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La entrega de los Oscar por Raymond Chandler: «Adiós, muñeco...»

La relación de Raymond Chandler con Hollywood fue tan conflictiva como épica. Y a finales de 1946, poco antes de que dejar Hollywood y mudarse a La Jolla, la expuso como nunca en un artículo sobre la entrega del premio Oscar que pretendía titular «Adoración tribal en Hollywood» («Juju Worship in Hollywood»). Ese año se habían estrenado las películas «La dalia azul» y «El sueño eterno», ambas escritas por él. Y aún trabajaría en el guion de «Playback» el año siguiente, aunque nunca se llegó a filmar, y en el de «Extraños en un tren» en 1950, proyecto que terminó abandonando. Su diatriba contra la vacuidad del estrellato y la autocelebración se publicó finalmente en marzo de 1948 en «The Atlantic Monthly» como «La noche de los Oscar», texto incluido en el volumen «A mis mejores amigos no los he visto nunca. Cartas y ensayos selectos» (edición de DeBolsillo, primera ocasión en que vio la luz íntegro en castellano) y lectura ideal en vísperas de la 94 edición de la ceremonia de entrega de la estatuilla dorada.

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En 1948 expuso como nunca su diatriba contra la vacuidad del estrellato y la autocelebraci\u00f3n en su ensayo \u00abLa noche de los Oscar\u00bb.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA Raymond Chandler La noche de los Oscar A mis mejores amigos no los he visto nunca Hollywood","short_content":"<p>La relaci\u00f3n de Raymond Chandler con Hollywood fue tan conflictiva como \u00e9pica. Y a finales de 1946, poco antes de que dejar Hollywood y mudarse a La Jolla, la expuso como nunca en un art\u00edculo sobre la entrega del premio Oscar que pretend\u00eda titular \u00abAdoraci\u00f3n tribal en Hollywood\u00bb (\u00abJuju Worship in Hollywood\u00bb). Ese a\u00f1o se hab\u00edan estrenado las pel\u00edculas \u00abLa dalia azul\u00bb y \u00abEl sue\u00f1o eterno\u00bb, ambas escritas por \u00e9l. Y a\u00fan trabajar\u00eda en el guion de \u00abPlayback\u00bb el a\u00f1o siguiente, aunque nunca se lleg\u00f3 a filmar, y en el de \u00abExtra\u00f1os en un tren\u00bb en 1950, proyecto que termin\u00f3 abandonando. Su diatriba contra la vacuidad del estrellato y la autocelebraci\u00f3n se public\u00f3 finalmente en marzo de 1948 en \u00abThe Atlantic Monthly\u00bb como \u00abLa noche de los Oscar\u00bb, texto incluido en el volumen \u00abA mis mejores amigos no los he visto nunca. Cartas y ensayos selectos\u00bb (edici\u00f3n de DeBolsillo, primera ocasi\u00f3n en que vio la luz \u00edntegro en castellano) y lectura ideal en v\u00edsperas de la 94 edici\u00f3n de la ceremonia de entrega de la estatuilla dorada.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"hk5hddk\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Estaba demasiado nervioso para asistir a las ceremonias de la gran noche, de modo que las estaba escuchando por radio en su casa, dando zancadas desesperadas por la habitaci\u00f3n, mordi\u00e9ndose las u\u00f1as, respirando hondo, refunfu\u00f1ando y discutiendo consigo mismo en roncos susurros sobre si seguir escuchando hasta que se anunciaran los premios o apagar la maldita radio y leerlo en los peri\u00f3dicos a la ma\u00f1ana siguiente. Un poco harta de tanto temperamento art\u00edstico en el hogar, su mujer hizo de pronto uno de esos comentarios terribles que alcanzan una perversa inmortalidad en Hollywood: \u00abPor el amor de Dios, no te lo tomes tan en serio, cari\u00f1o. Al fin y al cabo, Luise Rainer lo gan\u00f3 dos veces\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Para los que no vieron la famosa escena del tel\u00e9fono en <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film975857.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">The Great Ziegfeld<\/span><\/em><\/a>\u00a0<em>(El gran Ziegfeld)<\/em> o cualquiera de las versiones posteriores que la se\u00f1orita Rainer interpret\u00f3 en otras pel\u00edculas, con y sin tel\u00e9fono, este comentario carecer\u00e1 de pegada. A otros les servir\u00e1 tan bien como cualquier otro para expresar esa desesperanza c\u00ednica con la que la gente de Hollywood contempla su m\u00e1ximo galard\u00f3n. No es tanto que los premios nunca vayan a parar a buenos trabajos, sino m\u00e1s bien que esos buenos trabajos no se premian como tales. Se los premia por su buen trabajo en las taquillas. No se puede ser genuinamente estadounidense en un equipo perdedor. T\u00e9cnicamente, se deciden por votaci\u00f3n, pero en realidad no se deciden utilizando la es casa sabidur\u00eda art\u00edstica y cr\u00edtica que Hollywood pueda poseer. Se anuncian a bombo y platillo, se ensalzan, se grita, se chilla y se mete tanta propaganda incesante en la conciencia de los votantes en las semanas previas a la votaci\u00f3n definitiva que se olvida todo excepto el aura dorada de la 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Academia del Cine, con considerables gastos y gran eficiencia, proyecta todas las pel\u00edculas nominadas en su propio cine, pasando cada pel\u00edcula dos veces, una por la tarde y otra por la noche. Se consideran nominadas todas las pel\u00edculas que incluyan cualquier tipo de trabajo candidato a un premio, no solo de actuaci\u00f3n, direcci\u00f3n o guion; puede ser una cuesti\u00f3n puramente t\u00e9cnica, como la decoraci\u00f3n o el sonido. Esas proyecciones tienen por objeto permitir que los votantes vean pel\u00edculas que se podr\u00edan haber perdido o que han olvidado en parte. Es un intento de hacer que se den cuenta de que las pel\u00edculas estrenadas al principio del a\u00f1o, y ya cubiertas por varias capas de celuloide rancio, todav\u00eda siguen en exhibici\u00f3n, y que no es justo tener en cuenta solo las estrenadas poco tiempo antes de que acabe el a\u00f1o.<\/p><p>En gran parte, el esfuerzo es un desperdicio. Las personas con voto no van a esas proyecciones. Env\u00edan a sus familiares, amigos o sirvientes. Ya est\u00e1n hartas de ver pel\u00edculas, y las voces del destino no son nada inaudibles en el aire de Hollywood. Tienen un sonido met\u00e1lico, pero son m\u00e1s que claras.<\/p><p>En cierto modo, todo esto es muy democr\u00e1tico. De manera muy parecida elegimos a los congresistas y los presidentes, as\u00ed que \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 no a los actores, los operadores, los guionistas y todas las dem\u00e1s personas que intervienen en la realizaci\u00f3n de pel\u00edculas? Si permitimos que el ruido, la alharaca y el teatro nos influyan en la elecci\u00f3n de las personas que van a dirigir el pa\u00eds, \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 habr\u00edamos de poner objeciones a los mismos m\u00e9todos en la selecci\u00f3n de los trabajos m\u00e1s meritorios en la industria del cine? Si podemos vender como buhoneros un presidente para meterlo en la Casa Blanca, \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 no vamos a poder vender como buhoneros a la angustia de la se\u00f1orita Joan Crawford o a la dura y hermosa se\u00f1orita Olivia de Havilland para que reciban una de esas estatuillas doradas que expresan el fren\u00e9tico deseo de la industria del cine de besarse a s\u00ed misma en la nuca? La \u00fanica respuesta que se me ocurre es que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el cine es un arte<\/a><\/span>. Lo digo con la boca peque\u00f1a. Es un argumento insignificante y le cuesta no parecer un poco rid\u00edculo. No obstante, es un hecho, que no queda disminuido en lo m\u00e1s m\u00ednimo por otros hechos, como que sus principios morales sean hasta ahora bastante bajos y que sus t\u00e9cnicas est\u00e9n dominadas por algunas personas bastante 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Hacer una buena pel\u00edcula es como pintar <em>El caballero risue\u00f1o<\/em> en el s\u00f3tano de Macy's, con un jefe de planta que te mezcle los colores. Pues claro que la mayor\u00eda de las pel\u00edculas son malas. \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 no iban a serlo? Aparte de sus problemas intr\u00ednsecos de costes excesivos, censura mojigata e hipercr\u00edtica y ausencia de una fuerza controladora decidida en la producci\u00f3n, la pel\u00edcula es mala porque el 90 por ciento de su material de origen es bazofia, y el 10 por ciento restante es un poco demasiado viril y directo para las mentes maleables de los cl\u00e9rigos, las viejas ingenuas de los clubes femeninos y los fr\u00e1giles guardianes de esa maldita mezcla de aburrimiento y malos modales conocida m\u00e1s elocuentemente como la Era Impresionable.<\/p><p>Lo que importa no es si hay pel\u00edculas malas, ni siquiera si la pel\u00edcula media es mala, sino si el cine es un medio art\u00edstico de suficiente dignidad y con suficientes logros para ser tratado con respeto por la gente que controla su destino. Los que menosprecian el cine suelen pensar que han dicho todo lo malo que se puede decir al declarar que es una forma de entretenimiento de masas. Como si eso significara algo. El teatro griego, que la mayor\u00eda de los intelectuales siguen considerando bastante respetable, era entretenimiento de masas para los ciudadanos de Atenas. Y tambi\u00e9n lo era, dentro de sus l\u00edmites econ\u00f3micos y topogr\u00e1ficos, el teatro isabelino. Las grandes catedrales de Europa, aunque no se construyeron exactamente para pasar la tarde, ten\u00edan desde luego un efecto est\u00e9tico y espiritual en el hombre corriente. Hoy en d\u00eda, aunque no siempre, las fugas y las corales de Bach, las sinfon\u00edas de Mozart, Borodin y Brahms, los conciertos para viol\u00edn de Vivaldi, las sonatas para piano de Scarlatti y gran cantidad de lo que antes era m\u00fasica para minor\u00edas son entretenimientos de masas gracias a la radio. No les gusta a todos los ignorantes, pero no a todos los ignorantes les gusta algo m\u00e1s literario que una tira c\u00f3mica. Ser\u00eda razonable decir que todo el arte, en alg\u00fan momento y de alg\u00fan modo, se convierte en entretenimiento de masas, y si no lo hace, muere y queda olvidado.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1esuk3x\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>No es tanto que los premios nunca vayan a parar a buenos trabajos, sino m\u00e1s bien que esos buenos trabajos no se premian como tales. 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No se puede ser genuinamente estadounidense en un equipo perdedor.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kwgf43d\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Hay que reconocer que el cine se enfrenta a una masa demasiado grande; tiene que gustar a demasiada gente y ofender a muy poca, y la segunda de esas restricciones es infinitamente m\u00e1s da\u00f1ina art\u00edsticamente que la primera. Adem\u00e1s, la gente que desprecia el cine como forma art\u00edstica casi nunca est\u00e1 dispuesta a considerar los mejores ejemplos. Insisten en juzgarlo por la pel\u00edcula que vieron ayer o la semana pasada; lo cual es a\u00fan m\u00e1s absurdo (en vista de la inmensa cantidad de producci\u00f3n) que juzgar\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la literatura<\/a><\/span> por los <em>best sellers<\/em> de la semana pasada, o el arte teatral por incluso el mejor de los \u00e9xitos actuales de Broadway. En una novela todav\u00eda puedes decir lo que quieras, y el teatro es libre casi hasta la obscenidad, pero el cine hecho en Hollywood, si quiere crear algo de arte, tiene que hacerlo con unas limitaciones de tema y tratamiento tan asfixiantes que es un puro milagro que alguna vez alcance algo de distinci\u00f3n m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de la mera pulcritud mec\u00e1nica de un cuarto de ba\u00f1o acristalado y niquelado. Desde luego, si fuera simplemente un trasplante del arte literario o dram\u00e1tico, no lo conseguir\u00eda. 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">13 de marzo de 1947. Olivia De Havilland (la primera desde la izquierda), mejor actriz por su actuaci\u00f3n en <em>La vida \u00edntima de Julia Norris,<\/em>\u00a0posa con Harold Russell (quien perdi\u00f3 las manos en la II Guerra Mundial), ganador del Oscar como mejor actor de reparto por su actuaci\u00f3n en <em>Los mejores a\u00f1os de nuestras vidas. <\/em>Junto a ellos,\u00a0Cathy O'Donnell, quien recogi\u00f3 el premio a mejor actor de Fredric March, ausente aquella noche, por <em>Los mejores a\u00f1os de nuestra vida,<\/em> y Anne Baxter, mejor actriz de reparto por su trabajo en <em>El filo de la navaja.<\/em>\u00a0Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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el cine no es arte literario o dram\u00e1tico trasplantado, y tampoco es un arte pl\u00e1stico. Tiene elementos de todos ellos, pero en su estructura fundamental est\u00e1 m\u00e1s cerca de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/musica\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la m\u00fasica<\/a><\/span>, en el sentido de que sus mejores efectos pueden ser independientes del significado exacto, de que sus transiciones pueden ser m\u00e1s elocuentes que sus escenas mejor iluminadas, y de que sus fundidos y movimientos de c\u00e1mara, que no se pueden censurar, suelen ejercer mucho m\u00e1s efecto emocional que sus argumentos, que s\u00ed se pueden censurar. El cine no solo es un arte, sino que es el \u00fanico arte completamente nuevo que ha evolucionado en este planeta en cientos de a\u00f1os. Es el \u00fanico arte en el que los de nuestra generaci\u00f3n tenemos alguna posibilidad de destacar, y mucho.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"2mzxill\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En cierto modo, todo esto es muy democr\u00e1tico. De manera muy parecida elegimos a los congresistas y los presidentes, as\u00ed que \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 no a los actores, los operadores, los guionistas y todas las dem\u00e1s personas que intervienen en la realizaci\u00f3n de pel\u00edculas?<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"09w2r21\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En pintura, m\u00fasica y arquitectura no somos ni siquiera de segunda fila en comparaci\u00f3n con las mejores obras del pasado. En escultura somos solo graciosos. En literatura en prosa no solo nos falta estilo, sino que carecemos de la formaci\u00f3n cultural e hist\u00f3rica necesaria para saber qu\u00e9 es el estilo.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Nuestra ficci\u00f3n<\/a><\/span> y nuestro teatro son profesionales, vac\u00edos, general mente intrigantes y tan mec\u00e1nicos que dentro de cincuenta a\u00f1os la mayor parte la producir\u00e1n m\u00e1quinas con hileras de teclas. No tenemos poes\u00eda popular de gran estilo, solo versos delicados o ingeniosos o amargos o esot\u00e9ricos. Nuestras no velas son propaganda moment\u00e1nea cuando son lo que se llama \u00abtrascendentes\u00bb y lectura para la cama cuando no lo son.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pero en el cine tenemos un medio art\u00edstico cuyas glorias no est\u00e1n todas en el pasado. Ya ha producido grandes obras, y aunque \u2014relativa y proporcionalmente\u2014 muy pocas de esas grandes obras se han producido en Hollywood, creo que eso es raz\u00f3n de m\u00e1s para que, en su baile tribal anual de las estrellas y los grandes productores, Hollywood procure transmitir una ligera y serena conciencia del hecho. Por supuesto, no lo har\u00e1. Estoy so\u00f1ando despierto.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"pk80js5\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/30875-libro-bogart-9788426419125\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" style=\\\"text-align: start;\\\"><span>Bogart<\/span><\/a><\/span><span style=\\\"text-align: start;\\\">\u00a0leyendo\u00a0<\/span><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/205603-ebook-el-sueno-eterno-philip-marlowe-1\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" style=\\\"text-align: start;\\\">El sue\u00f1o eterno<\/a><\/em><\/span><span style=\\\"text-align: start;\\\"><em>,<\/em> uno de los t\u00edtulos emblem\u00e1ticos de la obra de Chandler, que Howard Hawks llev\u00f3 al cine con el propio <em>Bogie<\/em> en el papel de Philip Marlowe, la encandilante Lauren Bacall y un arduo trabajo de adaptaci\u00f3n de\u00a0<\/span><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/module\/elastico\/elasticosearch?fc=module&module=elastico&controller=elasticosearch&s=faulkner\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" style=\\\"text-align: start;\\\"><span><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">William Faulkner<\/span>.<\/span><\/a><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"10\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"10\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ky37w51\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"tkcltzf\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>II<\/p><p>El mundo del espect\u00e1culo ha sido siempre excesivamente ruidoso, excesivamente vistoso, excesivamente impetuoso. Los actores son personas en peligro. Antes de que llegara el cine para hacerles ricos, sol\u00edan tener una necesidad de jolgorio desesperada. Algunas de esas cualidades, prolongadas m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de la estricta necesidad, se han transmitido a las costumbres de Hollywood y han producido esa cosa tan fatigosa, el estilo de vida de Hollywood, que es un caso cr\u00f3nico de falsa excitaci\u00f3n por absolutamente nada. No obstante, y por una vez en la vida, tengo que reconocer que la noche de los Premios de la Academia es un buen espect\u00e1culo, y muy divertido en algunos momentos, aunque me maravillar\u00eda que puedas re\u00edrte de todo.<\/p><p>Si puedes dejar atr\u00e1s todas esas caras de espantosa idiotez en las gradas de fuera del teatro sin tener la sensaci\u00f3n de que la inteligencia humana se ha hundido; si puedes soportar la granizada de flashes que estallan en la cara de los pobres y sufridos actores, que, como los reyes y las reinas, nunca tienen derecho a parecer aburridos; si puedes pasear la mirada por esa asamblea de lo que se supone que es la \u00e9lite de Hollywood y decirte sin que se te encoja el coraz\u00f3n \u00abEn estas manos est\u00e1 el destino del \u00fanico arte original que ha concebido el mundo moderno\u00bb; si te puedes re\u00edr, y probablemente te reir\u00e1s, con los chistes de los c\u00f3micos que act\u00faan, un material que hab\u00edan descartado porque no era lo bastante bueno para usarlo en sus programas de radio; si puedes aguantar el falso sentimentalismo y las simplezas de los presentadores y la elocuci\u00f3n remilgada de las reinas del<em> glamour<\/em> (hay que o\u00edrlas con cuatro martinis en el coleto); si puedes hacer todas esas cosas con elegancia y placer, y no sentir un horror violento y desamparado al pensar que la mayor\u00eda de esa gente se toma en serio esa vulgar ceremonia; y si despu\u00e9s puedes salir al aire de la noche y ver a la mitad del cuerpo de polic\u00eda de Los \u00c1ngeles reunido para proteger a la gente de oro de la chusma de los asientos gratuitos, pero no del espantoso sonido gimiente que emite, que es como el destino silbando a trav\u00e9s de una caracola hueca; si puedes hacer todas esas cosas y aun as\u00ed sentir a la ma\u00f1ana siguiente que la industria del cine merece la atenci\u00f3n de una sola mente inteligente y art\u00edstica, entonces perteneces verdaderamente al mundo del cine, porque ese tipo de vulgaridad forma parte de su precio inevitable.<\/p><p>Mirando el programa de los premios antes de que empiece la funci\u00f3n, uno puede llegar a olvidar que en realidad eso es un rodeo para actores, directores y grandes productores. Es para la gente que hace pel\u00edculas (creen ellos), no para la gente que trabaja en ellas. Pero esos pintorescos personajes en el fondo son gente amable; saben que hay un mont\u00f3n de personajillos menores con trabajos t\u00e9cnicos de poca importancia, como operadores, m\u00fasicos, montadores, guionistas, sonorizadores e inventores de nuevo equipo, a los que hay que dar algo para que se diviertan y hacer que se sientan un poco animados. Por eso antes la ceremonia se divid\u00eda en dos partes, con un intermedio. Pero la vez en que yo asist\u00ed, uno de los maestros de ceremonias (no recuerdo cu\u00e1l, hay un flujo constante de ellos, como pasajeros en un autob\u00fas) anunci\u00f3 que ese a\u00f1o no iba a haber intermedio y que proceder\u00edan inmediata mente a la parte importante del programa.<\/p><p>Permitan que lo repita: la parte importante del programa.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ersjmrh\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En una novela todav\u00eda puedes decir lo que quieras, y el teatro es libre casi hasta la obscenidad, pero el cine hecho en Hollywood, si quiere crear algo de arte, tiene que hacerlo con unas limitaciones de tema y tratamiento tan asfixiantes que es un puro milagro que alguna vez alcance algo de distinci\u00f3n m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de la mera pulcritud mec\u00e1nica de un cuarto de ba\u00f1o acristalado y niquelado.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wcvonee\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Como soy as\u00ed de perverso, me pregunt\u00e9 tambi\u00e9n por la parte no importante del programa. Descubr\u00ed que mis simpat\u00edas se inclinaban hacia los ingredientes menores de la producci\u00f3n de pel\u00edculas, algunos de los cuales he enumerado antes. Me llamaron la atenci\u00f3n la eficiencia y la rapidez con que entraban y sal\u00edan aquellos pececillos chicos de la industria del cine; sus nerviosos intentos a trav\u00e9s del micr\u00f3fono de atribuir casi todo el m\u00e9rito de su trabajo a alg\u00fan fantasm\u00f3n en un despacho con ventanales; el hecho de que no se considere que valga la pena explicar al p\u00fablico los adelantos t\u00e9cnicos que pueden significar muchos millones de d\u00f3lares para la industria, y que a veces pueden influir en todo el proceso de realizaci\u00f3n de pel\u00edculas; el tratamiento indiferente y desde\u00f1oso que se da al montaje y al trabajo de c\u00e1mara, dos de las artes fundamentales de la realizaci\u00f3n de pel\u00edculas, casi iguales \u2014y a veces iguales\u2014 a la direcci\u00f3n, y mucho m\u00e1s importantes que todas las actuaciones, excepto las mejores; pero tal vez lo que m\u00e1s me llam\u00f3 la atenci\u00f3n fue el homenaje oficial que se hace invariablemente a la importancia del guionista, sin el cual, querid\u00edsimos amigos, no se podr\u00eda hacer nada en absoluto, pero que a pesar de todo es solo el momento culminante de la parte no importante del programa.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ds323ba\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Mirando el programa de los premios antes de que empiece la funci\u00f3n, uno puede llegar a olvidar que en realidad eso es un rodeo para actores, directores y grandes productores. 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nunca\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"py3ygz1\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Un p\u00f3ster de la pel\u00edcula de George Marshall <i>La dalia azul<\/i>\u00a0(1946), protagonizada por Alan Ladd, Veronica Lake y William Bendix. 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Depende de lo que entiendas por la mejor. Ten\u00eda un director de primera, algunos actores buenos y el gag que m\u00e1s simpat\u00edas ha despertado en a\u00f1os. Probablemente ten\u00eda toda la distinci\u00f3n general de la que Hollywood es capaz en la actualidad. Pero solo un idiota se atrever\u00eda a decir que ten\u00eda la clase y el simple arte de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film625556.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Roma, Open City<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0<em>(Roma, ciudad abierta)<\/em> o el potente y magn\u00edfico impacto de\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film286700.html\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em>Henry V<\/em><\/span><\/a>\u00a0<em>(Enrique V).<\/em> En cierto sentido, no ten\u00eda nada de arte. Ten\u00eda esa clase de sentimentalismo que es casi humanidad, pero sin llegar a serlo, y esa clase de profesionalidad que es casi estilo, pero que no llega a serlo. Y eso lo ten\u00eda en grandes dosis, que siempre ayuda.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bj60kyf\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El efecto psicol\u00f3gico es muy grande en unas mentes condicionadas para pensar en el m\u00e9rito solo en t\u00e9rminos de taquilla y alharaca. Los miembros de la Academia viven en esa atm\u00f3sfera, y son gente enormemente sugestionable, dado que todos trabajan en Hollywood. Si est\u00e1n contratados por un estudio, se les hace sentir que votar por los productos de su casa es una cuesti\u00f3n de patriotismo de grupo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zka6wi7\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La junta directiva de la Academia se esfuerza mucho por proteger la honradez y el secreto de las votaciones. Se hace con papeletas an\u00f3nimas y numeradas, y las papeletas no se env\u00edan a una agencia de la industria del cine, sino a una conocida firma de auditor\u00edas p\u00fablicas. Los resultados, en sobres sellados, los lleva un emisario de la firma hasta el escenario del teatro donde se entregan los Premios, y all\u00ed, por primera vez, uno a uno, se dan a conocer. No se puede pedir m\u00e1s en cuesti\u00f3n de precauciones. Nadie podr\u00eda conocer antes de tiempo ninguno de esos resultados, ni siquiera en Hollywood, donde cualquier agente se entera de los secretos mejor guardados de los estudios sin dificultad aparente. 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-align: start;\\\">Chandler en un nada com\u00fan cameo en la pel\u00edcula\u00a0<\/span><em>Double Indemnity<\/em><span style=\\\"text-align: start;\\\">\u00a0(<\/span><em>Pacto de sangre<\/em><span style=\\\"text-align: start;\\\">\u00a0en Latinoam\u00e9rica \/\u00a0<\/span><em>Perdici\u00f3n<\/em><span style=\\\"text-align: start;\\\">\u00a0en Espa\u00f1a), t\u00edtulo esencial del film noir que el autor de\u00a0<\/span><em>Adi\u00f3s, mu\u00f1eca<\/em><span style=\\\"text-align: start;\\\">\u00a0escribi\u00f3 junto al director Billy Wilder sobre novela de James Cain. Pasa caminando por la izquierda del plano Fred McMurray. 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cuanto a la honradez m\u00e1s profunda, creo que ya va siendo hora de que la Academia de Artes y Ciencias Cinematogr\u00e1ficas aplique un poco declarando de manera inequ\u00edvoca que las pel\u00edculas extranjeras est\u00e1n fuera de concurso y seguir\u00e1n est\u00e1ndolo hasta que se enfrenten a la misma situaci\u00f3n econ\u00f3mica y a la misma censura asfixiante a las que se enfrenta Hollywood. Est\u00e1 muy bien decir lo listos y art\u00edsticos que son los franceses, c\u00f3mo retratan la vida, qu\u00e9 actores tan sutiles tienen, qu\u00e9 sentido tan honrado del mundo, qu\u00e9 claridad al tratar el lado sucio de la vida. Los franceses se pueden permitir esas cosas, nosotros no podemos. A los italianos les est\u00e1n permitidas, a nosotros se nos niegan. Hasta los ingleses tienen una libertad de la que nosotros carecemos. \u00bfCu\u00e1nto cost\u00f3\u00a0<em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film553666.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Brief Encounter<\/a><\/span> (Breve encuentro)?<\/em> En Hollywood habr\u00eda costado por lo menos un mill\u00f3n y medio; para recuperar ese dinero, m\u00e1s los costes de distribuci\u00f3n y contando con los costes negativos, habr\u00eda tenido que contener innumerables ingredientes de los que gustan a las masas, cuya ausencia es precisamente lo que la convierte en una buena pel\u00edcula.<\/p><p>Puesto que la Academia no es un tribunal internacional del arte cinematogr\u00e1fico, deber\u00eda dejar de fingir que lo es. Si las pel\u00edculas extranjeras no tienen absolutamente ninguna posibilidad de ganar un premio grande, no se deber\u00eda nominarlas. Al principio de la ceremonia de 1947 se le entreg\u00f3 un Oscar especial a Laurence Olivier por <em>Henry V,<\/em> aunque esta estaba entre las nominadas a mejor pel\u00edcula. No pod\u00eda haber una manera m\u00e1s evidente de decir que no iba a ganar. Tambi\u00e9n se concedieron un par de premios t\u00e9cnicos menores y un par de premios de poca monta a guiones de pel\u00edculas extranjeras, pero nada importante de verdad, solo morralla. 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escritor, me fastidia que los premios a los guiones figuren entre esas baratijas, y como miembro de la Academia del Cine me fastidia que esta intente situarse en una posici\u00f3n que, como demuestra su ceremonia anual ante el p\u00fablico, no tiene ning\u00fan derecho a 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supuesto, tampoco eso es lo que importa. El jefe de un gran estudio dijo una vez en privado que, en su sincera opini\u00f3n, el negocio del cine era un 25 por ciento de negocio honrado y el otro 75 por ciento era pura confabulaci\u00f3n. No dijo nada del arte, aunque es posible que hubiera o\u00eddo hablar de \u00e9l. Pero de eso se trata, \u00bfno? De si <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.oscars.org\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">esos premios anuales<\/a><\/span>, a pesar del grotesco ritual que los acompa\u00f1a, representan en alg\u00fan modo la importancia art\u00edstica del medio cinematogr\u00e1fico, algo claro y sincero que quede cuando se apagan las luces, se quita una el vis\u00f3n y se toma la aspirina. Yo creo que no. Creo que son solo teatro, y ni siquiera buen teatro. En cuanto al prestigio personal que acarrea el ganar un Oscar, puede que con suerte dure lo suficiente para que tu agente consiga que se reescriba tu contrato y se te suba el precio un punto m\u00e1s. Pero \u00bfdurar\u00e1 a\u00f1os en el coraz\u00f3n de la gente de buena voluntad? No lo creo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Hubo una vez una gran dama de Hollywood que decidi\u00f3 (o se vio obligada a) vender en subasta sus magn\u00edficos muebles, y toda su preciosa casa. El d\u00eda antes de mudarse guio a un grupo de amigos en un recorrido privado por la casa. Uno de ellos se fij\u00f3 en que la dama utilizaba sus dos Oscar de oro como sujetadores de puertas. Parec\u00eda que ten\u00edan el peso justo, y se hab\u00eda olvidado de que eran de oro.<\/p><p><br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/pierre-lemaitre-diccionario-apasionado-de-la-novela-negra?_gl=1*ot8a6d*_up*MQ..*_ga*MTkwMjM5OTM1Ni4xNjQ3ODUzODUw*_ga_NMYRVGRN30*MTY0Nzg1Mzg0OC4xLjAuMTY0Nzg1Mzg0OC4w\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Una muy breve historia de la novela negra<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/dennis-lehane-mystic-river\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Dennis Lehane: el negro coraz\u00f3n del \u00abnoir\u00bb que conquist\u00f3 Hollywood<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/fanfiction\\\" 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25 minutos
La entrega de los Oscar por Raymond Chandler: «Adiós, muñeco...»

Crédito: Max Rompo.

I

Hace cinco o seis años, un prestigioso guionista-director (si se me permite utilizar el epíteto en relación con un personaje de Hollywood) había coescrito un guion que fue nominado para un premio de la Academia. Estaba demasiado nervioso para asistir a las ceremonias de la gran noche, de modo que las estaba escuchando por radio en su casa, dando zancadas desesperadas por la habitación, mordiéndose las uñas, respirando hondo, refunfuñando y discutiendo consigo mismo en roncos susurros sobre si seguir escuchando hasta que se anunciaran los premios o apagar la maldita radio y leerlo en los periódicos a la mañana siguiente. Un poco harta de tanto temperamento artístico en el hogar, su mujer hizo de pronto uno de esos comentarios terribles que alcanzan una perversa inmortalidad en Hollywood: «Por el amor de Dios, no te lo tomes tan en serio, cariño. Al fin y al cabo, Luise Rainer lo ganó dos veces». 

Para los que no vieron la famosa escena del teléfono en The Great Ziegfeld (El gran Ziegfeld) o cualquiera de las versiones posteriores que la señorita Rainer interpretó en otras películas, con y sin teléfono, este comentario carecerá de pegada. A otros les servirá tan bien como cualquier otro para expresar esa desesperanza cínica con la que la gente de Hollywood contempla su máximo galardón. No es tanto que los premios nunca vayan a parar a buenos trabajos, sino más bien que esos buenos trabajos no se premian como tales. Se los premia por su buen trabajo en las taquillas. No se puede ser genuinamente estadounidense en un equipo perdedor. Técnicamente, se deciden por votación, pero en realidad no se deciden utilizando la es casa sabiduría artística y crítica que Hollywood pueda poseer. Se anuncian a bombo y platillo, se ensalzan, se grita, se chilla y se mete tanta propaganda incesante en la conciencia de los votantes en las semanas previas a la votación definitiva que se olvida todo excepto el aura dorada de la taquilla.

La Academia del Cine, con considerables gastos y gran eficiencia, proyecta todas las películas nominadas en su propio cine, pasando cada película dos veces, una por la tarde y otra por la noche. Se consideran nominadas todas las películas que incluyan cualquier tipo de trabajo candidato a un premio, no solo de actuación, dirección o guion; puede ser una cuestión puramente técnica, como la decoración o el sonido. Esas proyecciones tienen por objeto permitir que los votantes vean películas que se podrían haber perdido o que han olvidado en parte. Es un intento de hacer que se den cuenta de que las películas estrenadas al principio del año, y ya cubiertas por varias capas de celuloide rancio, todavía siguen en exhibición, y que no es justo tener en cuenta solo las estrenadas poco tiempo antes de que acabe el año.

En gran parte, el esfuerzo es un desperdicio. Las personas con voto no van a esas proyecciones. Envían a sus familiares, amigos o sirvientes. Ya están hartas de ver películas, y las voces del destino no son nada inaudibles en el aire de Hollywood. Tienen un sonido metálico, pero son más que claras.

En cierto modo, todo esto es muy democrático. De manera muy parecida elegimos a los congresistas y los presidentes, así que ¿por qué no a los actores, los operadores, los guionistas y todas las demás personas que intervienen en la realización de películas? Si permitimos que el ruido, la alharaca y el teatro nos influyan en la elección de las personas que van a dirigir el país, ¿por qué habríamos de poner objeciones a los mismos métodos en la selección de los trabajos más meritorios en la industria del cine? Si podemos vender como buhoneros un presidente para meterlo en la Casa Blanca, ¿por qué no vamos a poder vender como buhoneros a la angustia de la señorita Joan Crawford o a la dura y hermosa señorita Olivia de Havilland para que reciban una de esas estatuillas doradas que expresan el frenético deseo de la industria del cine de besarse a sí misma en la nuca? La única respuesta que se me ocurre es que el cine es un arte. Lo digo con la boca pequeña. Es un argumento insignificante y le cuesta no parecer un poco ridículo. No obstante, es un hecho, que no queda disminuido en lo más mínimo por otros hechos, como que sus principios morales sean hasta ahora bastante bajos y que sus técnicas estén dominadas por algunas personas bastante horribles.

Si piensas que la mayoría de las películas son malas —que lo son (incluidas las extranjeras)—, pregunta a cualquier en tendido cómo se hacen y te asombrará que algunas puedan ser buenas. Hacer una buena película es como pintar El caballero risueño en el sótano de Macy's, con un jefe de planta que te mezcle los colores. Pues claro que la mayoría de las películas son malas. ¿Por qué no iban a serlo? Aparte de sus problemas intrínsecos de costes excesivos, censura mojigata e hipercrítica y ausencia de una fuerza controladora decidida en la producción, la película es mala porque el 90 por ciento de su material de origen es bazofia, y el 10 por ciento restante es un poco demasiado viril y directo para las mentes maleables de los clérigos, las viejas ingenuas de los clubes femeninos y los frágiles guardianes de esa maldita mezcla de aburrimiento y malos modales conocida más elocuentemente como la Era Impresionable.

Lo que importa no es si hay películas malas, ni siquiera si la película media es mala, sino si el cine es un medio artístico de suficiente dignidad y con suficientes logros para ser tratado con respeto por la gente que controla su destino. Los que menosprecian el cine suelen pensar que han dicho todo lo malo que se puede decir al declarar que es una forma de entretenimiento de masas. Como si eso significara algo. El teatro griego, que la mayoría de los intelectuales siguen considerando bastante respetable, era entretenimiento de masas para los ciudadanos de Atenas. Y también lo era, dentro de sus límites económicos y topográficos, el teatro isabelino. Las grandes catedrales de Europa, aunque no se construyeron exactamente para pasar la tarde, tenían desde luego un efecto estético y espiritual en el hombre corriente. Hoy en día, aunque no siempre, las fugas y las corales de Bach, las sinfonías de Mozart, Borodin y Brahms, los conciertos para violín de Vivaldi, las sonatas para piano de Scarlatti y gran cantidad de lo que antes era música para minorías son entretenimientos de masas gracias a la radio. No les gusta a todos los ignorantes, pero no a todos los ignorantes les gusta algo más literario que una tira cómica. Sería razonable decir que todo el arte, en algún momento y de algún modo, se convierte en entretenimiento de masas, y si no lo hace, muere y queda olvidado.

No es tanto que los premios nunca vayan a parar a buenos trabajos, sino más bien que esos buenos trabajos no se premian como tales. Se los premia por su buen trabajo en las taquillas. No se puede ser genuinamente estadounidense en un equipo perdedor.

Hay que reconocer que el cine se enfrenta a una masa demasiado grande; tiene que gustar a demasiada gente y ofender a muy poca, y la segunda de esas restricciones es infinitamente más dañina artísticamente que la primera. Además, la gente que desprecia el cine como forma artística casi nunca está dispuesta a considerar los mejores ejemplos. Insisten en juzgarlo por la película que vieron ayer o la semana pasada; lo cual es aún más absurdo (en vista de la inmensa cantidad de producción) que juzgar la literatura por los best sellers de la semana pasada, o el arte teatral por incluso el mejor de los éxitos actuales de Broadway. En una novela todavía puedes decir lo que quieras, y el teatro es libre casi hasta la obscenidad, pero el cine hecho en Hollywood, si quiere crear algo de arte, tiene que hacerlo con unas limitaciones de tema y tratamiento tan asfixiantes que es un puro milagro que alguna vez alcance algo de distinción más allá de la mera pulcritud mecánica de un cuarto de baño acristalado y niquelado. Desde luego, si fuera simplemente un trasplante del arte literario o dramático, no lo conseguiría. Entre los embaucadores y los puritanos se encargarían de ello.

Revista LENGUA Raymond Chandler La noche de los Oscar A mis mejores amigos no los he visto nunca

13 de marzo de 1947. Olivia De Havilland (la primera desde la izquierda), mejor actriz por su actuación en La vida íntima de Julia Norris, posa con Harold Russell (quien perdió las manos en la II Guerra Mundial), ganador del Oscar como mejor actor de reparto por su actuación en Los mejores años de nuestras vidas. Junto a ellos, Cathy O'Donnell, quien recogió el premio a mejor actor de Fredric March, ausente aquella noche, por Los mejores años de nuestra vida, y Anne Baxter, mejor actriz de reparto por su trabajo en El filo de la navaja. Crédito: Getty Images.

Pero el cine no es arte literario o dramático trasplantado, y tampoco es un arte plástico. Tiene elementos de todos ellos, pero en su estructura fundamental está más cerca de la música, en el sentido de que sus mejores efectos pueden ser independientes del significado exacto, de que sus transiciones pueden ser más elocuentes que sus escenas mejor iluminadas, y de que sus fundidos y movimientos de cámara, que no se pueden censurar, suelen ejercer mucho más efecto emocional que sus argumentos, que sí se pueden censurar. El cine no solo es un arte, sino que es el único arte completamente nuevo que ha evolucionado en este planeta en cientos de años. Es el único arte en el que los de nuestra generación tenemos alguna posibilidad de destacar, y mucho.

En cierto modo, todo esto es muy democrático. De manera muy parecida elegimos a los congresistas y los presidentes, así que ¿por qué no a los actores, los operadores, los guionistas y todas las demás personas que intervienen en la realización de películas?

En pintura, música y arquitectura no somos ni siquiera de segunda fila en comparación con las mejores obras del pasado. En escultura somos solo graciosos. En literatura en prosa no solo nos falta estilo, sino que carecemos de la formación cultural e histórica necesaria para saber qué es el estilo. Nuestra ficción y nuestro teatro son profesionales, vacíos, general mente intrigantes y tan mecánicos que dentro de cincuenta años la mayor parte la producirán máquinas con hileras de teclas. No tenemos poesía popular de gran estilo, solo versos delicados o ingeniosos o amargos o esotéricos. Nuestras no velas son propaganda momentánea cuando son lo que se llama «trascendentes» y lectura para la cama cuando no lo son. 

Pero en el cine tenemos un medio artístico cuyas glorias no están todas en el pasado. Ya ha producido grandes obras, y aunque —relativa y proporcionalmente— muy pocas de esas grandes obras se han producido en Hollywood, creo que eso es razón de más para que, en su baile tribal anual de las estrellas y los grandes productores, Hollywood procure transmitir una ligera y serena conciencia del hecho. Por supuesto, no lo hará. Estoy soñando despierto.

Bogart leyendo El sueño eterno, uno de los títulos emblemáticos de la obra de Chandler, que Howard Hawks llevó al cine con el propio Bogie en el papel de Philip Marlowe, la encandilante Lauren Bacall y un arduo trabajo de adaptación de William Faulkner.

II

El mundo del espectáculo ha sido siempre excesivamente ruidoso, excesivamente vistoso, excesivamente impetuoso. Los actores son personas en peligro. Antes de que llegara el cine para hacerles ricos, solían tener una necesidad de jolgorio desesperada. Algunas de esas cualidades, prolongadas más allá de la estricta necesidad, se han transmitido a las costumbres de Hollywood y han producido esa cosa tan fatigosa, el estilo de vida de Hollywood, que es un caso crónico de falsa excitación por absolutamente nada. No obstante, y por una vez en la vida, tengo que reconocer que la noche de los Premios de la Academia es un buen espectáculo, y muy divertido en algunos momentos, aunque me maravillaría que puedas reírte de todo.

Si puedes dejar atrás todas esas caras de espantosa idiotez en las gradas de fuera del teatro sin tener la sensación de que la inteligencia humana se ha hundido; si puedes soportar la granizada de flashes que estallan en la cara de los pobres y sufridos actores, que, como los reyes y las reinas, nunca tienen derecho a parecer aburridos; si puedes pasear la mirada por esa asamblea de lo que se supone que es la élite de Hollywood y decirte sin que se te encoja el corazón «En estas manos está el destino del único arte original que ha concebido el mundo moderno»; si te puedes reír, y probablemente te reirás, con los chistes de los cómicos que actúan, un material que habían descartado porque no era lo bastante bueno para usarlo en sus programas de radio; si puedes aguantar el falso sentimentalismo y las simplezas de los presentadores y la elocución remilgada de las reinas del glamour (hay que oírlas con cuatro martinis en el coleto); si puedes hacer todas esas cosas con elegancia y placer, y no sentir un horror violento y desamparado al pensar que la mayoría de esa gente se toma en serio esa vulgar ceremonia; y si después puedes salir al aire de la noche y ver a la mitad del cuerpo de policía de Los Ángeles reunido para proteger a la gente de oro de la chusma de los asientos gratuitos, pero no del espantoso sonido gimiente que emite, que es como el destino silbando a través de una caracola hueca; si puedes hacer todas esas cosas y aun así sentir a la mañana siguiente que la industria del cine merece la atención de una sola mente inteligente y artística, entonces perteneces verdaderamente al mundo del cine, porque ese tipo de vulgaridad forma parte de su precio inevitable.

Mirando el programa de los premios antes de que empiece la función, uno puede llegar a olvidar que en realidad eso es un rodeo para actores, directores y grandes productores. Es para la gente que hace películas (creen ellos), no para la gente que trabaja en ellas. Pero esos pintorescos personajes en el fondo son gente amable; saben que hay un montón de personajillos menores con trabajos técnicos de poca importancia, como operadores, músicos, montadores, guionistas, sonorizadores e inventores de nuevo equipo, a los que hay que dar algo para que se diviertan y hacer que se sientan un poco animados. Por eso antes la ceremonia se dividía en dos partes, con un intermedio. Pero la vez en que yo asistí, uno de los maestros de ceremonias (no recuerdo cuál, hay un flujo constante de ellos, como pasajeros en un autobús) anunció que ese año no iba a haber intermedio y que procederían inmediata mente a la parte importante del programa.

Permitan que lo repita: la parte importante del programa.

En una novela todavía puedes decir lo que quieras, y el teatro es libre casi hasta la obscenidad, pero el cine hecho en Hollywood, si quiere crear algo de arte, tiene que hacerlo con unas limitaciones de tema y tratamiento tan asfixiantes que es un puro milagro que alguna vez alcance algo de distinción más allá de la mera pulcritud mecánica de un cuarto de baño acristalado y niquelado.

Como soy así de perverso, me pregunté también por la parte no importante del programa. Descubrí que mis simpatías se inclinaban hacia los ingredientes menores de la producción de películas, algunos de los cuales he enumerado antes. Me llamaron la atención la eficiencia y la rapidez con que entraban y salían aquellos pececillos chicos de la industria del cine; sus nerviosos intentos a través del micrófono de atribuir casi todo el mérito de su trabajo a algún fantasmón en un despacho con ventanales; el hecho de que no se considere que valga la pena explicar al público los adelantos técnicos que pueden significar muchos millones de dólares para la industria, y que a veces pueden influir en todo el proceso de realización de películas; el tratamiento indiferente y desdeñoso que se da al montaje y al trabajo de cámara, dos de las artes fundamentales de la realización de películas, casi iguales —y a veces iguales— a la dirección, y mucho más importantes que todas las actuaciones, excepto las mejores; pero tal vez lo que más me llamó la atención fue el homenaje oficial que se hace invariablemente a la importancia del guionista, sin el cual, queridísimos amigos, no se podría hacer nada en absoluto, pero que a pesar de todo es solo el momento culminante de la parte no importante del programa.

Mirando el programa de los premios antes de que empiece la función, uno puede llegar a olvidar que en realidad eso es un rodeo para actores, directores y grandes productores. Es para la gente que hace películas (creen ellos), no para la gente que trabaja en ellas.

III

También me llamaron la atención las votaciones. En un principio votaban todos los miembros de los diversos gremios, incluyendo los extras y los figurantes. Después, alguien se dio cuenta de que eso daba demasiado poder de voto a grupos sin ninguna importancia, de modo que la votación para los distintos tipos de premios se limitó a los gremios que se suponía que poseían algo de conocimiento crítico sobre el tema. Evidentemente, eso tampoco funcionó, y el siguiente cambio fue imponer que las nominaciones las hicieran los gremios especializados, pero que solo votaran los miembros de la Academia de Artes y Ciencias Cinematográficas. 

La verdad es que no parece que importe mucho cómo se hace la votación. La calidad de un trabajo se sigue reconociendo solo en el contexto del éxito. Con un trabajo soberbio en una película fracasada no conseguirás nada. Sobre ese telón de fondo de adoración del éxito se hace la votación, con la música de acompañamiento proporcionada por una cascada de anuncios en las revistas del oficio (que en Hollywood lee hasta la gente inteligente), diseñados para sacarte de la cabeza a la hora de votar todas las películas que no sean las anunciadas. El efecto psicológico es muy grande en unas mentes condicionadas para pensar en el mérito solo en términos de taquilla y alharaca. Los miembros de la Academia viven en esa atmósfera, y son gente enormemente sugestionable, dado que todos trabajan en Hollywood. Si están contratados por un estudio, se les hace sentir que votar por los productos de su casa es una cuestión de patriotismo de grupo. Se les aconseja extraoficialmente que no malgasten sus votos, que no apoyen algo que no puede ganar, y en particular algo realizado en otra casa.

Revista LENGUA Raymond Chandler La noche de los Oscar A mis mejores amigos no los he visto nunca

Un póster de la película de George Marshall La dalia azul (1946), protagonizada por Alan Ladd, Veronica Lake y William Bendix. Crédito: Getty Images.

No tengo, por ejemplo, ninguna convicción profunda de que The Best Years of Our Lives (Los mejores años de nuestra vida) fuera ni siquiera la mejor película de Hollywood de 1946. Depende de lo que entiendas por la mejor. Tenía un director de primera, algunos actores buenos y el gag que más simpatías ha despertado en años. Probablemente tenía toda la distinción general de la que Hollywood es capaz en la actualidad. Pero solo un idiota se atrevería a decir que tenía la clase y el simple arte de Roma, Open City (Roma, ciudad abierta) o el potente y magnífico impacto de Henry V (Enrique V). En cierto sentido, no tenía nada de arte. Tenía esa clase de sentimentalismo que es casi humanidad, pero sin llegar a serlo, y esa clase de profesionalidad que es casi estilo, pero que no llega a serlo. Y eso lo tenía en grandes dosis, que siempre ayuda.

El efecto psicológico es muy grande en unas mentes condicionadas para pensar en el mérito solo en términos de taquilla y alharaca. Los miembros de la Academia viven en esa atmósfera, y son gente enormemente sugestionable, dado que todos trabajan en Hollywood. Si están contratados por un estudio, se les hace sentir que votar por los productos de su casa es una cuestión de patriotismo de grupo.

La junta directiva de la Academia se esfuerza mucho por proteger la honradez y el secreto de las votaciones. Se hace con papeletas anónimas y numeradas, y las papeletas no se envían a una agencia de la industria del cine, sino a una conocida firma de auditorías públicas. Los resultados, en sobres sellados, los lleva un emisario de la firma hasta el escenario del teatro donde se entregan los Premios, y allí, por primera vez, uno a uno, se dan a conocer. No se puede pedir más en cuestión de precauciones. Nadie podría conocer antes de tiempo ninguno de esos resultados, ni siquiera en Hollywood, donde cualquier agente se entera de los secretos mejor guardados de los estudios sin dificultad aparente. Si existe algún secreto en Hollywood, que a veces lo dudo, esa votación tendría que ser uno de ellos.

Revista LENGUA Raymond Chandler La noche de los Oscar A mis mejores amigos no los he visto nunca

Chandler en un nada común cameo en la película Double Indemnity (Pacto de sangre en Latinoamérica / Perdición en España), título esencial del film noir que el autor de Adiós, muñeca escribió junto al director Billy Wilder sobre novela de James Cain. Pasa caminando por la izquierda del plano Fred McMurray. Crédito: Paramount Pictures.

IV

En cuanto a la honradez más profunda, creo que ya va siendo hora de que la Academia de Artes y Ciencias Cinematográficas aplique un poco declarando de manera inequívoca que las películas extranjeras están fuera de concurso y seguirán estándolo hasta que se enfrenten a la misma situación económica y a la misma censura asfixiante a las que se enfrenta Hollywood. Está muy bien decir lo listos y artísticos que son los franceses, cómo retratan la vida, qué actores tan sutiles tienen, qué sentido tan honrado del mundo, qué claridad al tratar el lado sucio de la vida. Los franceses se pueden permitir esas cosas, nosotros no podemos. A los italianos les están permitidas, a nosotros se nos niegan. Hasta los ingleses tienen una libertad de la que nosotros carecemos. ¿Cuánto costó Brief Encounter (Breve encuentro)? En Hollywood habría costado por lo menos un millón y medio; para recuperar ese dinero, más los costes de distribución y contando con los costes negativos, habría tenido que contener innumerables ingredientes de los que gustan a las masas, cuya ausencia es precisamente lo que la convierte en una buena película.

Puesto que la Academia no es un tribunal internacional del arte cinematográfico, debería dejar de fingir que lo es. Si las películas extranjeras no tienen absolutamente ninguna posibilidad de ganar un premio grande, no se debería nominarlas. Al principio de la ceremonia de 1947 se le entregó un Oscar especial a Laurence Olivier por Henry V, aunque esta estaba entre las nominadas a mejor película. No podía haber una manera más evidente de decir que no iba a ganar. También se concedieron un par de premios técnicos menores y un par de premios de poca monta a guiones de películas extranjeras, pero nada importante de verdad, solo morralla. Lo importante no es si esos premios eran merecidos, sino que eran premios menores y pretendían ser premios menores, y no había ni la menor posibilidad de que una película extranjera ganara un premio importante.

Revista LENGUA Raymond Chandler La noche de los Oscar A mis mejores amigos no los he visto nunca

1946. Lauren Bacall con su por entonces marido, Humphrey Bogart, en una imagen promocional de El sueño eterno, dirigida por Howard Hawks. Crédito: Getty Images.

A los de fuera podría parecerles que aquí había algo retorcido. Para los que conocen Hollywood, todo lo que pasó vino a confirmar lo que ya sabían, que los Oscar existen por y para Hollywood, que su propósito es mantener la supremacía de Hollywood, que sus criterios y sus problemas son los criterios y los problemas de Hollywood, y que su falsedad es la falsedad de Hollywood. Pero la Academia no puede mantener, sin parecer ridícula, una pose de internacionalismo a base de arrojar unas pocas baratijas a los extranjeros mientras ella se queda con todas las joyas del cajón de arriba. Como escritor, me fastidia que los premios a los guiones figuren entre esas baratijas, y como miembro de la Academia del Cine me fastidia que esta intente situarse en una posición que, como demuestra su ceremonia anual ante el público, no tiene ningún derecho a ocupar.

Que ese espectáculo tonto guste a los actores y las actrices, y no estoy nada seguro de que a los mejores les guste… al menos ellos saben parecer elegantes con una luz fuerte, y cómo apañarse con los discursitos con los ojos muy abiertos y, oh, tan humildes, como si se los creyeran. Que guste a los grandes productores, y estoy seguro de que sí porque contiene los únicos ingredientes que entienden de verdad —el valor promocional y los ingresos extras que van con él—, pues al menos los productores saben por lo que están luchando. Pero que guste a la gente tranquila, seria y ligeramente cínica que en realidad hace las películas, y estoy muy seguro de que no les gusta… bueno, al fin y al cabo, solo pasa una vez al año, y no es peor que gran parte del vodevil facilón que tienen que apartar a empujones para poder hacer su trabajo.

Como escritor, me fastidia que los premios a los guiones figuren entre esas baratijas, y como miembro de la Academia del Cine me fastidia que esta intente situarse en una posición que, como demuestra su ceremonia anual ante el público, no tiene ningún derecho a ocupar.

Por supuesto, tampoco eso es lo que importa. El jefe de un gran estudio dijo una vez en privado que, en su sincera opinión, el negocio del cine era un 25 por ciento de negocio honrado y el otro 75 por ciento era pura confabulación. No dijo nada del arte, aunque es posible que hubiera oído hablar de él. Pero de eso se trata, ¿no? De si esos premios anuales, a pesar del grotesco ritual que los acompaña, representan en algún modo la importancia artística del medio cinematográfico, algo claro y sincero que quede cuando se apagan las luces, se quita una el visón y se toma la aspirina. Yo creo que no. Creo que son solo teatro, y ni siquiera buen teatro. En cuanto al prestigio personal que acarrea el ganar un Oscar, puede que con suerte dure lo suficiente para que tu agente consiga que se reescriba tu contrato y se te suba el precio un punto más. Pero ¿durará años en el corazón de la gente de buena voluntad? No lo creo. 

Hubo una vez una gran dama de Hollywood que decidió (o se vio obligada a) vender en subasta sus magníficos muebles, y toda su preciosa casa. El día antes de mudarse guio a un grupo de amigos en un recorrido privado por la casa. Uno de ellos se fijó en que la dama utilizaba sus dos Oscar de oro como sujetadores de puertas. Parecía que tenían el peso justo, y se había olvidado de que eran de oro.





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