Literatura

James Salter por Inés Martín Rodrigo: vida bebida

En 2013, Inés Martín Rodrigo se adentró en el delicado universo creativo de James Salter a través de «Años luz», el retrato de un matrimonio -Viri y Nedra- cuya idílica apariencia en realidad esconde una vida marcada por el tedio y por las pequeñas grietas que con el tiempo devienen fracturas irreparables. Mientras leía aquella obra (muchos añadirían aquí «maestra»), Martín Rodrigo tuvo la oportunidad de viajar a Nueva York para entrevistarle. Terminó su lectura solo unas horas antes de citarse en la casa que Salter tenía en los Hamptons. Durante su encuentro hablaron largo y tendido, como no podía ser de otra manera, sobre «Años luz». Hoy, mediados de 2024, algo más de diez años después de aquella cita, Salamandra reedita la novela, una de las que mejor representa la sensibilidad narrativa de Salter, con un bellísimo prólogo firmado por la propia Inés Martín Rodrigo, el cual reproducimos en LENGUA a continuación. Y como no podía ser de otra manera, la periodista y escritora española narra con sumo detalle su encuentro con uno de los más grandes iconos de la literatura norteamericana del siglo XX.

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Mientras le\u00eda aquella obra (muchos a\u00f1adir\u00edan aqu\u00ed \u00abmaestra\u00bb), Mart\u00edn Rodrigo tuvo la oportunidad de viajar a Nueva York para entrevistarle. Termin\u00f3 su lectura solo unas horas antes de citarse en la casa que Salter ten\u00eda en los Hamptons. Durante su encuentro hablaron largo y tendido, como no pod\u00eda ser de otra manera, sobre \u00abA\u00f1os luz\u00bb. Hoy, mediados de 2024, algo m\u00e1s de diez a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s de aquella cita, Salamandra reedita la novela, una de las que mejor representa la sensibilidad narrativa de Salter, con un bell\u00edsimo pr\u00f3logo firmado por la propia In\u00e9s Mart\u00edn Rodrigo, el cual reproducimos en LENGUA a continuaci\u00f3n. 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tiendo a la grandilocuencia, ni cuando hablo ni al escribir. Intento no dejarme llevar por ella, de la misma manera que evito, en ambas circunstancias, la vital y la literaria, la nostalgia, que es como la memoria corrompida. Por eso no he dudado a la hora de comenzar estas l\u00edneas asegurando, con la certeza de la experiencia, que hay autores y libros que te cambian la vida. Semejante afirmaci\u00f3n no busca conmover conciencias lectoras. Tampoco persuadir de que quien la escribe est\u00e1 en posesi\u00f3n de la verdad, siempre esquiva, por inaprensible, en la ficci\u00f3n y sus muchos derroteros narrativos. S\u00f3lo se atiene a los hechos, al menos a los m\u00edos, que es el contexto, subjetivo, desde el que siempre se escribe. En mi caso, ese autor fue <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1448-james-salter\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">James Salter<\/a><\/span> (1925-2015).\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Cuando lo descubr\u00ed, hace ya m\u00e1s de una d\u00e9cada, en mitad de una severa convalecencia, en un art\u00edculo de opini\u00f3n en el que un escritor al que sigo admirando describ\u00eda el gozo de pasarse \u00abNoches leyendo a James Salter\u00bb (as\u00ed se titulaba <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/elpais.com\/cultura\/2013\/04\/09\/actualidad\/1365521392_640618.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la pieza<\/a><\/span>), puso mi mundo patas arriba, y no s\u00f3lo el literario. Me fiaba, con la ilusionante ceguera que comporta siempre el hallazgo, del criterio de aquel autor culto pero no pedante ni impostado. Confiaba en \u00e9l, lo mismo que espero que ahora haya lectores que se f\u00eden de m\u00ed si les digo que se adentren en el delicado universo creativo de Salter, y lo hagan empezando por <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/339848-ebook-anos-luz-9788419851048\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">A\u00f1os luz<\/a><\/em><\/span>. As\u00ed lo hice yo entonces, comenc\u00e9 leyendo aquella novela que una d\u00e9cada despu\u00e9s tengo la suerte de prologar, porque la vida es un puro cuento. \u00abSabemos que la mayor\u00eda de las grandes novelas e historias surgen de un perfecto conocimiento y de una minuciosa observaci\u00f3n.\u00bb Son palabras de Salter, pero las hago m\u00edas, pues, como \u00e9l, sospecho de los escritores que aseguran, vanaglori\u00e1ndose adem\u00e1s de ello, que se lo inventan todo. No es posible, ni siquiera cosa de ciencia ficci\u00f3n.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>La suerte a la que he hecho referencia en el p\u00e1rrafo anterior me acompa\u00f1\u00f3 aquel a\u00f1o, el de mi descubrimiento de James Salter. Tengo la fortuna de poder ganarme la vida mediante la grata y f\u00e9rtil convivencia de mis dos mayores pasiones: <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/10209-ines-martin-rodrigo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la literatura y el periodismo<\/a><\/span>. Gracias a este \u00faltimo, oficio de tantas entregas y desvelos como el literario, pero m\u00e1s ingrato, tuve la oportunidad de conocer a aquel autor cuya lectura me hab\u00eda cambiado la vida. En breve me caducar\u00e1 el pasaporte que a mediados de diciembre de 2013 renov\u00e9 para poder volar hasta Nueva York y, una vez all\u00ed, coger un autob\u00fas que me llev\u00f3 hasta la localidad de Bridgehampton, en los m\u00edticos Hamptons, donde Salter ten\u00eda una 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Recuerdo, con la misma intensidad que si lo estuviera haciendo ahora, que al cerrar la novela me puse a llorar. Soy sensible, pero no de l\u00e1grima f\u00e1cil. Aquel fue un llanto sereno, no provocado por el final del libro, sea \u00e9ste el que sea, sino debido a la belleza que, a lo largo de 381 p\u00e1ginas, hab\u00eda visto recreada sin que perdiera, en ning\u00fan p\u00e1rrafo, en ninguna frase, un \u00e1pice de luminosa intensidad. Estaba maravillada. Bendito asombro, el literario.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Dorm\u00ed poco, a ratos. Fue una curiosa vigilia durante la que no par\u00e9 de evocar, entre el ensue\u00f1o y la noct\u00e1mbula realidad, la historia contada por Salter en la novela, la de Viri y Nedra, el matrimonio Berland, su concepci\u00f3n y ocaso a lo largo de los a\u00f1os que devienen en d\u00e9cadas... y en fracaso. Es eso lo que narra Salter: el final de un amor que, en realidad, no se acaba mientras la vida contin\u00faa. Su prosa, adictiva y sugerente, artesanal, llena de matices, es capaz de describir, sin caer en la cursiler\u00eda, la pasi\u00f3n que, pese a todo, desprende una ruptura amorosa. Eso sent\u00ed entonces, aquella noche, y eso he vuelto a experimentar diez a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s al volver a los p\u00e1rrafos marcados en la novela, a los de hace una d\u00e9cada y a los de ahora, frases que te explican a ti y a quien duerme a tu lado: \u00abEl coraz\u00f3n est\u00e1 a oscuras, sin saber, como esos animales que viven en minas y nunca han visto la luz del d\u00eda. No tiene lealtades ni esperanzas; cumple su cometido\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"t0thy8y\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La noche previa a nuestra conversaci\u00f3n (...) en un hotel en el que yo era la \u00fanica hu\u00e9sped, y no es una licencia literaria, termin\u00e9 de leer <em>A\u00f1os luz.<\/em> Recuerdo, con la misma intensidad que si lo estuviera haciendo ahora, que al cerrar la novela me puse a llorar. Soy sensible, pero no de l\u00e1grima f\u00e1cil.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"3y0u6yc\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>A la ma\u00f1ana siguiente, acud\u00ed a mi cita con aquel escritor que me hab\u00eda cambiado la vida antes de conocerlo. Todav\u00eda lo cuento con deleite. No me canso de hacerlo. Me abri\u00f3 la puerta, sorprendido de que me hubiera cruzado el oc\u00e9ano s\u00f3lo para charlar con \u00e9l, y me invit\u00f3 a entrar. Pasamos juntos varias horas durante las que, claro, le pregunt\u00e9 por <em>A\u00f1os luz<\/em>. \u00abEn realidad, hay dos vidas: la que aparentamos vivir y la que realmente vivimos. Es algo obvio. No creo que sea una tragedia, es la condici\u00f3n humana\u00bb, me dijo como resumen de un libro que me llev\u00e9 firmado de su casa y que conservo en mi biblioteca como el tesoro que es.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>En una ocasi\u00f3n, seg\u00fan recuerda en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/28294-ebook-el-arte-de-la-ficcion-9788417384067\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El arte de la ficci\u00f3n<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0(Salamandra, 2018), Salter dijo que <em>A\u00f1os luz<\/em> era \u00abcomo las losas gastadas de la vida conyugal: todo lo ordinario, todo lo prodigioso, todo lo que la hace plena o la amarga; se prolonga durante a\u00f1os, d\u00e9cadas, y al final da la impresi\u00f3n de haber visto pasar las cosas como desde la ventanilla de un tren, un prado all\u00ed, \u00e1rboles, casas, pueblos oscuros, una estaci\u00f3n de vez en cuando\u00bb. En ese libro, un peque\u00f1o pero hermoso tratado sobre la escritura, Salter tambi\u00e9n explica que cuando volvi\u00f3 a leer la novela se dio cuenta de que era \u00abuna composici\u00f3n musical, entreverada, melanc\u00f3lica por momentos, que se hace pasar por libro. Pretende ser heroica, sobre c\u00f3mo aprovechar el regalo de la vida. [...] De creer al libro, y el libro es sincero, la historia gira en torno a ese mundo denso construido sobre el matrimonio, una vida cercada por muros ancestrales. Gira en torno al recuerdo de esos tiempos\u00bb.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Unos tiempos muy concretos, y reales, que transcurren en Nueva York. En 1975, James Salter public\u00f3 <em>A\u00f1os luz<\/em> y ese mismo a\u00f1o se divorci\u00f3 de su primera mujer, Ann Altemus. Pero no fue en su fracaso matrimonial en el que se inspir\u00f3 para escribir la novela. Los recreados en la ficci\u00f3n fueron Laurence y Barbara Rosenthal, amigos de Salter y de su esposa y con los que compart\u00edan vecindario en la ribera del Hudson. Quiso la causalidad que una tarde de verano el autor se cruzara en Lexington Avenue con Barbara y su hija Nadia. 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Y tiene mucho que ver con las elecciones que los autores tomamos al escribir. Si no las adoptamos, corremos el mismo riesgo: dejar de vivir.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"s98994r\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Cuando, en <em>A\u00f1os luz<\/em>, los personajes llegan a los cuarenta, la edad que yo tengo ahora, parecen haber vivido ya lo suficiente de ese sentimiento turbador, quiz\u00e1 irrepetible, que los llev\u00f3 a casarse y a tener dos hijas, aunque fueran circunstancias sobrevenidas. La pasi\u00f3n entre ellos se ha extinguido, pero no renuncian a volver a experimentarla con otra persona. Es una decisi\u00f3n valiente, admirable y aterradora, ese momento en el que eliges vivir tu vida, no la de los dem\u00e1s, no la de tu familia. Y tiene mucho que ver con las elecciones que los autores tomamos al escribir. Si no las adoptamos, corremos el mismo riesgo: dejar de vivir. Por eso Salter llevaba siempre una libreta en la que iba apuntando trozos de realidad. S\u00f3lo as\u00ed pudo componer, cual partitura, <em>A\u00f1os luz<\/em>, un libro hecho de versos en prosa como estos: \u00abNo hay una vida completa. Hay s\u00f3lo fragmentos. Hemos nacido para no tener nada, para que todo se nos escurra entre los dedos. Y, sin embargo, esta p\u00e9rdida, este diluvio de encuentros, luchas, sue\u00f1os, hay que ser irreflexivo como una tortuga. Hay que ser resuelto, ciego. Porque cualquier cosa que hagamos, incluso que no hagamos, nos impide hacer la cosa opuesta. Los actos demuelen sus alternativas, he aqu\u00ed la paradoja. La vida, por tanto, consiste en elecciones, cada cual definitiva y de poca trascendencia, como tirar piedras al mar.\u00bb\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p>Lo dice el narrador, en tercera persona, en uno de los \u00faltimos cap\u00edtulos de la novela, en los que, pese a la proximidad del crep\u00fasculo, el fulgor no desaparece: \u00abHay horas en las que uno literalmente bebe vida.\u00bb Y est\u00e1 en lo cierto. 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/james-salter-john-banville-prologo-cuentos-completos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">James Salter por John Banville: hay belleza en lo ordinario<\/a><\/span><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/cormac-mccarthy-emiliano-monge\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cormac McCarthy por Emiliano Monge: un padre y un hijo, un hijo y un padre<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/el-verano-frances-james-salter-en-otros-lugares\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abEl verano franc\u00e9s\u00bb: de viaje con James Salter<\/a><\/span><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/jonathan-franzen-encrucijadas-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Franzen por Franzen: retrato de familia en detalle<\/a><\/span><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/donald-ray-pollock-guillermo-saccomanno\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Donald Ray Pollock por Guillermo Saccomanno: un predicador en la noche oscura<\/a><\/span><\/p><p style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span><u><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/james-ellroy-por-rodrigo-fresan-cuidado-con-el-perro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">James Ellroy por Rodrigo Fres\u00e1n: cuidado con el perro<\/a><\/u><\/span><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"i4mrd1t\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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10 minutos
James Salter en el Festival de Literatura de Oxford del año 2007. Crédito: Getty Images.

James Salter en el Festival de Literatura de Oxford del año 2007. Crédito: Getty Images.

No tiendo a la grandilocuencia, ni cuando hablo ni al escribir. Intento no dejarme llevar por ella, de la misma manera que evito, en ambas circunstancias, la vital y la literaria, la nostalgia, que es como la memoria corrompida. Por eso no he dudado a la hora de comenzar estas líneas asegurando, con la certeza de la experiencia, que hay autores y libros que te cambian la vida. Semejante afirmación no busca conmover conciencias lectoras. Tampoco persuadir de que quien la escribe está en posesión de la verdad, siempre esquiva, por inaprensible, en la ficción y sus muchos derroteros narrativos. Sólo se atiene a los hechos, al menos a los míos, que es el contexto, subjetivo, desde el que siempre se escribe. En mi caso, ese autor fue James Salter (1925-2015).  

Cuando lo descubrí, hace ya más de una década, en mitad de una severa convalecencia, en un artículo de opinión en el que un escritor al que sigo admirando describía el gozo de pasarse «Noches leyendo a James Salter» (así se titulaba la pieza), puso mi mundo patas arriba, y no sólo el literario. Me fiaba, con la ilusionante ceguera que comporta siempre el hallazgo, del criterio de aquel autor culto pero no pedante ni impostado. Confiaba en él, lo mismo que espero que ahora haya lectores que se fíen de mí si les digo que se adentren en el delicado universo creativo de Salter, y lo hagan empezando por Años luz. Así lo hice yo entonces, comencé leyendo aquella novela que una década después tengo la suerte de prologar, porque la vida es un puro cuento. «Sabemos que la mayoría de las grandes novelas e historias surgen de un perfecto conocimiento y de una minuciosa observación.» Son palabras de Salter, pero las hago mías, pues, como él, sospecho de los escritores que aseguran, vanagloriándose además de ello, que se lo inventan todo. No es posible, ni siquiera cosa de ciencia ficción.  

La suerte a la que he hecho referencia en el párrafo anterior me acompañó aquel año, el de mi descubrimiento de James Salter. Tengo la fortuna de poder ganarme la vida mediante la grata y fértil convivencia de mis dos mayores pasiones: la literatura y el periodismo. Gracias a este último, oficio de tantas entregas y desvelos como el literario, pero más ingrato, tuve la oportunidad de conocer a aquel autor cuya lectura me había cambiado la vida. En breve me caducará el pasaporte que a mediados de diciembre de 2013 renové para poder volar hasta Nueva York y, una vez allí, coger un autobús que me llevó hasta la localidad de Bridgehampton, en los míticos Hamptons, donde Salter tenía una casa.  

  • ¡En oferta!
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Años luz

Años luz traza con exquisita sensibilidad los límites y contradicciones de ese estado evanescente de plenitud y bienestar que llamamos felicidad y que anida en lo más profundo de todo ser humano.
Co...

La noche previa a nuestra conversación, fijada por el autor a las once de la mañana en un breve intercambio de correos electrónicos que todavía conservo, en un hotel en el que yo era la única huésped, y no es una licencia literaria, terminé de leer Años luz. Recuerdo, con la misma intensidad que si lo estuviera haciendo ahora, que al cerrar la novela me puse a llorar. Soy sensible, pero no de lágrima fácil. Aquel fue un llanto sereno, no provocado por el final del libro, sea éste el que sea, sino debido a la belleza que, a lo largo de 381 páginas, había visto recreada sin que perdiera, en ningún párrafo, en ninguna frase, un ápice de luminosa intensidad. Estaba maravillada. Bendito asombro, el literario.  

Dormí poco, a ratos. Fue una curiosa vigilia durante la que no paré de evocar, entre el ensueño y la noctámbula realidad, la historia contada por Salter en la novela, la de Viri y Nedra, el matrimonio Berland, su concepción y ocaso a lo largo de los años que devienen en décadas... y en fracaso. Es eso lo que narra Salter: el final de un amor que, en realidad, no se acaba mientras la vida continúa. Su prosa, adictiva y sugerente, artesanal, llena de matices, es capaz de describir, sin caer en la cursilería, la pasión que, pese a todo, desprende una ruptura amorosa. Eso sentí entonces, aquella noche, y eso he vuelto a experimentar diez años después al volver a los párrafos marcados en la novela, a los de hace una década y a los de ahora, frases que te explican a ti y a quien duerme a tu lado: «El corazón está a oscuras, sin saber, como esos animales que viven en minas y nunca han visto la luz del día. No tiene lealtades ni esperanzas; cumple su cometido».

La noche previa a nuestra conversación (...) en un hotel en el que yo era la única huésped, y no es una licencia literaria, terminé de leer Años luz. Recuerdo, con la misma intensidad que si lo estuviera haciendo ahora, que al cerrar la novela me puse a llorar. Soy sensible, pero no de lágrima fácil.

A la mañana siguiente, acudí a mi cita con aquel escritor que me había cambiado la vida antes de conocerlo. Todavía lo cuento con deleite. No me canso de hacerlo. Me abrió la puerta, sorprendido de que me hubiera cruzado el océano sólo para charlar con él, y me invitó a entrar. Pasamos juntos varias horas durante las que, claro, le pregunté por Años luz. «En realidad, hay dos vidas: la que aparentamos vivir y la que realmente vivimos. Es algo obvio. No creo que sea una tragedia, es la condición humana», me dijo como resumen de un libro que me llevé firmado de su casa y que conservo en mi biblioteca como el tesoro que es.  

En una ocasión, según recuerda en El arte de la ficción (Salamandra, 2018), Salter dijo que Años luz era «como las losas gastadas de la vida conyugal: todo lo ordinario, todo lo prodigioso, todo lo que la hace plena o la amarga; se prolonga durante años, décadas, y al final da la impresión de haber visto pasar las cosas como desde la ventanilla de un tren, un prado allí, árboles, casas, pueblos oscuros, una estación de vez en cuando». En ese libro, un pequeño pero hermoso tratado sobre la escritura, Salter también explica que cuando volvió a leer la novela se dio cuenta de que era «una composición musical, entreverada, melancólica por momentos, que se hace pasar por libro. Pretende ser heroica, sobre cómo aprovechar el regalo de la vida. [...] De creer al libro, y el libro es sincero, la historia gira en torno a ese mundo denso construido sobre el matrimonio, una vida cercada por muros ancestrales. Gira en torno al recuerdo de esos tiempos».  

Unos tiempos muy concretos, y reales, que transcurren en Nueva York. En 1975, James Salter publicó Años luz y ese mismo año se divorció de su primera mujer, Ann Altemus. Pero no fue en su fracaso matrimonial en el que se inspiró para escribir la novela. Los recreados en la ficción fueron Laurence y Barbara Rosenthal, amigos de Salter y de su esposa y con los que compartían vecindario en la ribera del Hudson. Quiso la causalidad que una tarde de verano el autor se cruzara en Lexington Avenue con Barbara y su hija Nadia. Salter salía de las oficinas de la editorial Random House y llevaba un ejemplar de Años luz, que ese día había llegado a las librerías. «Esto es para ti», le dijo el escritor a su amiga, y le tendió el libro.  

James Salter en París en septiembre de 1999. Crédito: Getty Images.

James Salter en París en septiembre de 1999. Crédito: Getty Images.

De vuelta a casa, mientras madre e hija atravesaban en coche el puente George Washington, Nadia empezó a leer en voz alta fragmentos de la novela. Había tantos detalles que les resultaban familiares… La frase con la que arrancaba el segundo párrafo del segundo capítulo fue definitiva: «Nedra trabajaba en la cocina, se había quitado los anillos». Era lo que Barbara siempre hacía, quitarse los anillos para cocinar. Entonces lo supo: Viri y Nedra eran Laurence y ella. Esa misma noche, leyó el libro y su marido lo hizo después. Se quedaron asombrados. No sabían si sentirse halagados o molestos. Su amigo Jim, su vecino, no les había dicho nada de la novela. Los dos matrimonios se distanciaron y, al poco tiempo, ambos acabaron divorciándose. Salter fue capaz de anticiparse al curso de la vida, la previó en la ficción, pero nada pudo hacer para cambiar el desenlace.  

Es una decisión valiente, admirable y aterradora, ese momento en el que eliges vivir tu vida, no la de los demás, no la de tu familia. Y tiene mucho que ver con las elecciones que los autores tomamos al escribir. Si no las adoptamos, corremos el mismo riesgo: dejar de vivir.

Cuando, en Años luz, los personajes llegan a los cuarenta, la edad que yo tengo ahora, parecen haber vivido ya lo suficiente de ese sentimiento turbador, quizá irrepetible, que los llevó a casarse y a tener dos hijas, aunque fueran circunstancias sobrevenidas. La pasión entre ellos se ha extinguido, pero no renuncian a volver a experimentarla con otra persona. Es una decisión valiente, admirable y aterradora, ese momento en el que eliges vivir tu vida, no la de los demás, no la de tu familia. Y tiene mucho que ver con las elecciones que los autores tomamos al escribir. Si no las adoptamos, corremos el mismo riesgo: dejar de vivir. Por eso Salter llevaba siempre una libreta en la que iba apuntando trozos de realidad. Sólo así pudo componer, cual partitura, Años luz, un libro hecho de versos en prosa como estos: «No hay una vida completa. Hay sólo fragmentos. Hemos nacido para no tener nada, para que todo se nos escurra entre los dedos. Y, sin embargo, esta pérdida, este diluvio de encuentros, luchas, sueños, hay que ser irreflexivo como una tortuga. Hay que ser resuelto, ciego. Porque cualquier cosa que hagamos, incluso que no hagamos, nos impide hacer la cosa opuesta. Los actos demuelen sus alternativas, he aquí la paradoja. La vida, por tanto, consiste en elecciones, cada cual definitiva y de poca trascendencia, como tirar piedras al mar.»  

Lo dice el narrador, en tercera persona, en uno de los últimos capítulos de la novela, en los que, pese a la proximidad del crepúsculo, el fulgor no desaparece: «Hay horas en las que uno literalmente bebe vida.» Y está en lo cierto. Cada hora leyendo a James Salter es una de vida bebida.

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