 un movimiento de desobediencia civil formado por mujeres de todas las edades y generaciones y de todos los niveles econ\u00f3micos, y todas ellas pagaron un precio muy alto por su resistencia. 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mujeres no solo tienen prohibido el vino y la risa, el baile y las actuaciones musicales. 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Las mujeres no tienen permitido salir del pa\u00eds ni operarse sin autorizaci\u00f3n de un \u00abvar\u00f3n\u00bb, ya sea su padre, su hermano, su marido... Ante un tribunal, el valor de la vida de una mujer es la mitad que el de la de un hombre, y lo mismo sucede con su testimonio. Y, sin embargo, a pesar de todos esos l\u00edmites vergonzosos, hay m\u00e1s mujeres que hombres con t\u00edtulo universitario y m\u00e1s mujeres escritoras y emprendedoras que nunca, y una cantidad maravillosamente desproporcionada de mujeres autoras de superventas en Ir\u00e1n y en la di\u00e1spora. Una joven iran\u00ed de la di\u00e1spora, Mariam Mirzajani, fue la primera mujer que recibi\u00f3 la Medalla Fields, el equivalente del premio Nobel en matem\u00e1ticas, en 2014.\u00a0<\/p><p>Con la llegada del despotismo religioso, toda la sociedad del pa\u00eds, y no solo las mujeres (si dejamos a un lado a los zelotes), ha tenido que reconocer hasta qu\u00e9 punto son arcaicos los cl\u00e9rigos y hasta qu\u00e9 punto van en contra del alma de Ir\u00e1n. La poes\u00eda, la pintura y las historias iran\u00edes est\u00e1n llenas de mujeres que cantan y bailan, de vino servido y apreciado, y de m\u00fasica que resuena en el aire. Acord\u00e9monos de Shahrazad [8], la princesa persa, y de <em>Las mil y una noches.<\/em> Cuando el r\u00e9gimen las censur\u00f3 a todas y empez\u00f3 a alimentar el culto a la melancol\u00eda, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/recomendaciones\/actualidad\/iran-libros-contextualizar-represion-mujeres\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">las mujeres se convirtieron en las figuras destacadas de la lucha<\/a><\/span> contra esa abominaci\u00f3n y los hombres se sumaron a ellas. La incompetencia econ\u00f3mica del r\u00e9gimen, su corrupci\u00f3n voraz, su nepotismo, el papel cada vez m\u00e1s destacado de los guardianes de la revoluci\u00f3n isl\u00e1mica [9], el saqueo de las arcas p\u00fablicas para financiar las guerras de poder en la regi\u00f3n y un \u00edndice de inflaci\u00f3n y de paro de dos cifras desde hace m\u00e1s de 40 a\u00f1os han provocado la furia de todas las clases iran\u00edes, excepto las que son c\u00f3mplices del saqueo. Esa discrepancia radical, a la que se a\u00f1aden la prudencia y la perseverancia de las mujeres en su lucha, ha hecho que una buena cantidad de hombres se sumen a su causa. Incluso los radical chic, que durante a\u00f1os han denigrado a las mujeres y la pugna contra el hiyab obligatorio calific\u00e1ndolas de fr\u00edvolas y de peque\u00f1as burguesas, comprenden ahora que, si ellas no son libres e iguales, la sociedad no puede alcanzar la libertad y la democracia. Por eso cerca del 80 % de los iran\u00edes dice que NO a la \u00abtutela\u00bb autoproclamada de los mul\u00e1s retr\u00f3grados.\u00a0<\/p><p><br \/><strong>Notas:<\/strong><\/p><p>1. Conocida tambi\u00e9n con el t\u00edtulo de <em>El libro de los reyes.\u00a0<br \/><\/em>2. Conocida tambi\u00e9n con los nombres de Fatimih y Gurrat-ol- Eyn.\u00a0<br \/>3. Su nombre real era Zahra Janum.\u00a0<br \/>4. Comandante de un ej\u00e9rcito.\u00a0<br \/>5. Su nombre real era Fajr-ol-Moluk Zandpur.\u00a0<br \/>6. Su nombre real era Qamar-ol-Moluk Vaziri.\u00a0<br \/>7. Se llamaba Sahar Jodayari.\u00a0<br \/>8. M\u00e1s conocida como Sherezade, a partir de la adaptaci\u00f3n francesa de Shahrazad.\u00a0<br \/>9. Sepah-e-Pasdar\u00e1n, en persa.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"oa4n9rb\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/revolucion-islamica-iran-1979-el-jardin-del-fin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">De la Revoluci\u00f3n Isl\u00e1mica al asesinato de Mahsa Amini: los primeros d\u00edas de un pa\u00eds secuestrado<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/hayao-miyazaki-el-viaje-de-shuna-oriol-estrada\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El viaje de Miyazaki: sindicalismo, manga, animaci\u00f3n, ecologismo y pol\u00edtica<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a 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puerta<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"rt81jf4\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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10 minutos
Cubierta de Mujer Vida Libertad (izquierda) y Marjane Satrapi, en una imagen del interior del libro. Crédito: cortesía de Reservoir Books.

Cubierta de Mujer Vida Libertad (izquierda) y Marjane Satrapi, en una imagen del interior del libro. Crédito: cortesía de Reservoir Books.

Es necesario un desconocimiento profundo de la historia para comparar movimientos tan inspiradores y potentes como Mujer Vida Libertad con explosiones sociales repentinas. Es probable que James Joyce tuviera razón cuando dijo: «La historia es una pesadilla de la que intent[amos] despertar». Para las iraníes, al igual que para todas las mujeres del mundo, esa pesadilla se agrava debido a la misoginia y la concepción falocéntrica de la historia. En Irán, como en todas partes, las mujeres luchan no solo para liberarse a sí mismas, sino también para ayudar a los hombres a escapar de la casa-cárcel levantada por su chovinismo. 

Dicen que los mitos son el espejo de un país. Algunos de ellos enaltecen a sus guerreros; otros, a sus clérigos. La mitohistoria iraní está llena hasta rebosar de mujeres liberadas y liberadoras. Todo empezó con Anahita, fuente divina de la luz y el logos, del agua y la fertilidad. Después llegó la epopeya del Shahnamé [ver notas a pie de texto: 1] de Ferdusí, una obra conocida en el mundo entero. Lo que es menos conocido es que la musa del poeta era una erudita aficionada al vino que animaba a su amante a escribir. Son muchos los que conocen a Rostam y a Sohrab, el padre y el hijo héroes del Shahnamé, pero pocos saben o recuerdan que Tahmina, la madre de Sohrab, era hija de un rey: cuando el célebre Rostam, una especie de Heracles, llegó a su ciudad, lamentándose por haber perdido su caballo, Tahmina fue a su cuarto en plena noche y lo despertó; al cabo de nueve meses dio a luz a su hijo. Lo llamó Sohrab. Rostam, figura de padre ausente, conocía bien a las mujeres liberadas, seguras de sí mismas y sin complejos. Su madre era Rudabeh, que al enamorarse de Zal fue más audaz que Julieta. Utilizó sus trenzas a modo de cuerda para que su amante pudiera subir a su dormitorio a hurtadillas, protegido de miradas indiscretas. Su amor se consumó y nueve meses más tarde nació Rostam.

Páginas interiores de Mujer Vida Libertad. Crédito: Paco Roca y Farid Vahid / cortesía de Reservoir Books.

Páginas interiores de Mujer Vida Libertad. Crédito: Paco Roca y Farid Vahid / cortesía de Reservoir Books.

Del espejo de los mitos a las realidades de la historia hay todo un largo linaje de mujeres como estas, seguras de sí mismas. En la época de las invasiones árabes, Irán estaba gobernado por la emperatriz Purandojt, inteligente, astuta, diplomática y decidida a lograr sus objetivos. Parece ser que cuando Mahoma, el profeta de la nueva religión islámica de Arabia, oyó hablar de ella dijo: «Ay del país gobernado por mujeres». Sin embargo, Purandojt no fue la única mujer que se sentó en el trono o tuvo las riendas del poder. 

Además, la poesía y el poder no eran los únicos campos que les interesaban a las mujeres de Irán. En el siglo XII, uno de los principales observatorios del mundo se encontraba en la ciudad de Maragheh, en el noroeste del país. Lo dirigía una mujer. Un milenio más tarde, la escena pública también estaba ocupada por mujeres que luchaban por la igualdad. En la época en que se celebró la Convención de Seneca Falls (punto de partida en Estados Unidos del movimiento feminista, o al menos del movimiento feminista blanco), en Irán, en el pueblo de Badasht, una mujer erudita, versada en poesía y teología, pero convertida a la nueva fe babí, pronunció en 1848 un sermón sin llevar el velo. Se trataba de Fatemeh Baragani, llamada Tahereh [2]. ¡Esa visión era tan perturbadora para los hombres que uno de ellos se abalanzó sobre el escenario para clavarle un cuchillo en el cuello y otro intentó matarse! El libidinoso monarca del momento, Naseruddin Sah, primero deseó a Fatemeh, pero después se asustó de su bravura. Y la condenó a muerte. Fue asfixiada, un método de ejecución reservado a las mujeres que se atrevían a hablar. 

Entre los numerosos hijos de Naseruddin Sah estaba Taj-us-Saltaneh [3]. La casaron a los nueve años, pero opuso resistencia y logró huir de aquel matrimonio forzado tan precoz; del mismo modo, no quiso aceptar a ninguno de los incautos con los que quisieron obligarla a verse o a casarse. Escribió unas memorias, de una franqueza descarnada, en las que denunciaba los muchos absurdos de la vida en la corte y defendía los derechos de las mujeres y las ideas democráticas de la revolución constitucional (1905-1911). No fue ninguna sorpresa que la acusaran de hereje, el último recurso de los canallas asustados por las mujeres liberadas. En aquella revolución, las mujeres tuvieron un papel activo y a menudo desconocido. Cuando el nuevo parlamento vacilaba frente a la defensa de las libertades recién conquistadas, un grupo de mujeres lo tomó por asalto... con armas que habían escondido debajo del hiyab. Y exigieron que los hombres actuaran con más valentía.

Páginas interiores de Mujer Vida Libertad. Crédito: Deloupy y Farid Vahid / cortesía de Reservoir Books.

Páginas interiores de Mujer Vida Libertad. Crédito: Deloupy y Farid Vahid / cortesía de Reservoir Books.

Otra figura aún más extraordinaria de aquel periodo es Bibi Mariam Bajtiari, también llamada Sardar [4] Mariam Bajtiari. Miembro de la etnia nómada bajtiari, montó un grupo de combatientes propio (a pesar de la oposición feroz de su marido y de otros hombres de la tribu), lo condujo a Teherán y ayudó a salvar la revolución frente a una alianza reaccionaria de los dirigentes religiosos, Rusia y los restos del despotismo real. Sus memorias dan fe de su vida poco ordinaria y de su lucha por la democracia y la igualdad de derechos. 

Sediqeh Doulatabadi, otra pionera y militante de aquella revolución, creó y publicó en 1919 la revista femenina llamada con ironía Zaban-e Zanan (La Lengua de las Mujeres). «Mujer de lengua larga» era un término peyorativo utilizado con frecuencia para referirse a las mujeres liberadas y seguras de sí mismas. Y a esas mujeres de lengua larga a menudo las asfixiaban cuando se atrevían a decir la verdad al poder. Sin embargo, Sediqeh no dejó que esas brutalidades la desanimaran. La revista fue la primera fundada por una mujer en Irán y la primera que se publicó y difundió fuera de Teherán. 

Después de la revolución, en 1923, dejó su vida alborotada en Irán para trasladarse a Francia, donde prosiguió sus estudios en París. Cuentan que, en el momento de entrar en territorio francés, los agentes fronterizos se sorprendieron ante su ropa moderna, su pelo al aire y su actitud liberada. Uno de ellos le dijo que, hasta entonces, las mujeres de su país habían llegado con discreción. Aquellos hombres, no cabe duda, desconocían todo un lado de la historia. 

Otra pionera, también clasificada dentro de la categoría de «histérica», fue Zandojt Shirazi [5]. Nacida en 1909 en Shiraz, la tierra de los grandes poetas y los grandes vinos, fundó una revista que llamó Dojtarán-e-Irán (Las Hijas de Irán). Las presiones de una tradición asfixiante la obligaron a abandonar su ciudad natal y se instaló en Teherán, donde alquiló una habitación, siguió publicando su revista y mantuvo correspondencia con algunos de los intelectuales más influyentes de la época que le tocó vivir.

Páginas interiores de Mujer Vida Libertad. Crédito: Patricia Bolaños y Farid Vahid / Shabnam Adiban y Farid Vahid / cortesía de Reservoir Books.

Páginas interiores de Mujer Vida Libertad. Crédito: Patricia Bolaños y Farid Vahid / Shabnam Adiban y Farid Vahid / cortesía de Reservoir Books.

Forugh Farrojzad y, antes que ella, Qamar [6] fueron dos luchadoras intrépidas contra esa tradición tan sofocante que es la misoginia. A mediados de los años veinte, para deleite de muchos y disgusto del mulá, Qamar, icono de la música clásica persa, cantó en público sin velo por primera vez. Todavía hoy, su voz inimitable, como la de Piaf, es todo un referente de su época. En los años cincuenta, Forough Farrojzad Forugh, joven poeta de 19 años, reconoció que disfrutaba con los placeres de la carne, dijo «He pecado» y añadió sin ironía hasta qué punto era un pecado placentero. En los cincuenta, los sesenta y los setenta, nuevas generaciones de escritoras, poetas, pintoras, emprendedoras, políticas y revolucionarias desafiaron la adversidad, plantaron cara a los obstáculos y crearon nuevas expectativas. La poligamia, el placer de los hombres insaciables, prácticamente se ilegalizó. Algunas de las desigualdades más flagrantes que sufrían las mujeres se atenuaron, ya fuera en la práctica o por ley. Las mujeres eran libres de llevar lo que quisieran: un vestido sencillo, una minifalda de colores o un chador oscuro. Todo cambió cuando se restableció el despotismo después de la revolución de 1979

Las primeras leyes abolidas fueron las que otorgaban a las mujeres algunos de los derechos alcanzados con mucho esfuerzo. El hiyab pasó a ser obligatorio y se «invitó» a las mujeres a abandonar el espacio público y a limitarse a ser madres procreadoras y esposas obedientes. 

La edad legal para casarse volvió a ser los nueve años, pero las descendientes de Rudabeh y de Anahita no tenían la menor intención de tolerar esas agresiones. Y así nació un movimiento de desobediencia civil formado por mujeres de todas las edades y generaciones y de todos los niveles económicos, y todas ellas pagaron un precio muy alto por su resistencia. Mahsa Amini se ha convertido en el icono de esa lucha permanente, y «Mujer Vida Libertad», en su grito de guerra.

Marjane Satrapi en una foto tomada en Denver en el año 2007. Crédito: Getty Images.

Marjane Satrapi en una foto tomada en Denver en el año 2007. Crédito: Getty Images.

Las mujeres no solo tienen prohibido el vino y la risa, el baile y las actuaciones musicales. Desde hace 44 años, todas las altas esferas del poder las han ocupado unos 2.500 hombres, en su mayoría salidos de una pequeña cantidad de familias administrativas, tan pequeña que podría decirse que la situación es incestuosa. Las mujeres tienen prohibidos muchos deportes y, cuando sí pueden practicarlos, deben llevar el hiyab. Aún no se les permite asistir a los partidos de fútbol. En 2019, una mujer, ahora inmortalizada con el nombre de «la Chica Azul» [7], se inmoló para protestar contra ese vergonzoso apartheid de género. La FIFA (otra organización internacional dominada por los hombres y muy deudora de los petrodólares) ha permanecido prácticamente en silencio ante esa perfidia. El número de mujeres autorizadas a ir a la universidad está limitado, y en ningún caso pueden acceder a muchos campos de estudio que se consideran poco «femeninos». Las mujeres no tienen permitido salir del país ni operarse sin autorización de un «varón», ya sea su padre, su hermano, su marido... Ante un tribunal, el valor de la vida de una mujer es la mitad que el de la de un hombre, y lo mismo sucede con su testimonio. Y, sin embargo, a pesar de todos esos límites vergonzosos, hay más mujeres que hombres con título universitario y más mujeres escritoras y emprendedoras que nunca, y una cantidad maravillosamente desproporcionada de mujeres autoras de superventas en Irán y en la diáspora. Una joven iraní de la diáspora, Mariam Mirzajani, fue la primera mujer que recibió la Medalla Fields, el equivalente del premio Nobel en matemáticas, en 2014. 

Con la llegada del despotismo religioso, toda la sociedad del país, y no solo las mujeres (si dejamos a un lado a los zelotes), ha tenido que reconocer hasta qué punto son arcaicos los clérigos y hasta qué punto van en contra del alma de Irán. La poesía, la pintura y las historias iraníes están llenas de mujeres que cantan y bailan, de vino servido y apreciado, y de música que resuena en el aire. Acordémonos de Shahrazad [8], la princesa persa, y de Las mil y una noches. Cuando el régimen las censuró a todas y empezó a alimentar el culto a la melancolía, las mujeres se convirtieron en las figuras destacadas de la lucha contra esa abominación y los hombres se sumaron a ellas. La incompetencia económica del régimen, su corrupción voraz, su nepotismo, el papel cada vez más destacado de los guardianes de la revolución islámica [9], el saqueo de las arcas públicas para financiar las guerras de poder en la región y un índice de inflación y de paro de dos cifras desde hace más de 40 años han provocado la furia de todas las clases iraníes, excepto las que son cómplices del saqueo. Esa discrepancia radical, a la que se añaden la prudencia y la perseverancia de las mujeres en su lucha, ha hecho que una buena cantidad de hombres se sumen a su causa. Incluso los radical chic, que durante años han denigrado a las mujeres y la pugna contra el hiyab obligatorio calificándolas de frívolas y de pequeñas burguesas, comprenden ahora que, si ellas no son libres e iguales, la sociedad no puede alcanzar la libertad y la democracia. Por eso cerca del 80 % de los iraníes dice que NO a la «tutela» autoproclamada de los mulás retrógrados. 


Notas:

1. Conocida también con el título de El libro de los reyes. 
2. Conocida también con los nombres de Fatimih y Gurrat-ol- Eyn. 
3. Su nombre real era Zahra Janum. 
4. Comandante de un ejército. 
5. Su nombre real era Fajr-ol-Moluk Zandpur. 
6. Su nombre real era Qamar-ol-Moluk Vaziri. 
7. Se llamaba Sahar Jodayari. 
8. Más conocida como Sherezade, a partir de la adaptación francesa de Shahrazad. 
9. Sepah-e-Pasdarán, en persa.

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