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Javier Cercas: paradojas de la pandemia

¿Hasta qué punto la vida personal puede ser ajena al desastre colectivo? ¿Por qué los seres humanos confiamos más en la tecnología que en la historia para hacer frente a las crisis? ¿Qué nos espera al otro lado de la catástrofe? Javier Cercas disecciona para LENGUA las contradicciones desatadas por el coronavirus y arriesga un futuro posible para la literatura posterior a la pandemia: es en la desgracia donde encuentra su impulso vital.
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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4633-javier-cercas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">JAVIER 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style=\\\"text-align: center;\\\"><strong>1<\/strong><\/p><p>La verdad: si la pandemia del coronavirus no hubiera sido una cat\u00e1strofe colectiva, habr\u00eda sido una bendici\u00f3n personal. Esta afirmaci\u00f3n no suena bien, lo que no me extra\u00f1a, porque es lo que ocurre a menudo con la verdad (de ah\u00ed que tanta gente prefiera las mentiras, las cuales, adem\u00e1s de ser menos complejas y m\u00e1s f\u00e1ciles de contar, suelen sonar mejor); pero no por eso deja de ser verdad.\u00a0<\/p><p>Que la pandemia es una cat\u00e1strofe colectiva es un hecho que no requiere mayor elucidaci\u00f3n: baste recordar que, mientras escribo estas l\u00edneas, se han contabilizado unos cinco millones de v\u00edctimas mortales del coronavirus; baste a\u00f1adir que, en la primavera de 2020, durante los peores momentos de la pandemia, la ratio de muertos diaria en mi pa\u00eds era superior a la de la Guerra Civil. En cuanto a la bendici\u00f3n personal, si bien se mira tambi\u00e9n es algo bastante evidente. Soy escritor; mi trabajo consiste, b\u00e1sicamente, en leer, escribir y pensar en las musara\u00f1as, tres de mis pasiones favoritas. Pero hoy los escritores viajamos demasiado, concedemos demasiadas entrevistas, nos exhibimos demasiado, y durante gran parte del tiempo que ha durado la pandemia he permanecido a la fuerza en mi casa, con mi mujer y mi hijo, dedicado \u00fanicamente a hacer lo que m\u00e1s me gusta, con la inmensa suerte a\u00f1adida de que ni yo ni ninguna persona de mi entorno inmediato ha padecido la enfermedad. He o\u00eddo decir a algunos colegas escritores que tal vez el encierro a cal y canto que todos hemos soportado ha sido menos duro para los miembros de nuestro gremio que para el com\u00fan de los mortales: al fin y al cabo, nosotros estamos m\u00e1s acostumbrados a llevar una vida clausurada; la observaci\u00f3n me parece exacta. Tambi\u00e9n he o\u00eddo decir a ciertos colegas que esta extra\u00f1a temporada de reclusi\u00f3n no les ha resultado muy fruct\u00edfera, porque, aunque la enfermedad no les hubiese golpeado a ellos y a los suyos, la conciencia del desastre que ten\u00eda lugar a su alrededor les imped\u00eda concentrarse en su trabajo. Debo decir que en mi caso no ha sido as\u00ed. Aunque no pod\u00eda no ser consciente de lo que ocurr\u00eda fuera de las paredes de mi casa y lo viv\u00eda con la misma angustiosa sensaci\u00f3n de irrealidad que todo el mundo, lo cierto es que no estaba en mi mano hacer nada para remediarlo \u2014no s\u00e9 una palabra de epidemiolog\u00eda, no soy m\u00e9dico ni enfermero, no pod\u00eda meterme en un hospital a echar una mano\u2014; al contrario: lo mejor que pod\u00eda hacer para contribuir al fin de la pesadilla era precisamente quedarme en mi casa, lo cual me provocaba una ins\u00f3lita buena conciencia y me permit\u00eda leer y escribir y pensar con una tranquilidad ins\u00f3lita. Por eso este per\u00edodo mort\u00edfero para la humanidad ha sido tan fecundo para m\u00ed (y, me imagino, para tantos otros escritores, o tantos artistas en general). He aqu\u00ed la paradoja personal de la pandemia.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"2bd3t93\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: center;\\\"><strong>2<\/strong><\/p><p>Hay quien piensa que lo que la humanidad ha vivido durante estos meses es una experiencia ins\u00f3lita, \u00fanica en la historia. Nada m\u00e1s falso. Es cierto que esta pandemia ha tenido caracter\u00edsticas espec\u00edficas, distintas de las de las pandemias precedentes, pero tambi\u00e9n es cierto que\u00a0 la historia de la humanidad es la historia de las pandemias: s\u00f3lo en el siglo XX se produjeron much\u00edsimas, desde la gripe espa\u00f1ola hasta el SIDA, y a menudo bastante m\u00e1s devastadoras que la del coronavirus; lo asombroso es que nos crey\u00e9ramos blindados frente a ellas por la ciencia y la tecnolog\u00eda. No s\u00e9 si atribuir semejante ingenuidad a la estupidez o a la ignorancia, o a una mezcla de ambas cosas; se trata, en todo caso, de otra de las paradojas de la pandemia, quiz\u00e1 una de las m\u00e1s notorias: deber\u00edamos haber estado mejor preparados que nunca para afrontar una calamidad como \u00e9sta, y sin embargo nos ha pillado tan por sorpresa como siempre, y tan mal preparados como de costumbre. Hegel escribi\u00f3 que lo \u00fanico que se aprende de la historia es que no se aprende nada de la historia; el diagn\u00f3stico es sombr\u00edo, pero no queda m\u00e1s remedio que darle la raz\u00f3n. Por eso, al principio de la pandemia mostr\u00e9 muchas veces mi escepticismo ante la extendida fantas\u00eda \u2014puro <em>wishful thinking\u2014<\/em>\u00a0de que los seres humanos saldr\u00edamos mejores de esta calamidad colectiva: m\u00e1s solidarios, m\u00e1s unidos, m\u00e1s conscientes de nuestra fragilidad y nuestras limitaciones.\u00a0<\/p><p>Bobadas. No niego por supuesto que podr\u00edamos aprender much\u00edsimas cosas de lo ocurrido: al fin y al cabo es mucho m\u00e1s f\u00e1cil aprender de las experiencias malas que de las buenas (podr\u00edamos haber aprendido, por ejemplo, que necesitamos sistemas de salud p\u00fablicos mucho m\u00e1s fuertes que los que tenemos, o que invertir en investigaci\u00f3n no es un capricho de intelectuales, sino una urgencia); lo que digo es que olvidamos con una rapidez vertiginosa, que no aprendemos del pasado \u2014y mucho menos del pasado colectivo\u2014 y que cometemos una y otra vez los mismos errores. Ahora que vamos saliendo de la pandemia me parece evidente que no erraba: ya estamos empezando a cometer otra vez las equivocaciones que hicieron que esta pandemia nos sorprendiera indefensos, o que la provocaron. 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style=\\\"text-align: center;\\\"><strong>3<\/strong><\/p><p>La pregunta del mill\u00f3n, o al menos la que m\u00e1s veces me han formulado en los \u00faltimos meses: ya que nosotros no saldremos mejores de la pandemia, \u00bfsaldr\u00e1 como m\u00ednimo algo bueno de ella? \u00bfCabe esperar que el coronavirus produzca gran literatura (o gran arte)? Mi respuesta favorita es la siguiente: directamente no, pero indirectamente qui\u00e9n sabe.\u00a0<\/p><p>Me explico.\u00a0<\/p><p>La Primera Guerra Mundial dej\u00f3 m\u00e1s de quince millones de muertos; la Segunda, en torno a cincuenta. Ambos conflictos han sido el tema de centenares, tal vez miles de novelas, poemas, pel\u00edculas o dramas; pero la pandemia de la gripe espa\u00f1ola, que mat\u00f3 a m\u00e1s gente que la Segunda Guerra Mundial, no ha dejado pr\u00e1cticamente nada: aqu\u00ed una vaga alusi\u00f3n en un verso de T. S. Eliot, all\u00e1 una referencia velada en una novela de Virginia Woolf o de Romain Rolland, m\u00e1s all\u00e1 una anotaci\u00f3n fugaz en un diario de Josep Pla, acaso el mayor prosista catal\u00e1n del siglo XX. \u00bfA qu\u00e9 se debe esta aparatosa disparidad? \u00bfQu\u00e9 explica que las guerras hayan sido un tema tan frecuentado por la literatura mientras que las pandemias lo sean tan poco? No lo s\u00e9. Lo que s\u00ed s\u00e9 es que la guerra, cuyo dramatismo y espectacularidad han atra\u00eddo irresistiblemente a los artistas, es el primer tema de la literatura, o uno de los primeros, y tal vez ser\u00e1 el \u00faltimo, mientras que las pandemias, donde la muerte es silenciosa, s\u00f3rdida y secreta \u2014el polo opuesto de la vistosidad sangrienta de las guerras\u2014, apenas tienen quien las escriba. Por eso dudo mucho que esta pandemia genere, directamente, grandes frutos literarios.<\/p><p>Indirectamente, en cambio, la cosa cambia. Quiero decir que, aunque la pandemia no sea un buen tema literario \u2014o no lo haya sido hist\u00f3ricamente\u2014, s\u00ed puede ser un carburante \u00f3ptimo. El mejor carburante de la literatura no es la felicidad, sino la desgracia; de ah\u00ed que yo abrigue la sospecha de que, en un mundo feliz, no existir\u00eda la literatura, al menos no existir\u00eda la novela \u2014la poes\u00eda tal vez: poca y muy mala\u2014. La literatura, la buena literatura, se nutre de las crisis, del dolor, de la suciedad y el espanto; en definitiva: de lo malo y no de lo bueno. Los escritores somos animales carro\u00f1eros; los mejores de nosotros cumplen de alg\u00fan modo el sue\u00f1o de los alquimistas, que aspiraban a transformar el hierro en oro: los mejores de nosotros transforman lo malo en bueno, el espanto y la suciedad en dolor y las crisis en belleza y sentido (por eso, entre otras razones, la literatura es \u00fatil; siempre y cuando no se proponga serlo, claro est\u00e1: en cuanto se propone ser \u00fatil se convierte en propaganda o pedagog\u00eda, y deja de ser literatura, al menos gran literatura, y deja de ser \u00fatil). <em>La metamorfosis<\/em>, de Franz Kafka, trata sobre un se\u00f1or que se levanta una ma\u00f1ana convertido en escarabajo, pero el carburante de ese relato inolvidable es el profundo desarraigo existencial de Kafka, su incapacidad profunda para relacionarse con su familia, consigo mismo y con el mundo. Del mismo modo, es poco probable que la pandemia del coronavirus sea el tema de grandes novelas o poemas, pero yo no descartar\u00eda que llegue a ser su carburante, la turbia energ\u00eda secreta de la que se alimentan.\u00a0<\/p><p>Tal vez eso fue lo que ocurri\u00f3 con la gripe espa\u00f1ola. \u00c9sta, acabo de recordarlo, apenas engendr\u00f3 directamente grandes obras, obras que trataran de manera abierta sobre ella, pero qui\u00e9n sabe si la creatividad inaudita que conocieron los a\u00f1os veinte del siglo pasado no guarda relaci\u00f3n con la mortandad universal que produjo aquel virus funesto: algunos de los libros capitales del siglo XX, o de cualquier \u00e9poca \u2014el <em>Ulysses<\/em> de James Joyce, <em>The waste land<\/em> de T. S. Eliot, <em>Le c\u00f4t\u00e9 de Guermantes<\/em> y <em>Sodome et Gomorre<\/em> de Marcel Proust\u2014, se publicaron en 1921 y 1922, reci\u00e9n concluida la pandemia, y la d\u00e9cada siguiente conoci\u00f3 un florecimiento deslumbrante de la novela, la poes\u00eda, la pintura y las artes en general. \u00bfOcurrir\u00e1 algo semejante ahora? \u00bfSer\u00e1n los a\u00f1os posteriores al coronavirus un per\u00edodo de explosi\u00f3n creativa, y este cataclismo universal se convertir\u00e1 en la fuente oculta de un tiempo nuevo en el arte? Si as\u00ed fuera, ser\u00eda quiz\u00e1 la \u00faltima paradoja de la pandemia; tambi\u00e9n, la m\u00e1s luminosa.\u00a0<\/p><p><\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/la-peste-vendra-la-muerte-y-tendra-tus-ojos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">La peste: vendr\u00e1 la muerte y tendr\u00e1 tus ojos<\/span><\/a><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/harari-sandel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Yuval Noah Harari y Michael J. Sandel: estos son los fantasmas que recorren nuestro mundo<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/el-estadio-vacio\/juan-villoro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Una tragedia griega: \u00bfd\u00f3nde est\u00e1 el coro?<\/a><\/span><\/li><\/ul><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"x8lznpq\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos

Crédito: Getty.

1

La verdad: si la pandemia del coronavirus no hubiera sido una catástrofe colectiva, habría sido una bendición personal. Esta afirmación no suena bien, lo que no me extraña, porque es lo que ocurre a menudo con la verdad (de ahí que tanta gente prefiera las mentiras, las cuales, además de ser menos complejas y más fáciles de contar, suelen sonar mejor); pero no por eso deja de ser verdad. 

Que la pandemia es una catástrofe colectiva es un hecho que no requiere mayor elucidación: baste recordar que, mientras escribo estas líneas, se han contabilizado unos cinco millones de víctimas mortales del coronavirus; baste añadir que, en la primavera de 2020, durante los peores momentos de la pandemia, la ratio de muertos diaria en mi país era superior a la de la Guerra Civil. En cuanto a la bendición personal, si bien se mira también es algo bastante evidente. Soy escritor; mi trabajo consiste, básicamente, en leer, escribir y pensar en las musarañas, tres de mis pasiones favoritas. Pero hoy los escritores viajamos demasiado, concedemos demasiadas entrevistas, nos exhibimos demasiado, y durante gran parte del tiempo que ha durado la pandemia he permanecido a la fuerza en mi casa, con mi mujer y mi hijo, dedicado únicamente a hacer lo que más me gusta, con la inmensa suerte añadida de que ni yo ni ninguna persona de mi entorno inmediato ha padecido la enfermedad. He oído decir a algunos colegas escritores que tal vez el encierro a cal y canto que todos hemos soportado ha sido menos duro para los miembros de nuestro gremio que para el común de los mortales: al fin y al cabo, nosotros estamos más acostumbrados a llevar una vida clausurada; la observación me parece exacta. También he oído decir a ciertos colegas que esta extraña temporada de reclusión no les ha resultado muy fructífera, porque, aunque la enfermedad no les hubiese golpeado a ellos y a los suyos, la conciencia del desastre que tenía lugar a su alrededor les impedía concentrarse en su trabajo. Debo decir que en mi caso no ha sido así. Aunque no podía no ser consciente de lo que ocurría fuera de las paredes de mi casa y lo vivía con la misma angustiosa sensación de irrealidad que todo el mundo, lo cierto es que no estaba en mi mano hacer nada para remediarlo —no sé una palabra de epidemiología, no soy médico ni enfermero, no podía meterme en un hospital a echar una mano—; al contrario: lo mejor que podía hacer para contribuir al fin de la pesadilla era precisamente quedarme en mi casa, lo cual me provocaba una insólita buena conciencia y me permitía leer y escribir y pensar con una tranquilidad insólita. Por eso este período mortífero para la humanidad ha sido tan fecundo para mí (y, me imagino, para tantos otros escritores, o tantos artistas en general). He aquí la paradoja personal de la pandemia.

2

Hay quien piensa que lo que la humanidad ha vivido durante estos meses es una experiencia insólita, única en la historia. Nada más falso. Es cierto que esta pandemia ha tenido características específicas, distintas de las de las pandemias precedentes, pero también es cierto que  la historia de la humanidad es la historia de las pandemias: sólo en el siglo XX se produjeron muchísimas, desde la gripe española hasta el SIDA, y a menudo bastante más devastadoras que la del coronavirus; lo asombroso es que nos creyéramos blindados frente a ellas por la ciencia y la tecnología. No sé si atribuir semejante ingenuidad a la estupidez o a la ignorancia, o a una mezcla de ambas cosas; se trata, en todo caso, de otra de las paradojas de la pandemia, quizá una de las más notorias: deberíamos haber estado mejor preparados que nunca para afrontar una calamidad como ésta, y sin embargo nos ha pillado tan por sorpresa como siempre, y tan mal preparados como de costumbre. Hegel escribió que lo único que se aprende de la historia es que no se aprende nada de la historia; el diagnóstico es sombrío, pero no queda más remedio que darle la razón. Por eso, al principio de la pandemia mostré muchas veces mi escepticismo ante la extendida fantasía —puro wishful thinking— de que los seres humanos saldríamos mejores de esta calamidad colectiva: más solidarios, más unidos, más conscientes de nuestra fragilidad y nuestras limitaciones. 

Bobadas. No niego por supuesto que podríamos aprender muchísimas cosas de lo ocurrido: al fin y al cabo es mucho más fácil aprender de las experiencias malas que de las buenas (podríamos haber aprendido, por ejemplo, que necesitamos sistemas de salud públicos mucho más fuertes que los que tenemos, o que invertir en investigación no es un capricho de intelectuales, sino una urgencia); lo que digo es que olvidamos con una rapidez vertiginosa, que no aprendemos del pasado —y mucho menos del pasado colectivo— y que cometemos una y otra vez los mismos errores. Ahora que vamos saliendo de la pandemia me parece evidente que no erraba: ya estamos empezando a cometer otra vez las equivocaciones que hicieron que esta pandemia nos sorprendiera indefensos, o que la provocaron. Los seres humanos no somos ni buenos ni malos: somos incorregibles.

3

La pregunta del millón, o al menos la que más veces me han formulado en los últimos meses: ya que nosotros no saldremos mejores de la pandemia, ¿saldrá como mínimo algo bueno de ella? ¿Cabe esperar que el coronavirus produzca gran literatura (o gran arte)? Mi respuesta favorita es la siguiente: directamente no, pero indirectamente quién sabe. 

Me explico. 

La Primera Guerra Mundial dejó más de quince millones de muertos; la Segunda, en torno a cincuenta. Ambos conflictos han sido el tema de centenares, tal vez miles de novelas, poemas, películas o dramas; pero la pandemia de la gripe española, que mató a más gente que la Segunda Guerra Mundial, no ha dejado prácticamente nada: aquí una vaga alusión en un verso de T. S. Eliot, allá una referencia velada en una novela de Virginia Woolf o de Romain Rolland, más allá una anotación fugaz en un diario de Josep Pla, acaso el mayor prosista catalán del siglo XX. ¿A qué se debe esta aparatosa disparidad? ¿Qué explica que las guerras hayan sido un tema tan frecuentado por la literatura mientras que las pandemias lo sean tan poco? No lo sé. Lo que sí sé es que la guerra, cuyo dramatismo y espectacularidad han atraído irresistiblemente a los artistas, es el primer tema de la literatura, o uno de los primeros, y tal vez será el último, mientras que las pandemias, donde la muerte es silenciosa, sórdida y secreta —el polo opuesto de la vistosidad sangrienta de las guerras—, apenas tienen quien las escriba. Por eso dudo mucho que esta pandemia genere, directamente, grandes frutos literarios.

Indirectamente, en cambio, la cosa cambia. Quiero decir que, aunque la pandemia no sea un buen tema literario —o no lo haya sido históricamente—, sí puede ser un carburante óptimo. El mejor carburante de la literatura no es la felicidad, sino la desgracia; de ahí que yo abrigue la sospecha de que, en un mundo feliz, no existiría la literatura, al menos no existiría la novela —la poesía tal vez: poca y muy mala—. La literatura, la buena literatura, se nutre de las crisis, del dolor, de la suciedad y el espanto; en definitiva: de lo malo y no de lo bueno. Los escritores somos animales carroñeros; los mejores de nosotros cumplen de algún modo el sueño de los alquimistas, que aspiraban a transformar el hierro en oro: los mejores de nosotros transforman lo malo en bueno, el espanto y la suciedad en dolor y las crisis en belleza y sentido (por eso, entre otras razones, la literatura es útil; siempre y cuando no se proponga serlo, claro está: en cuanto se propone ser útil se convierte en propaganda o pedagogía, y deja de ser literatura, al menos gran literatura, y deja de ser útil). La metamorfosis, de Franz Kafka, trata sobre un señor que se levanta una mañana convertido en escarabajo, pero el carburante de ese relato inolvidable es el profundo desarraigo existencial de Kafka, su incapacidad profunda para relacionarse con su familia, consigo mismo y con el mundo. Del mismo modo, es poco probable que la pandemia del coronavirus sea el tema de grandes novelas o poemas, pero yo no descartaría que llegue a ser su carburante, la turbia energía secreta de la que se alimentan. 

Tal vez eso fue lo que ocurrió con la gripe española. Ésta, acabo de recordarlo, apenas engendró directamente grandes obras, obras que trataran de manera abierta sobre ella, pero quién sabe si la creatividad inaudita que conocieron los años veinte del siglo pasado no guarda relación con la mortandad universal que produjo aquel virus funesto: algunos de los libros capitales del siglo XX, o de cualquier época —el Ulysses de James Joyce, The waste land de T. S. Eliot, Le côté de Guermantes y Sodome et Gomorre de Marcel Proust—, se publicaron en 1921 y 1922, recién concluida la pandemia, y la década siguiente conoció un florecimiento deslumbrante de la novela, la poesía, la pintura y las artes en general. ¿Ocurrirá algo semejante ahora? ¿Serán los años posteriores al coronavirus un período de explosión creativa, y este cataclismo universal se convertirá en la fuente oculta de un tiempo nuevo en el arte? Si así fuera, sería quizá la última paradoja de la pandemia; también, la más luminosa. 




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