Literatura

«Ulises» en su laberinto castellano

Cinco traducciones (tres en los últimos años) ofrecen adentrarse en quizá la novela más influyente y emblemática del siglo XX. La primera fue hecha en Buenos Aires en los años 40 por un hombre solo que desconcertó al equipo de anglicistas organizado por Victoria Ocampo y del que formaba parte Borges. Cada una de las traducciones tiene sus virtudes y sus defectos. Las que más se alejan del original, más se acercan a su espíritu. Pero todas encarnan el mismo conflicto: cómo traducir a un castellano que incluye tantos castellanos una novela hecha de capas y capas de cultura occidental, escrita por un irlandés, desde su variante desprestigiada de la lengua, para apropiarse del inglés británico imperial. El escritor argentino Carlos Gamerro, uno de los máximos especialistas en Joyce en español, se adentra en este laberinto apasionante que habla tanto de los conflictos del inglés como del castellano.

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Carlos Gamerro, uno de los m\u00e1ximos especialistas en Joyce en espa\u00f1ol, se adentra en este laberinto que habla tanto de los conflictos del ingl\u00e9s como del castellano.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA James Joyce Ulises Carlos Gamerro Salas Subirat","short_content":"<p>Cinco traducciones (tres en los \u00faltimos a\u00f1os) ofrecen adentrarse en quiz\u00e1 la novela m\u00e1s influyente y emblem\u00e1tica del siglo XX. La primera fue hecha en Buenos Aires en los a\u00f1os 40 por un hombre solo que desconcert\u00f3 al equipo de anglicistas organizado por Victoria Ocampo y del que formaba parte Borges. Cada una de las traducciones tiene sus virtudes y sus defectos. Las que m\u00e1s se alejan del original, m\u00e1s se acercan a su esp\u00edritu. Pero todas encarnan el mismo conflicto: c\u00f3mo traducir a un castellano que incluye tantos castellanos una novela hecha de capas y capas de cultura occidental, escrita por un irland\u00e9s, desde su variante desprestigiada de la lengua, para apropiarse del ingl\u00e9s brit\u00e1nico imperial. El escritor argentino Carlos Gamerro, uno de los m\u00e1ximos especialistas en Joyce en espa\u00f1ol, se adentra en este laberinto apasionante que habla tanto de los conflictos del ingl\u00e9s como del castellano.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"vqta0w4\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">1960. Marilyn Monroe lee <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/271752-libro-ulises-edicion-especial-del-centenario-9788426407917\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Ulises<\/em><\/a><\/span> durante una pausa en el rodaje de <em>Vidas rebeldes.<\/em> Cr\u00e9dito: D. R.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"10\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"30\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ea0lxsl\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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sus primeros cien a\u00f1os de vida, que acaban de cumplirse el pasado 2 de febrero de 2022, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/271752-libro-ulises-edicion-especial-del-centenario-9788426407917\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Ulises<\/em><\/a><\/span> ha acumulado cinco traducciones al espa\u00f1ol, dos de ellas realizadas en Espa\u00f1a (J.M. Valverde, 1976, corregida en 1989, y Francisco Garc\u00eda Tortosa y Mar\u00eda Luisa Venegas, 2001) y tres en Argentina. Si adem\u00e1s de la mera superioridad num\u00e9rica tomamos en cuenta que la realizada por el argentino J. Salas Subirat en 1945 fue la primera, podr\u00eda decirse que vamos ganando por goleada, aunque qui\u00e9n sabe qu\u00e9 nuevas incursiones preparan nuestros hermanos peninsulares en el \u00abpa\u00eds enmara\u00f1ado y montaraz\u00bb (como lo caracterizara Borges) de la novela de Joyce. Las traducciones de su obra han proliferado exponencialmente desde 2012, cuando \u00e9sta entr\u00f3 en dominio p\u00fablico, permitiendo la publicaci\u00f3n de las versiones de Marcelo Zabaloy (Cuenco de Plata, 2015) y Rolando Costa Picazo (Edhasa, 2017), que no hubieran sido posibles cuando la superioridad material del mercado espa\u00f1ol le otorgaba el derecho de pernada del mundo editorial.\u00a0<\/p><p>La idea de traducir la gran novela de Joyce surgi\u00f3 muy tempranamente en Argentina: la primera en intentarlo fue, como cabr\u00eda esperar, Victoria Ocampo, que quer\u00eda encomendarle la tarea, como cabr\u00eda esperar, <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/400-jorge-luis-borges\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">a Borges<\/a>: pero descubri\u00f3 que los derechos ya no estaban disponibles. Juan Jos\u00e9 Saer relata una versi\u00f3n de la historia en su <em>J. Salas Subirat:<\/em>\u00a0\u00abUna tarde de 1967, el autor de este art\u00edculo asisti\u00f3 a la escena siguiente: Borges, que hab\u00eda viajado a Santa Fe a hablar <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/665-james-joyce\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">sobre Joyce<\/a>, estaba charlando animadamente en un caf\u00e9 antes de la conferencia con un grupito de j\u00f3venes escritores que hab\u00edan venido a hacerle un reportaje, cuando de pronto se acord\u00f3 de que en los a\u00f1os cuarenta lo hab\u00edan invitado a integrar una comisi\u00f3n que se propon\u00eda traducir colectivamente <em>Ulises.<\/em> Borges dijo que la comisi\u00f3n se reun\u00eda una vez por semana para discutir los preliminares de la gigantesca tarea que los mejores anglicistas de Buenos Aires se hab\u00edan propuesto realizar, pero que un d\u00eda, cuando ya hab\u00eda pasado casi un a\u00f1o de discusiones semanales, uno de los miembros de la comisi\u00f3n lleg\u00f3 blandiendo un enorme libro y gritando: \\\"\u00a1Acaba de aparecer una traducci\u00f3n de <em>Ulises!\\\".<\/em> Borges, ri\u00e9ndose de buena gana de la historia, y aunque nunca la hab\u00eda le\u00eddo (como probablemente tampoco el original), concluy\u00f3 diciendo: \\\"Y la traducci\u00f3n era muy 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Cr\u00e9dito: D. 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de una obra como el <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/257053-ebook-ulises\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Ulises<\/em><\/a><\/span> se trata, la traducci\u00f3n forma parte de la historia de la literatura y la lengua de un pa\u00eds, tanto como su literatura en lengua original. En la literatura argentina del siglo pasado la huella del Ulises puede rastrearse en las lecturas y traducciones parciales de Borges, quien lleg\u00f3 a ufanarse en un temprano art\u00edculo de 1925, titulado <em>El Ulises de Joyce:<\/em>\u00a0\u00abSoy el primer aventurero hisp\u00e1nico que ha arribado al libro de Joyce\u00bb, y traducir\u00eda, para la misma \u00e9poca, las p\u00e1ginas finales del mon\u00f3logo de Molly Bloom; en la rabia de Arlt que despotricaba, en su pr\u00f3logo a <em>Los lanzallamas<\/em> (1931), que no pod\u00eda leerlo por no estar todav\u00eda traducido; en el <em>Ulises porte\u00f1o,<\/em> el <em>Ad\u00e1n Buenosayres<\/em> de Marechal; en marcas diversas sobre los textos de Manuel Puig, Rodolfo Walsh, <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ricardo-piglia-ernest-hemingway-en-nuestro-tiempo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ricardo Piglia<\/a>, Luis Gusm\u00e1n, etc. La literatura argentina siempre fue buena lectora del Ulises, as\u00ed como la brasile\u00f1a, sobre todo a partir de las traducciones y reescrituras de los hermanos Haroldo y Augusto de Campos, lo ha sido del <em>Finnegans Wake,<\/em> que entre nosotros poca huella ha dejado, aunque la reciente traducci\u00f3n de Marcelo Zabaloy (2016) puede contribuir a modificar el panorama. Esta primera traducci\u00f3n de <em>Ulises<\/em> es entonces parte de nuestra historia literaria, como se\u00f1alar\u00edan entre otros Juan Jos\u00e9 Saer: \u00abEl <em>Ulises<\/em> de J. Salas Subirat aparec\u00eda todo el tiempo en las conversaciones, y sus inagotables hallazgos verbales se intercalaban en ellas sin necesidad de ser aclaradas. Muchos escritores de la generaci\u00f3n del 50 o del 60 aprendieron varios de sus recursos y de sus t\u00e9cnicas narrativas en esa traducci\u00f3n. La raz\u00f3n es muy simple: el r\u00edo turbulento de la prosa<em> joyceana,<\/em> al ser traducido al castellano por un hombre de Buenos Aires, arrastraba consigo la materia viviente del habla que ning\u00fan otro autor -aparte quiz\u00e1 de Roberto Arlt- hab\u00eda sido capaz de utilizar con tanta inventiva, exactitud y libertad. La lecci\u00f3n de ese trabajo es clar\u00edsima: la lengua de todos los d\u00edas era la fuente de energ\u00eda que fecundaba la m\u00e1s universal de las 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Cubierta del Ulises publicado por Editorial Rueda, la primera edici\u00f3n en espa\u00f1ol. 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la importancia hist\u00f3rica que una obra pudo haber tenido en el pasado no la convierte, necesariamente, en la mejor opci\u00f3n del presente. \u00bfC\u00f3mo ha envejecido el <em>Ulises<\/em> de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/994-ebook-el-traductor-del-ulises-9789500756341\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Subirat<\/a><\/span>? Muy bien, en lo que al lenguaje se refiere: sigue siendo un deleite su lectura. No tan bien, si lo que buscamos es la m\u00e1xima cercan\u00eda al texto original de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/665-james-joyce\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Joyce<\/a><\/span>. No exist\u00edan en aquel momento herramientas fundamentales para el desentra\u00f1amiento de las m\u00faltiples citas y alusiones literarias, referencias a la historia de Irlanda y a la vida personal de Joyce, como lo son<em> Allusions in Ulysses<\/em> de Thornton Weldon o <em>Ulysses Annotated<\/em> de Gifford y Seidman; y si bien ya se hab\u00eda publicado el primer estudio sobre la novela, <em>James Joyce\u2019s Ulysses<\/em> de Stuart Gilbert (1930), seg\u00fan Petersen, Salas parece no haber consultado otra bibliograf\u00eda que la biograf\u00eda de Herbert Gorman (y de esta s\u00f3lo el primer cap\u00edtulo). Esto resulta en una por momentos apabullante profusi\u00f3n de errores de comprensi\u00f3n, a veces inevitables (en <em>El \u00faltimo lector,<\/em> Ricardo Piglia inmortaliz\u00f3 el tr\u00e1nsito de \u00abPotato I have\u00bb (\u00abTengo la papa\u00bb) a \u00abSoy un zanahoria\u00bb en el cap\u00edtulo 4), otros son fruto del mero descuido (en el 5, la Martha Clifford de Subirat escribe a Bloom \u00ab\u00bfCu\u00e1ndo nos volveremos a ver?\u00bb en lugar de \u00ab\u00bfCu\u00e1ndo nos conoceremos?\u00bb dado una idea totalmente equivocada de su relaci\u00f3n, clandestina pero meramente epistolar). Hasta la llegada de las versiones de Zabaloy y Costa Picazo, el lector argentino se encontraba ante un dif\u00edcil dilema: elegir la versi\u00f3n local, grata al o\u00eddo y al coraz\u00f3n, pero poco confiable, u optar por las espa\u00f1olas, que inclu\u00edan menos errores pero tambi\u00e9n menos aciertos, y que suenan irremediablemente ajenas. Por otra parte, si en una versi\u00f3n como la de Garc\u00eda Tortosa y Venegas no hay errores de comprensi\u00f3n propiamente dichos, s\u00ed hay elecciones bastante discutibles: por dar s\u00f3lo un ejemplo, en el cap\u00edtulo 3 traducen la frecuente e inocua palabra \u00abevening\u00bb (atardecer) por \u00ablubric\u00e1n\u00bb, que si bien significa, correctamente, <em>atardecer<\/em> u <em>ocaso<\/em> (as\u00ed al menos lo afirma el diccionario) al despavorido lector puede sonarle m\u00e1s bien a marca de gel \u00edntimo.<\/p><p>Es tambi\u00e9n un lugar com\u00fan, al menos en Latinoam\u00e9rica, hablar de la notoria fealdad de la mayor\u00eda de las traducciones hechas en Espa\u00f1a, especialmente cuando el argot asoma. Para los traductores espa\u00f1oles eso que arrojan sobre la p\u00e1gina no es su dialecto, es la lengua, as\u00ed sin m\u00e1s -dialecto es lo que hablan los otros, nosotros. (Ocho siglos de historia, una serie de conquistas imperiales y el inquisitorial Diccionario de la Real Academia respaldan ese permanente h\u00e1bito de descortes\u00eda). Espa\u00f1a no sabe de hermandad, sino de maternidad; el traductor latinoamericano en cambio es consciente de estar traduciendo para una comunidad de hablantes heterog\u00e9nea, y es m\u00e1s cauto a la hora de endilgarle sus formas locales a los lectores extranjeros. Todo esto por supuesto no se aplica a la literatura en lengua original, donde cada regi\u00f3n ling\u00fc\u00edstica tiene el derecho (algunos dir\u00edan, el deber) de prodigar las formas locales, pero en la traducci\u00f3n es un signo de descortes\u00eda que va de la mano con una pol\u00edtica de mercado que impone los textos propios e ignora los ajenos. La delusi\u00f3n imperial, inevitablemente, resulta en una lengua provinciana. Garc\u00eda Tortosa y Venegas insisten con el argot propio m\u00e1s a\u00fan que su predecesor y compatriota Valverde, y aun lo justifican, no sin inocencia, en el pr\u00f3logo: \u00abla informalidad del lenguaje y las expresiones deslenguadas de los clientes han de ser las de un grupo de amigotes espa\u00f1oles en id\u00e9nticas circunstancias\u00bb. \u00ab\u00bfY por qu\u00e9 no?\u00bb, dir\u00e1 el lector de esta nota. \u00abSi los argentinos, mejicanos o ecuatorianos quieren su Ulises, nadie les impide traducirlo\u00bb. Quiz\u00e1s a esta altura haga falta aclarar que el<em> Ulises<\/em> original est\u00e1 escrito, no en una lengua o dialecto, sino en la tensi\u00f3n entre una variante desprestigiada, el ingl\u00e9s de Irlanda, y otra dominante, el ingl\u00e9s brit\u00e1nico imperial, relaci\u00f3n que puede compararse, aunque no homologarse, a la que existe entre el espa\u00f1ol de Espa\u00f1a y el de los dem\u00e1s pa\u00edses de habla hispana. Una traducci\u00f3n espa\u00f1ola, entonces, necesariamente invertir\u00e1 esta tensi\u00f3n, o, como sucede en las dos versiones existentes, la ignorar\u00e1. En teor\u00eda, una traducci\u00f3n latinoamericana del <em>Ulises<\/em> deber\u00e1 ser m\u00e1s fiel al original que una espa\u00f1ola. Lo cual puede comprobarse en la versi\u00f3n de Salas Subirat, que reproduce en todas sus imperfecciones el tironeo del original: se pasa de formas dialectales argentinas, o latinoamericanas, a formas reconociblemente peninsulares: vacilante, pol\u00edglota, revuelta: esa es la fricci\u00f3n que enciende el ingl\u00e9s del <em>Ulises,<\/em> y que hace que el espa\u00f1ol del primer <em>Ulises<\/em> criollo posea algo de la misma 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tambi\u00e9n pens\u00e9 que se trataba de una broma cuando el profesor Rolando Costa Picazo, ante quien hab\u00eda rendido mi final de Literatura inglesa en la UBA, (eligiendo como tema el <em>Ulises,<\/em> qu\u00e9 duda cabe -me puso un 7, creo que fue en ese momento que decid\u00ed dedicar buena parte de mi vida a la obra de Joyce) me llam\u00f3 por tel\u00e9fono una tarde cualquiera (era la primera vez que lo hac\u00eda) para comentarme, as\u00ed como quien no quiere la cosa, que acababa de completar su traducci\u00f3n de <em>Ulises.<\/em> No pocos tironeos me cost\u00f3 sonsacarle que lo hab\u00eda hecho para satisfacci\u00f3n personal (igual que Zabaloy, podr\u00eda sorprenderse uno, pero claro, \u00bfa qu\u00e9 persona en su sano juicio se le ocurrir\u00eda traducir <em>Ulises<\/em> por la remuneraci\u00f3n?), y que no ten\u00eda por el momento editor en vista. Encontr\u00e1rselo no me cost\u00f3 demasiado: mi primer intento despert\u00f3 el inter\u00e9s de Fernando Fagnani, editor de mis novelas en Edhasa argentina, que terminar\u00eda publicando esta quinta y por ahora \u00faltima versi\u00f3n. La principal novedad que agrega la traducci\u00f3n de Costa Picazo es su profuso aparato cr\u00edtico (6379 notas, para ser m\u00e1s precisos, lo cual no deber\u00eda sorprendernos trat\u00e1ndose del autor de la Edici\u00f3n cr\u00edtica de la Obra completa de Borges). Y al igual que en la versi\u00f3n de su inmediato predecesor, un conocimiento minucioso de la obra, el contexto y las referencias literarias de Joyce, y su obstinado rigor -aunque la tarea debe haber sido agotadora: en alg\u00fan momento de nuestra conversaci\u00f3n se le escap\u00f3 el calificativo<em> evil<\/em> (malvada) para referirse a esta endiabladamente intrincada edificaci\u00f3n de Joyce.<\/p><p>\u00bfQu\u00e9 nos deparar\u00e1 el futuro? Una opci\u00f3n, que para editores muy aventurados propongo aqu\u00ed, ser\u00eda volver al proyecto original de Borges, el de un <em>Ulises<\/em> colectivo, pero radicaliz\u00e1ndolo. En<em> Ulises<\/em> cada cap\u00edtulo es tan distinto de los otros que parece pertenecer no s\u00f3lo a otro libro sino tambi\u00e9n a un nuevo autor, y cuando se dice de un escritor que ha sido influido por el <em>Ulises,<\/em> se est\u00e1 diciendo en realidad que ha sido afectado por alguno de sus cap\u00edtulos. \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 no encarar entonces un <em>meta-Ulises<\/em> donde cada cap\u00edtulo sea traducido por el autor cuyos efectos mejor asimil\u00f3? Como la propuesta es por ahora ut\u00f3pica, did\u00e1cticamente y a t\u00edtulo de ejemplo propongo un <em>dream-team<\/em> de vivos y muertos, con Juan Carlos Onetti para la amargura del cap\u00edtulo 1, Juli\u00e1n R\u00edos para el bab\u00e9lico 3, Borges para el ultraliterario 9, Rodolfo Walsh para la pol\u00edtica irlandesa del 12, Manuel Puig para el follet\u00edn del 13, Guillermo Cabrera Infante para los pastiches literarios del 14 (anticipado en la secci\u00f3n<em> La muerte de Trotsky<\/em> de su novela <em>Tres Tristes Tigres),<\/em> Ortega y Gasset para el rimbombante y engolado 16, Juan Jos\u00e9 Saer para el objetivismo del 17... Esta promiscua e incestuosa mezcla, esta Ca\u00edn y Babel de textos hermanados nos dar\u00eda, seguramente, la versi\u00f3n m\u00e1s apartada del texto original, y probablemente la m\u00e1s cercana al sue\u00f1o de su primer autor.<\/p><p><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ricardo-piglia-ernest-hemingway-en-nuestro-tiempo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ricardo Piglia y Hemingway: el \u00faltimo (re)lector<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ES\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/teresa-arijon-la-mujer-pintada-matilde-sanchez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Teresa Arij\u00f3n: el pudor de la nudista<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/los-documentos-de-aspern-henry-james\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abLos documentos de Aspern\u00bb: de c\u00f3mo Henry James predijo la cultura de la 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8 minutos

1960. Marilyn Monroe lee Ulises durante una pausa en el rodaje de Vidas rebeldes. Crédito: D. R.

En sus primeros cien años de vida, que acaban de cumplirse el pasado 2 de febrero de 2022, Ulises ha acumulado cinco traducciones al español, dos de ellas realizadas en España (J.M. Valverde, 1976, corregida en 1989, y Francisco García Tortosa y María Luisa Venegas, 2001) y tres en Argentina. Si además de la mera superioridad numérica tomamos en cuenta que la realizada por el argentino J. Salas Subirat en 1945 fue la primera, podría decirse que vamos ganando por goleada, aunque quién sabe qué nuevas incursiones preparan nuestros hermanos peninsulares en el «país enmarañado y montaraz» (como lo caracterizara Borges) de la novela de Joyce. Las traducciones de su obra han proliferado exponencialmente desde 2012, cuando ésta entró en dominio público, permitiendo la publicación de las versiones de Marcelo Zabaloy (Cuenco de Plata, 2015) y Rolando Costa Picazo (Edhasa, 2017), que no hubieran sido posibles cuando la superioridad material del mercado español le otorgaba el derecho de pernada del mundo editorial. 

La idea de traducir la gran novela de Joyce surgió muy tempranamente en Argentina: la primera en intentarlo fue, como cabría esperar, Victoria Ocampo, que quería encomendarle la tarea, como cabría esperar, a Borges: pero descubrió que los derechos ya no estaban disponibles. Juan José Saer relata una versión de la historia en su J. Salas Subirat: «Una tarde de 1967, el autor de este artículo asistió a la escena siguiente: Borges, que había viajado a Santa Fe a hablar sobre Joyce, estaba charlando animadamente en un café antes de la conferencia con un grupito de jóvenes escritores que habían venido a hacerle un reportaje, cuando de pronto se acordó de que en los años cuarenta lo habían invitado a integrar una comisión que se proponía traducir colectivamente Ulises. Borges dijo que la comisión se reunía una vez por semana para discutir los preliminares de la gigantesca tarea que los mejores anglicistas de Buenos Aires se habían propuesto realizar, pero que un día, cuando ya había pasado casi un año de discusiones semanales, uno de los miembros de la comisión llegó blandiendo un enorme libro y gritando: "¡Acaba de aparecer una traducción de Ulises!". Borges, riéndose de buena gana de la historia, y aunque nunca la había leído (como probablemente tampoco el original), concluyó diciendo: "Y la traducción era muy mala"».

Más allá del juicio de Borges, del cual enfáticamente discrepo (al igual que Saer, como veremos) la ironía de la situación –y una de las probables razones de la mortificación de Borges– se agudiza cuando nos enteramos que el primer traductor de una de las novelas más complejas de la literatura, considerada intraducible por muchos, no era una luminaria de las letras ni un dechado de erudición académica sino un improbable vendedor de seguros y autor de libros de autoayuda, que terminó su educación primaria a los veintitrés años y tenía un manejo bastante precario del inglés. «Los bobos se precipitan allí donde los ángeles no se atreven a caminar», podría pensar, ante semejantes credenciales, el lector, y así sería durante mucho tiempo, hasta que la publicación, en 2016, de la biografía de Salas Subirat, El traductor del Ulises (Sudamericana) de Lucas Petersen, nos permitió asomarnos a una realidad mucho más rica y compleja. Más que la biografía de un individuo excéntrico, la apasionada investigación de Petersen lo coloca en el contexto de una época, la del grupo de Boedo, al cual Salas Subirat estaba ligado, la de editoriales populares y accesibles como Claridad, Tor o la propia Rueda, la de la primera generación de argentinos, hijos de inmigrantes, habitantes de ignotos suburbios que debían abrirse paso a la cultura a los ponchazos, la de los padres, abuelos o bisabuelos de muchos de nosotros: una producción y circulación de la cultura tan intensa y productiva como la del grupo Florida o el grupo Sur, pero relegada a la insignificancia o al segundo plano por la mitología que éstos estaban en mejores condiciones de construir (y haberles arrebatado la novela que representaba sus mayores aspiraciones no fue una hazaña menor).

Cubierta de la primera edición de Ulises (1922). Crédito: D. R.

Cuando de una obra como el Ulises se trata, la traducción forma parte de la historia de la literatura y la lengua de un país, tanto como su literatura en lengua original. En la literatura argentina del siglo pasado la huella del Ulises puede rastrearse en las lecturas y traducciones parciales de Borges, quien llegó a ufanarse en un temprano artículo de 1925, titulado El Ulises de Joyce: «Soy el primer aventurero hispánico que ha arribado al libro de Joyce», y traduciría, para la misma época, las páginas finales del monólogo de Molly Bloom; en la rabia de Arlt que despotricaba, en su prólogo a Los lanzallamas (1931), que no podía leerlo por no estar todavía traducido; en el Ulises porteño, el Adán Buenosayres de Marechal; en marcas diversas sobre los textos de Manuel Puig, Rodolfo Walsh, Ricardo Piglia, Luis Gusmán, etc. La literatura argentina siempre fue buena lectora del Ulises, así como la brasileña, sobre todo a partir de las traducciones y reescrituras de los hermanos Haroldo y Augusto de Campos, lo ha sido del Finnegans Wake, que entre nosotros poca huella ha dejado, aunque la reciente traducción de Marcelo Zabaloy (2016) puede contribuir a modificar el panorama. Esta primera traducción de Ulises es entonces parte de nuestra historia literaria, como señalarían entre otros Juan José Saer: «El Ulises de J. Salas Subirat aparecía todo el tiempo en las conversaciones, y sus inagotables hallazgos verbales se intercalaban en ellas sin necesidad de ser aclaradas. Muchos escritores de la generación del 50 o del 60 aprendieron varios de sus recursos y de sus técnicas narrativas en esa traducción. La razón es muy simple: el río turbulento de la prosa joyceana, al ser traducido al castellano por un hombre de Buenos Aires, arrastraba consigo la materia viviente del habla que ningún otro autor -aparte quizá de Roberto Arlt- había sido capaz de utilizar con tanta inventiva, exactitud y libertad. La lección de ese trabajo es clarísima: la lengua de todos los días era la fuente de energía que fecundaba la más universal de las literaturas».

Cubierta del Ulises publicado por Editorial Rueda, la primera edición en español. Crédito: todocolección.net

Pero la importancia histórica que una obra pudo haber tenido en el pasado no la convierte, necesariamente, en la mejor opción del presente. ¿Cómo ha envejecido el Ulises de Subirat? Muy bien, en lo que al lenguaje se refiere: sigue siendo un deleite su lectura. No tan bien, si lo que buscamos es la máxima cercanía al texto original de Joyce. No existían en aquel momento herramientas fundamentales para el desentrañamiento de las múltiples citas y alusiones literarias, referencias a la historia de Irlanda y a la vida personal de Joyce, como lo son Allusions in Ulysses de Thornton Weldon o Ulysses Annotated de Gifford y Seidman; y si bien ya se había publicado el primer estudio sobre la novela, James Joyce’s Ulysses de Stuart Gilbert (1930), según Petersen, Salas parece no haber consultado otra bibliografía que la biografía de Herbert Gorman (y de esta sólo el primer capítulo). Esto resulta en una por momentos apabullante profusión de errores de comprensión, a veces inevitables (en El último lector, Ricardo Piglia inmortalizó el tránsito de «Potato I have» («Tengo la papa») a «Soy un zanahoria» en el capítulo 4), otros son fruto del mero descuido (en el 5, la Martha Clifford de Subirat escribe a Bloom «¿Cuándo nos volveremos a ver?» en lugar de «¿Cuándo nos conoceremos?» dado una idea totalmente equivocada de su relación, clandestina pero meramente epistolar). Hasta la llegada de las versiones de Zabaloy y Costa Picazo, el lector argentino se encontraba ante un difícil dilema: elegir la versión local, grata al oído y al corazón, pero poco confiable, u optar por las españolas, que incluían menos errores pero también menos aciertos, y que suenan irremediablemente ajenas. Por otra parte, si en una versión como la de García Tortosa y Venegas no hay errores de comprensión propiamente dichos, sí hay elecciones bastante discutibles: por dar sólo un ejemplo, en el capítulo 3 traducen la frecuente e inocua palabra «evening» (atardecer) por «lubricán», que si bien significa, correctamente, atardecer u ocaso (así al menos lo afirma el diccionario) al despavorido lector puede sonarle más bien a marca de gel íntimo.

Es también un lugar común, al menos en Latinoamérica, hablar de la notoria fealdad de la mayoría de las traducciones hechas en España, especialmente cuando el argot asoma. Para los traductores españoles eso que arrojan sobre la página no es su dialecto, es la lengua, así sin más -dialecto es lo que hablan los otros, nosotros. (Ocho siglos de historia, una serie de conquistas imperiales y el inquisitorial Diccionario de la Real Academia respaldan ese permanente hábito de descortesía). España no sabe de hermandad, sino de maternidad; el traductor latinoamericano en cambio es consciente de estar traduciendo para una comunidad de hablantes heterogénea, y es más cauto a la hora de endilgarle sus formas locales a los lectores extranjeros. Todo esto por supuesto no se aplica a la literatura en lengua original, donde cada región lingüística tiene el derecho (algunos dirían, el deber) de prodigar las formas locales, pero en la traducción es un signo de descortesía que va de la mano con una política de mercado que impone los textos propios e ignora los ajenos. La delusión imperial, inevitablemente, resulta en una lengua provinciana. García Tortosa y Venegas insisten con el argot propio más aún que su predecesor y compatriota Valverde, y aun lo justifican, no sin inocencia, en el prólogo: «la informalidad del lenguaje y las expresiones deslenguadas de los clientes han de ser las de un grupo de amigotes españoles en idénticas circunstancias». «¿Y por qué no?», dirá el lector de esta nota. «Si los argentinos, mejicanos o ecuatorianos quieren su Ulises, nadie les impide traducirlo». Quizás a esta altura haga falta aclarar que el Ulises original está escrito, no en una lengua o dialecto, sino en la tensión entre una variante desprestigiada, el inglés de Irlanda, y otra dominante, el inglés británico imperial, relación que puede compararse, aunque no homologarse, a la que existe entre el español de España y el de los demás países de habla hispana. Una traducción española, entonces, necesariamente invertirá esta tensión, o, como sucede en las dos versiones existentes, la ignorará. En teoría, una traducción latinoamericana del Ulises deberá ser más fiel al original que una española. Lo cual puede comprobarse en la versión de Salas Subirat, que reproduce en todas sus imperfecciones el tironeo del original: se pasa de formas dialectales argentinas, o latinoamericanas, a formas reconociblemente peninsulares: vacilante, políglota, revuelta: esa es la fricción que enciende el inglés del Ulises, y que hace que el español del primer Ulises criollo posea algo de la misma vitalidad.

Salas Subirat en su escritorio de La Continental, en tiempos en que traducía Ulises. Crédito: D. R.

Vitalidad que recrean, pero corrigiendo los inevitables errores del iniciador, las traducciones de Marcelo Zabaloy y Rolando Costa Picazo. Con Zabaloy parece repetirse, con ligeras variaciones, la historia de Subirat: ajeno al mundo literario, sin formación académica, especialista en instalaciones eléctricas y entrenador de rugby, encara la traducción de Ulises como proyecto puramente personal, y recién una vez completada se pone a buscar editoriales; muchas de ellas no le contestaban sus mensajes simplemente porque pensaban que se trataba de una broma. Y en ambos casos, el de Subirat y el de Zabaloy, surgen traducciones admirables, que fluyen en lo musical al mismo tiempo que valientemente se entreveran productivamente en lo semántico y lo referencial, como también lo hace el original. Zabaloy contó, además, con lo que nunca tuvo Subirat: un editor riguroso y tozudo como Edgardo Russo, que revisó, discutió y confirmó cada palabra con él; y una posterior revisión a cargo de un formidable equipo que incluyó al editor Pablo Hernández y los especialistas Eugenio Conchez, Teresa Arijón y Anne Gastchet. La edición de El cuenco de plata incluye una acotada y atinada serie de notas explicativas y un listado de personajes, que el inevitablemente sufrido (aunque feliz) lector de Ulises no dejará de agradecer. 

El ejemplar de Ulysses que utilizó para la traducción. En él se superponen las marcas en lápiz, de la primera versión, con las hechas en tinta, correspondientes a la revisión de 1952. Crédito: D. R.

Yo también pensé que se trataba de una broma cuando el profesor Rolando Costa Picazo, ante quien había rendido mi final de Literatura inglesa en la UBA, (eligiendo como tema el Ulises, qué duda cabe -me puso un 7, creo que fue en ese momento que decidí dedicar buena parte de mi vida a la obra de Joyce) me llamó por teléfono una tarde cualquiera (era la primera vez que lo hacía) para comentarme, así como quien no quiere la cosa, que acababa de completar su traducción de Ulises. No pocos tironeos me costó sonsacarle que lo había hecho para satisfacción personal (igual que Zabaloy, podría sorprenderse uno, pero claro, ¿a qué persona en su sano juicio se le ocurriría traducir Ulises por la remuneración?), y que no tenía por el momento editor en vista. Encontrárselo no me costó demasiado: mi primer intento despertó el interés de Fernando Fagnani, editor de mis novelas en Edhasa argentina, que terminaría publicando esta quinta y por ahora última versión. La principal novedad que agrega la traducción de Costa Picazo es su profuso aparato crítico (6379 notas, para ser más precisos, lo cual no debería sorprendernos tratándose del autor de la Edición crítica de la Obra completa de Borges). Y al igual que en la versión de su inmediato predecesor, un conocimiento minucioso de la obra, el contexto y las referencias literarias de Joyce, y su obstinado rigor -aunque la tarea debe haber sido agotadora: en algún momento de nuestra conversación se le escapó el calificativo evil (malvada) para referirse a esta endiabladamente intrincada edificación de Joyce.

¿Qué nos deparará el futuro? Una opción, que para editores muy aventurados propongo aquí, sería volver al proyecto original de Borges, el de un Ulises colectivo, pero radicalizándolo. En Ulises cada capítulo es tan distinto de los otros que parece pertenecer no sólo a otro libro sino también a un nuevo autor, y cuando se dice de un escritor que ha sido influido por el Ulises, se está diciendo en realidad que ha sido afectado por alguno de sus capítulos. ¿Por qué no encarar entonces un meta-Ulises donde cada capítulo sea traducido por el autor cuyos efectos mejor asimiló? Como la propuesta es por ahora utópica, didácticamente y a título de ejemplo propongo un dream-team de vivos y muertos, con Juan Carlos Onetti para la amargura del capítulo 1, Julián Ríos para el babélico 3, Borges para el ultraliterario 9, Rodolfo Walsh para la política irlandesa del 12, Manuel Puig para el folletín del 13, Guillermo Cabrera Infante para los pastiches literarios del 14 (anticipado en la sección La muerte de Trotsky de su novela Tres Tristes Tigres), Ortega y Gasset para el rimbombante y engolado 16, Juan José Saer para el objetivismo del 17... Esta promiscua e incestuosa mezcla, esta Caín y Babel de textos hermanados nos daría, seguramente, la versión más apartada del texto original, y probablemente la más cercana al sueño de su primer autor.




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