Cine y series

«Macbeth» por Joel Coen: Juego de tronos en la Casa Blanca

Hacer de nuevo un clásico es una manera sutil y a la vez poderosa de decir algo sobre el presente. Ni hablar si ese clásico es Shakespeare y esa obra es «Macbeth». Orson Welles, Akira Kurosawa, Roman Polanski y Justin Kurzel han dejado ya versiones memorables que -sin dejar aquel despiadado juego de tronos en Escocia- hablaron del ascenso del fascismo, la Segunda Guerra, los convulsionados años 60 y la guerra en Irak. Ahora, la inesperada versión de uno de los hermanos Coen -Joel, en la primera película que dirige sin Ethan- llega para iluminar estos tiempos en que las huestes arengadas por Trump asaltan el Capitolio.

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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">\u00a0Denzel Washington y Frances McDormand como Macbeth y Lady Macbeth. Cr\u00e9dito: Apple 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La de esta pel\u00edcula no es roja y fluida como la tinta china, sino densa, espesa y pegajosa como el alquitr\u00e1n, e igual de oscura. Gotea pesadamente de los dedos de Marty, el marido de Abby, tras el disparo que parece haberlo matado, formando un achocolatado charco en el suelo que Ray, el amante de Abby, creyendo que ha sido ella, tratar\u00e1 de limpiar y s\u00f3lo lograr\u00e1 esparcir m\u00e1s y m\u00e1s, extendiendo la evidencia en lugar de elimin\u00e1ndola: dif\u00edcil, para el espectador literato, contemplar esta escena sin evocar la desesperaci\u00f3n de Lady Macbeth restreg\u00e1ndose con ferocidad las manos: \u00ab\u00a1Fuera, maldita mancha, fuera te digo!\u00bb. 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pel\u00edcula de los j\u00f3venes Coen, con la tambi\u00e9n joven y por entonces desconocida Frances McDormand de protagonista, modific\u00f3 mi visi\u00f3n de la tragedia de Shakespeare para siempre: as\u00ed, entend\u00ed al verla, deber\u00eda verse la sangre en <em>Macbeth.<\/em> Y tambi\u00e9n, por contraste, me llev\u00f3 a concebir de modo muy diferente su cualidad en otra tragedia sangrienta, <em>Julio C\u00e9sar,<\/em> diferencia que intento resumir as\u00ed: en <em>Julio C\u00e9sar<\/em> la sangre es roja, en <em>La tragedia de Macbeth<\/em>\u00a0es negra. Calpurnia sue\u00f1a que de la estatua de C\u00e9sar brota a chorros, como de una fuente, y Decio, uno de los conspiradores, interpreta el presagio como profec\u00eda sobre la ben\u00e9fica influencia pol\u00edtica de C\u00e9sar; tras su muerte, los conspiradores, urgidos por Bruto, lavan sus manos en ella para convertirla en bandera: \u00abSumerjamos todos nuestras manos \/ en la sangre de C\u00e9sar hasta el codo, \/ y manchemos con ella las espadas; vayamos luego hasta la plaza p\u00fablica \/ y enarbolando nuestras rojas armas \/ sobre nuestras cabezas, todos juntos, \/ gritemos: \\\"Paz, derechos, libertad\\\"\u00bb (traducci\u00f3n Idea Vilari\u00f1o). Conocemos bien esa sangre:\u00a0\u00abes la sangre de los pr\u00f3ceres, de los ca\u00eddos por la patria, la sangre derramada que no ser\u00e1 negociada, la sangre de nuestros muertos que nos lava los ojos\u00bb (una frase por la que sent\u00eda cierta debilidad la organizaci\u00f3n armada Montoneros, aunque no hiciera demasiado sentido desde el punto de vista oftalmol\u00f3gico). La sangre de C\u00e9sar es sangre simb\u00f3lica, sangre pol\u00edtica, sangre interpretable: es decir, mera met\u00e1fora.\u00a0<\/p><p>En <em>Macbeth,<\/em> en cambio, la sangre es sangre: echa humo en la espada de Macbeth, cuando combate por Duncan; se pega a sus manos cuando lo mata, llev\u00e1ndolo al hip\u00e9rbolico: \u00ab\u00bfPodr\u00e1 el inmenso oc\u00e9ano de Neptuno \/ lavar la sangre de mis manos? \/ No, m\u00e1s bien esta mano m\u00eda \/ enrojecer\u00e1 los inacabables mares \/ volviendo lo verde en rojo\u00bb, sentimiento que contrasta con el optimismo de su esposa, que en un principio afirma muy suelta de cuerpo: \u00abUn poquito de agua nos lava de culpa\u00bb y despu\u00e9s enloquecer\u00e1 tratando de despeg\u00e1rsela de las manos. Y adem\u00e1s huele: \u00abAqu\u00ed, todav\u00eda siento el olor de la sangre\u00bb. Esta fuerza material de la sangre es, tambi\u00e9n, la fuente de su poder m\u00e1gico: es esta sangre espesa la que piden beber espectros, brujas y demonios antes de otorgarnos, para sus propios fines, nuestros 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Puede tratarse de la b\u00fasqueda de un equilibrio: para la sangre de <em>Psicosis<\/em> (1960), Alfred Hitchcock utiliz\u00f3 salsa de chocolate para que se viera espesa, pero en plena era del Technicolor decidi\u00f3 filmar toda la pel\u00edcula en blanco y negro, s\u00f3lo para escaparle al rojo intolerable: la escena de la ducha est\u00e1 orientada a causar estupor y sorpresa, tal vez terror y luego piedad; pero no impresi\u00f3n y asco: recordemos que se trataba aun de la \u00e9poca en que los asesinados a balazos siempre lograban llevar la mano a la herida antes de que \u00e9sta resultara visible, todav\u00eda faltaban algunos a\u00f1os para los borbotones escarlatas de <em>Bonnie and Clyde<\/em> (1967) y <em>The Wild Bunch<\/em> (1969), por no hablar del cine Gore,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/la-novela-de-tarantino\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el de Tarantino<\/a><\/span> o el de los Hermanos Coen. Adem\u00e1s, cuando de cl\u00e1sicos tan copiosamente adaptados se trata, hay que saber marcar las diferencias: en las dos anteriores <em>Macbeth<\/em> cinematogr\u00e1ficas m\u00e1s renombradas, la de Roman Polanski (1971) y la de Justin Kurzel (2015), la sangre roja corre a raudales: la pantalla, podr\u00eda pensarse, ya estaba saturada, y rezumaba.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1v6481h\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En <em>Julio C\u00e9sar<\/em> la sangre es roja, en <em>La tragedia de Macbeth<\/em> es negra. 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Y es, adem\u00e1s, la primera versi\u00f3n <em>color-blind<\/em> entre las can\u00f3nicas: mezcla actrices y actores blancos (Lady Macbeth y Banquo, por ejemplo) y negros (Macbeth, Macduff y su familia), pero no se supone que esta diferencia sea significativa para la acci\u00f3n de la pel\u00edcula, sino fuera de \u00e9sta, en su entorno: es una pr\u00e1ctica antidiscriminatoria que el teatro ingl\u00e9s y de los EE.UU. han adoptado hace rato, y que se traslad\u00f3 al cine en <em>Mucho ruido y pocas nueces<\/em> (1993), tambi\u00e9n con Denzel Washington, y Hamlet (1996) de Kenneth Branagh.<\/p><p>De Polanski, Coen toma la posta en la promoci\u00f3n de Rosse, un personaje secundario que bien podr\u00eda pasar desapercibido en la lectura de la obra o en puestas indiferentes, pero en el cual una lectura m\u00e1s atenta, o mejor a\u00fan, una puesta m\u00e1s sensible, descubre a un sinuoso oportunista, que conocemos como fiel vasallo del rey Duncan, lo cual no le impide, tras su asesinato, concurrir a Scone a la coronaci\u00f3n de Macbeth; quien advertir\u00e1 a Lady Macduff del peligro que corre pero la abandona antes de la llegada de \u00e9ste, llev\u00e1ndole luego la noticia de su muerte y la de sus hijos a Macduff; que reaparece finalmente, como quien no quiere la cosa, en los ej\u00e9rcitos de Malcolm, primog\u00e9nito de Duncan y leg\u00edtimo heredero al trono.<\/p><p>Polanski convierte a este temprano ejemplo de la banalidad del mal en decidido villano: lejos de advertir a Lady Macduff del peligro, \u00e9l es el entregador, y abre la puerta a los asesinos; sobre el final, c\u00ednicamente toma la corona de la cabeza cortada de Macbeth y la coloca sobre las sienes del nuevo rey Malcolm. Doblando la apuesta, Coen convierte a su Rosse, interpretado por el perturbador Alex Hassell, en un personaje siniestro y omnipresente: ejecuta a Macdonwald el traidor, se une a los dos asesinos de Banquo, persigue y alcanza a su hijo Fleance, entrega a Lady Macduff y su castillo a los asesinos, y en la secuencia final recupera la corona ca\u00edda de la cabeza cortada de Macbeth y la coloca sobre las sienes de Malcolm. 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pregunta que no pude responderme, al menos en un principio, fue \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 otra versi\u00f3n de <em>Macbeth<\/em>, ahora? Adaptar un gran cl\u00e1sico implica, queramos o no, realizar un comentario, un diagn\u00f3stico, una intervenci\u00f3n sobre nuestra sociedad y nuestra \u00e9poca; para tomarle prestada a Harold Bloom la idea con que cierra su Shakespeare, la invenci\u00f3n de lo humano, los cl\u00e1sicos siempre nos leer\u00e1n a nosotros mejor de lo que nosotros podemos leerlos a ellos. Poco importa que la respuesta se d\u00e9 en t\u00e9rminos globales o personales, mientras haya una respuesta.<em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/grandes-clasicos\/25900-ebook-macbeth-edicion-bilingue-los-mejores-clasicos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Macbeth<\/a><\/span><\/em>\u00a0es una tragedia sobrenatural, sobre los terrores nocturnos, sobre las fuerzas oscuras que apenas pueden nombrarse; y es tambi\u00e9n, una tragedia pol\u00edtica. Resulta casi inevitable recurrir a ella cuando no alcanzan las explicaciones pr\u00e1cticas, econ\u00f3micas, sociales: cuando el mal es tan oscuro que deja de convertirse en medio para ser un fin en s\u00ed mismo, cuando parece capaz de envolverlo todo, y los malvados de la tierra dejan de ser origen y causa, y pasan a verse como instrumentos de algo que los usa y luego los descarta.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"3uzdb49\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Resulta casi inevitable recurrir a <em>Macbeth<\/em> cuando no alcanzan las explicaciones pr\u00e1cticas, econ\u00f3micas, sociales: cuando el mal es tan oscuro que deja de convertirse en medio para ser un fin en s\u00ed mismo, cuando parece capaz de envolverlo todo, y los malvados de la tierra dejan de ser origen y causa, y pasan a verse como instrumentos de algo que los usa y luego los descarta.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"t3kwdq4\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La versi\u00f3n teatral de 1936 de Orson Welles, la conocida como el <em>Macbeth vud\u00fa,<\/em> realizada con un elenco \u00edntegramente afroamericano y situada en la Hait\u00ed del siglo XIX, durante la desmesurada dictadura de Henri Christophe, fue concebida como un comentario sobre el ascenso del fascismo, reflexi\u00f3n que se contin\u00faa en el film de 1948, ahora sobre sus devastadoras secuelas; la de Akira Kurosawa <em>(Trono de sangre,<\/em> 1957), comparti\u00f3 esta ligaz\u00f3n, ahora desde el punto de vista de quienes perdieron la guerra: el director ten\u00eda planeado hacerla mucho antes, pero tras el estreno de la de Welles decidi\u00f3 postergarla. El film de Roman Polanski (1971), realizado poco despu\u00e9s de <em>El beb\u00e9 de Rosemary<\/em> (1968), estuvo motivado, como \u00e9l mismo admite, por el asesinato de su esposa embarazada, Sharon Tate, por miembros del sat\u00e1nico clan Manson; pero tambi\u00e9n se hizo cargo de una sangrienta d\u00e9cada en la cual fueron legi\u00f3n los Duncan asesinados: John F. Kennedy (1963), Malcolm X (1965), Martin Luther King y Robert Kennedy (1968).<\/p><p>El particular \u00e9nfasis de la versi\u00f3n de Kurzel est\u00e1 indicado a trav\u00e9s de un significativo cambio en el di\u00e1logo, en la escena inicial, de las tres brujas: \u00abWhere the place?\u00bb \u00abUpon the heath\u00bb \u00abThere to meet with Macbeth\u00bb (\u00ab\u00bfD\u00f3nde?\u00bb \u00abEn el p\u00e1ramo ser\u00e1\u00bb. \u00abY Macbeth ah\u00ed estar\u00e1\u00bb). En la pel\u00edcula, la r\u00e9plica de la segunda cambia a \u00abUpon the battlefield\u00bb (\u00abEn el campo de batalla\u00bb): y all\u00ed las veremos, contemplando la carnicer\u00eda imp\u00e1vidas. Shakespeare es el \u00fanico autor de la historia que goza de un raro privilegio: sus palabras pasan al cine inalteradas \u2013 ning\u00fan otro autor, ni siquiera Dios, que debe resignarse a ver Su palabra tergiversada en cuanta adaptaci\u00f3n del Antiguo o Nuevo Testamento se haga, goza de semejante privilegio: si un director o guionista se atreve a cambi\u00e1rselas, debe tener sus buenas razones para ello: Kurzel, entonces, muda el origen del mal del p\u00e1ramo o bosque, que postulan un origen del mal en la naturaleza, a la guerra, hecha por el hombre: esto, en una pel\u00edcula estrenada en 2015, no puede sino leerse como un comentario sobre las guerras contra Irak (1990 y 2003-2011) y Estado Isl\u00e1mico (desde 2014). Y bien puede seguir funcionando para las 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">\u00a0Alex Hassell es Ross en \u00abLa tragedia de Macbeth\u00bb. Cr\u00e9dito: Apple 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un principio, la oportunidad de la versi\u00f3n de Coen podr\u00eda entenderse, como la de Polanski, en t\u00e9rminos individuales: se rumorea que la hizo para complacer a su esposa, que quer\u00eda hacer de Lady Macbeth. Macbeth y Lady Macbeth forman una pareja muy unida; \u00abel m\u00e1s feliz matrimonio en todo Shakespeare\u00bb exagera Harold Bloom; yo prefiero pensar en ellos como en una pareja de larga data \u2013y as\u00ed los muestra Coen, la elecci\u00f3n de los sesentones Denzel Washington y McDormand no deja lugar a dudas- que funciona (y ciertamente no, como eligen verlos algunos, como un pelele manejado por una dominatrix: a partir del acto tercero \u00e9l sigue solito mientras ella se desmorona). Y que a partir del crimen se van aislando cada vez m\u00e1s, primero del resto del mundo, luego, tr\u00e1gicamente, uno del otro. En ese sentido, no deja de ser sugerente que \u00e9sta sea la primera pel\u00edcula, en casi cuarenta a\u00f1os, que Joel Coen realiza sin su hermano \u2013s\u00f3lo con su esposa-.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"59rg9ho\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La versi\u00f3n de Roman Polanski (1971), realizada poco despu\u00e9s de <em>El beb\u00e9 de Rosemary<\/em> (1968), estuvo motivada, como \u00e9l mismo admite, por el asesinato de su esposa embarazada, Sharon Tate, por miembros del sat\u00e1nico clan Manson; pero tambi\u00e9n se hizo cargo de una sangrienta d\u00e9cada en la cual fueron legi\u00f3n los Duncan asesinados: John F. Kennedy (1963), Malcolm X (1965), Martin Luther King y Robert Kennedy (1968).<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"3swz0ge\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Pero se me ocurri\u00f3 una idea m\u00e1s interesante cuando me top\u00e9 con una rese\u00f1a que al principio me result\u00f3 deleznable y tambi\u00e9n descartable, que imaginaba la versi\u00f3n <em>color-blind<\/em> como <em>woke<\/em> <em>(despierta<\/em> al peligro de los prejuicios y a la discriminaci\u00f3n, sobre todo raciales), sin privarse de se\u00f1alar que el director es jud\u00edo; lectura delirante que me hubiera hecho re\u00edr si no la hubiera le\u00eddo un par de d\u00edas despu\u00e9s de la masacre de Buffalo, perpetrada por un joven racista que invoc\u00f3 las teor\u00edas conspirativas del Great Replacement (Gran reemplazo) de los blancos (arios, y si se puede, WASPs) por las gentes de color, orquestada (qu\u00e9 duda cabe) por los jud\u00edos.<\/p><p>La trama se espesa cuando recordamos que una variante de la misma teor\u00eda era abrazada por Charles Manson y su familia: este carism\u00e1tico supremacista blanco imaginaba que tras una sangrienta guerra racial los negros tomar\u00edan el poder, pero siendo incapaces de gobernarse a s\u00ed mismos, y mucho menos a los dem\u00e1s, eventualmente buscar\u00edan la ayuda de Manson y su familia, que habr\u00edan sobrevivido a la hecatombe de su raza en el desierto, en refugios subterr\u00e1neos. Las peores pesadillas del presente siguen ados\u00e1ndose, lo quieran o no sus directores, a la pesadilla inicialmente so\u00f1ada por Shakespeare; por algo en el mundo anglosaj\u00f3n se la considera yeta y nunca se la menciona por el nombre (prefiri\u00e9ndose el circunloquio <em>La tragedia escocesa).\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p>Concebida y realizada durante los a\u00f1os del gobierno de Donald Trump, y estrenada en septiembre de 2021, pocos meses despu\u00e9s de la toma del Capitolio, el <em>Macbeth<\/em> de Joel Coen se deja leer sin mucho esfuerzo como un comentario sobre esa oscura era. Lo que todav\u00eda queda por ver es si, como profetizaron las brujas, reinar\u00e1 la progenie leg\u00edtima de Banquo, o lo har\u00e1n <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/memorias-hunter-biden-cosas-bonitas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Donald Trump y su putativa progenie<\/a><\/span>, como parecen profetizar las versiones de Polanski y Coen.<br \/><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/cervantes-shakespeare-quijote-cardenio\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cuando Shakespeare conoci\u00f3 al Quijote<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/la-novela-de-tarantino\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La novela de Tarantino: literatura bastarda con gloria<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/dennis-lehane-mystic-river\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Dennis Lehane: el negro coraz\u00f3n del \u00abnoir\u00bb que conquist\u00f3 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25 minutos

 Denzel Washington y Frances McDormand como Macbeth y Lady Macbeth. Crédito: Apple TV.

En cierto modo, era inevitable que Joel Coen terminara haciendo La tragedia de Macbeth. Su primera, inolvidable película, Simplemente sangre (Sangre fácil), de 1985, realizada, como todas antes de ésta, con su hermano Ethan, no tiene nada que ver con la tragedia de Shakespeare a nivel de la trama argumental, pero mucho en su trama poética, o al menos en uno de sus hilos: el de la sangre. La de esta película no es roja y fluida como la tinta china, sino densa, espesa y pegajosa como el alquitrán, e igual de oscura. Gotea pesadamente de los dedos de Marty, el marido de Abby, tras el disparo que parece haberlo matado, formando un achocolatado charco en el suelo que Ray, el amante de Abby, creyendo que ha sido ella, tratará de limpiar y sólo logrará esparcir más y más, extendiendo la evidencia en lugar de eliminándola: difícil, para el espectador literato, contemplar esta escena sin evocar la desesperación de Lady Macbeth restregándose con ferocidad las manos: «¡Fuera, maldita mancha, fuera te digo!». Como para subrayar la probable alusión, en varias escenas de la película obtenemos vistazos del consabido cartel «Los empleados deben lavarse las manos antes de volver al trabajo» en las paredes del bar de Marty. 

La película de los jóvenes Coen, con la también joven y por entonces desconocida Frances McDormand de protagonista, modificó mi visión de la tragedia de Shakespeare para siempre: así, entendí al verla, debería verse la sangre en Macbeth. Y también, por contraste, me llevó a concebir de modo muy diferente su cualidad en otra tragedia sangrienta, Julio César, diferencia que intento resumir así: en Julio César la sangre es roja, en La tragedia de Macbeth es negra. Calpurnia sueña que de la estatua de César brota a chorros, como de una fuente, y Decio, uno de los conspiradores, interpreta el presagio como profecía sobre la benéfica influencia política de César; tras su muerte, los conspiradores, urgidos por Bruto, lavan sus manos en ella para convertirla en bandera: «Sumerjamos todos nuestras manos / en la sangre de César hasta el codo, / y manchemos con ella las espadas; vayamos luego hasta la plaza pública / y enarbolando nuestras rojas armas / sobre nuestras cabezas, todos juntos, / gritemos: "Paz, derechos, libertad"» (traducción Idea Vilariño). Conocemos bien esa sangre: «es la sangre de los próceres, de los caídos por la patria, la sangre derramada que no será negociada, la sangre de nuestros muertos que nos lava los ojos» (una frase por la que sentía cierta debilidad la organización armada Montoneros, aunque no hiciera demasiado sentido desde el punto de vista oftalmológico). La sangre de César es sangre simbólica, sangre política, sangre interpretable: es decir, mera metáfora. 

En Macbeth, en cambio, la sangre es sangre: echa humo en la espada de Macbeth, cuando combate por Duncan; se pega a sus manos cuando lo mata, llevándolo al hipérbolico: «¿Podrá el inmenso océano de Neptuno / lavar la sangre de mis manos? / No, más bien esta mano mía / enrojecerá los inacabables mares / volviendo lo verde en rojo», sentimiento que contrasta con el optimismo de su esposa, que en un principio afirma muy suelta de cuerpo: «Un poquito de agua nos lava de culpa» y después enloquecerá tratando de despegársela de las manos. Y además huele: «Aquí, todavía siento el olor de la sangre». Esta fuerza material de la sangre es, también, la fuente de su poder mágico: es esta sangre espesa la que piden beber espectros, brujas y demonios antes de otorgarnos, para sus propios fines, nuestros deseos.

Por todo esto, tal vez sorprende que el director haya optado en esta versión por el blanco y negro, sobria paleta que le quita a la sangre cinematográfica buena parte de su eficacia. Puede tratarse de la búsqueda de un equilibrio: para la sangre de Psicosis (1960), Alfred Hitchcock utilizó salsa de chocolate para que se viera espesa, pero en plena era del Technicolor decidió filmar toda la película en blanco y negro, sólo para escaparle al rojo intolerable: la escena de la ducha está orientada a causar estupor y sorpresa, tal vez terror y luego piedad; pero no impresión y asco: recordemos que se trataba aun de la época en que los asesinados a balazos siempre lograban llevar la mano a la herida antes de que ésta resultara visible, todavía faltaban algunos años para los borbotones escarlatas de Bonnie and Clyde (1967) y The Wild Bunch (1969), por no hablar del cine Gore, el de Tarantino o el de los Hermanos Coen. Además, cuando de clásicos tan copiosamente adaptados se trata, hay que saber marcar las diferencias: en las dos anteriores Macbeth cinematográficas más renombradas, la de Roman Polanski (1971) y la de Justin Kurzel (2015), la sangre roja corre a raudales: la pantalla, podría pensarse, ya estaba saturada, y rezumaba.

En Julio César la sangre es roja, en La tragedia de Macbeth es negra. La sangre de César es sangre simbólica, sangre política, sangre interpretable: es decir, mera metáfora. En Macbeth, en cambio, la sangre es sangre: es esta sangre espesa la que piden beber espectros, brujas y demonios antes de otorgarnos, para sus propios fines, nuestros deseos.

En términos estéticos, la nueva versión puede verse como una reacción a las más naturalistas de estos dos predecesores, sobre todo a la muy reciente del director australiano, que había expandido la acción originalmente teatral a los vastos paisajes de Escocia y a los populosos campos de batalla; y un regreso a versión seminal de Orson Welles (1948): blanco y negro en lugar de color, escenarios decididamente teatrales, o al menos artificiales (en la de Welles, predominan los recursos escénicos, en la de Coen, los digitales), nada de paisajes naturales ni castillos auténticos, nada de batallas. Y es, además, la primera versión color-blind entre las canónicas: mezcla actrices y actores blancos (Lady Macbeth y Banquo, por ejemplo) y negros (Macbeth, Macduff y su familia), pero no se supone que esta diferencia sea significativa para la acción de la película, sino fuera de ésta, en su entorno: es una práctica antidiscriminatoria que el teatro inglés y de los EE.UU. han adoptado hace rato, y que se trasladó al cine en Mucho ruido y pocas nueces (1993), también con Denzel Washington, y Hamlet (1996) de Kenneth Branagh.

De Polanski, Coen toma la posta en la promoción de Rosse, un personaje secundario que bien podría pasar desapercibido en la lectura de la obra o en puestas indiferentes, pero en el cual una lectura más atenta, o mejor aún, una puesta más sensible, descubre a un sinuoso oportunista, que conocemos como fiel vasallo del rey Duncan, lo cual no le impide, tras su asesinato, concurrir a Scone a la coronación de Macbeth; quien advertirá a Lady Macduff del peligro que corre pero la abandona antes de la llegada de éste, llevándole luego la noticia de su muerte y la de sus hijos a Macduff; que reaparece finalmente, como quien no quiere la cosa, en los ejércitos de Malcolm, primogénito de Duncan y legítimo heredero al trono.

Polanski convierte a este temprano ejemplo de la banalidad del mal en decidido villano: lejos de advertir a Lady Macduff del peligro, él es el entregador, y abre la puerta a los asesinos; sobre el final, cínicamente toma la corona de la cabeza cortada de Macbeth y la coloca sobre las sienes del nuevo rey Malcolm. Doblando la apuesta, Coen convierte a su Rosse, interpretado por el perturbador Alex Hassell, en un personaje siniestro y omnipresente: ejecuta a Macdonwald el traidor, se une a los dos asesinos de Banquo, persigue y alcanza a su hijo Fleance, entrega a Lady Macduff y su castillo a los asesinos, y en la secuencia final recupera la corona caída de la cabeza cortada de Macbeth y la coloca sobre las sienes de Malcolm. Luego concurre a la cabaña de las brujas y recupera a Fleance, llevándoselo a caballo con rumbo desconocido, desapareciendo ambos en un revuelo de cuervos que como una plaga o emanación del infierno prometen llevar la semilla del mal a todas partes: final cínico, aunque no tanto como el de Polanski, que mostraba a Donalbain, hermano del nuevo rey Malcolm, cabalgando hacia la guarida de las brujas y prometiendo un nuevo ciclo de maldades.

  Frances McDormand. Crédito: Apple TV.

La pregunta que no pude responderme, al menos en un principio, fue ¿por qué otra versión de Macbeth, ahora? Adaptar un gran clásico implica, queramos o no, realizar un comentario, un diagnóstico, una intervención sobre nuestra sociedad y nuestra época; para tomarle prestada a Harold Bloom la idea con que cierra su Shakespeare, la invención de lo humano, los clásicos siempre nos leerán a nosotros mejor de lo que nosotros podemos leerlos a ellos. Poco importa que la respuesta se dé en términos globales o personales, mientras haya una respuesta. Macbeth es una tragedia sobrenatural, sobre los terrores nocturnos, sobre las fuerzas oscuras que apenas pueden nombrarse; y es también, una tragedia política. Resulta casi inevitable recurrir a ella cuando no alcanzan las explicaciones prácticas, económicas, sociales: cuando el mal es tan oscuro que deja de convertirse en medio para ser un fin en sí mismo, cuando parece capaz de envolverlo todo, y los malvados de la tierra dejan de ser origen y causa, y pasan a verse como instrumentos de algo que los usa y luego los descarta.

Resulta casi inevitable recurrir a Macbeth cuando no alcanzan las explicaciones prácticas, económicas, sociales: cuando el mal es tan oscuro que deja de convertirse en medio para ser un fin en sí mismo, cuando parece capaz de envolverlo todo, y los malvados de la tierra dejan de ser origen y causa, y pasan a verse como instrumentos de algo que los usa y luego los descarta.

La versión teatral de 1936 de Orson Welles, la conocida como el Macbeth vudú, realizada con un elenco íntegramente afroamericano y situada en la Haití del siglo XIX, durante la desmesurada dictadura de Henri Christophe, fue concebida como un comentario sobre el ascenso del fascismo, reflexión que se continúa en el film de 1948, ahora sobre sus devastadoras secuelas; la de Akira Kurosawa (Trono de sangre, 1957), compartió esta ligazón, ahora desde el punto de vista de quienes perdieron la guerra: el director tenía planeado hacerla mucho antes, pero tras el estreno de la de Welles decidió postergarla. El film de Roman Polanski (1971), realizado poco después de El bebé de Rosemary (1968), estuvo motivado, como él mismo admite, por el asesinato de su esposa embarazada, Sharon Tate, por miembros del satánico clan Manson; pero también se hizo cargo de una sangrienta década en la cual fueron legión los Duncan asesinados: John F. Kennedy (1963), Malcolm X (1965), Martin Luther King y Robert Kennedy (1968).

El particular énfasis de la versión de Kurzel está indicado a través de un significativo cambio en el diálogo, en la escena inicial, de las tres brujas: «Where the place?» «Upon the heath» «There to meet with Macbeth» («¿Dónde?» «En el páramo será». «Y Macbeth ahí estará»). En la película, la réplica de la segunda cambia a «Upon the battlefield» («En el campo de batalla»): y allí las veremos, contemplando la carnicería impávidas. Shakespeare es el único autor de la historia que goza de un raro privilegio: sus palabras pasan al cine inalteradas – ningún otro autor, ni siquiera Dios, que debe resignarse a ver Su palabra tergiversada en cuanta adaptación del Antiguo o Nuevo Testamento se haga, goza de semejante privilegio: si un director o guionista se atreve a cambiárselas, debe tener sus buenas razones para ello: Kurzel, entonces, muda el origen del mal del páramo o bosque, que postulan un origen del mal en la naturaleza, a la guerra, hecha por el hombre: esto, en una película estrenada en 2015, no puede sino leerse como un comentario sobre las guerras contra Irak (1990 y 2003-2011) y Estado Islámico (desde 2014). Y bien puede seguir funcionando para las actuales.

 Alex Hassell es Ross en «La tragedia de Macbeth». Crédito: Apple TV.

En un principio, la oportunidad de la versión de Coen podría entenderse, como la de Polanski, en términos individuales: se rumorea que la hizo para complacer a su esposa, que quería hacer de Lady Macbeth. Macbeth y Lady Macbeth forman una pareja muy unida; «el más feliz matrimonio en todo Shakespeare» exagera Harold Bloom; yo prefiero pensar en ellos como en una pareja de larga data –y así los muestra Coen, la elección de los sesentones Denzel Washington y McDormand no deja lugar a dudas- que funciona (y ciertamente no, como eligen verlos algunos, como un pelele manejado por una dominatrix: a partir del acto tercero él sigue solito mientras ella se desmorona). Y que a partir del crimen se van aislando cada vez más, primero del resto del mundo, luego, trágicamente, uno del otro. En ese sentido, no deja de ser sugerente que ésta sea la primera película, en casi cuarenta años, que Joel Coen realiza sin su hermano –sólo con su esposa-. 

La versión de Roman Polanski (1971), realizada poco después de El bebé de Rosemary (1968), estuvo motivada, como él mismo admite, por el asesinato de su esposa embarazada, Sharon Tate, por miembros del satánico clan Manson; pero también se hizo cargo de una sangrienta década en la cual fueron legión los Duncan asesinados: John F. Kennedy (1963), Malcolm X (1965), Martin Luther King y Robert Kennedy (1968).

Pero se me ocurrió una idea más interesante cuando me topé con una reseña que al principio me resultó deleznable y también descartable, que imaginaba la versión color-blind como woke (despierta al peligro de los prejuicios y a la discriminación, sobre todo raciales), sin privarse de señalar que el director es judío; lectura delirante que me hubiera hecho reír si no la hubiera leído un par de días después de la masacre de Buffalo, perpetrada por un joven racista que invocó las teorías conspirativas del Great Replacement (Gran reemplazo) de los blancos (arios, y si se puede, WASPs) por las gentes de color, orquestada (qué duda cabe) por los judíos.

La trama se espesa cuando recordamos que una variante de la misma teoría era abrazada por Charles Manson y su familia: este carismático supremacista blanco imaginaba que tras una sangrienta guerra racial los negros tomarían el poder, pero siendo incapaces de gobernarse a sí mismos, y mucho menos a los demás, eventualmente buscarían la ayuda de Manson y su familia, que habrían sobrevivido a la hecatombe de su raza en el desierto, en refugios subterráneos. Las peores pesadillas del presente siguen adosándose, lo quieran o no sus directores, a la pesadilla inicialmente soñada por Shakespeare; por algo en el mundo anglosajón se la considera yeta y nunca se la menciona por el nombre (prefiriéndose el circunloquio La tragedia escocesa). 

Concebida y realizada durante los años del gobierno de Donald Trump, y estrenada en septiembre de 2021, pocos meses después de la toma del Capitolio, el Macbeth de Joel Coen se deja leer sin mucho esfuerzo como un comentario sobre esa oscura era. Lo que todavía queda por ver es si, como profetizaron las brujas, reinará la progenie legítima de Banquo, o lo harán Donald Trump y su putativa progenie, como parecen profetizar las versiones de Polanski y Coen.



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