Literatura

James Salter por John Banville: hay belleza en lo ordinario

Gracias a su capacidad para mostrar la intimidad de unos personajes abrumados por los contratiempos de la vida, así como la cotidianidad de mujeres y hombres anónimos que se enfrentan al dolor de la pérdida, James Salter es hoy uno de los grandes iconos de la literatura estadounidense contemporánea. Novelas como «Juego o distracción», «Años luz» y «Todo lo que hay» son la representación más evidente de su grandeza; sin embargo, sus relatos y cuentos ofrecen un contexto sociocultural clave para entender la obra de Salter en su totalidad. Las colecciones «Anochecer» y «La última noche» son su mejor carta de presentación, como bien explica John Banville en el prólogo de «Cuentos completos», un título editado por Salamandra que compila ambas colecciones en un único volumen (con el añadido de una pieza titulada «Carisma»). En el texto, el cual reproducimos íntegro a continuación, Banville repasa la trayectoria de Salter en formato breve al tiempo que alaba su capacidad para hallar belleza en lo ordinario.

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hay m\u00e1s dif\u00edcil en literatura que representar una realidad com\u00fan y corriente: s\u00f3lo los mejores han tenido \u00e9xito en esa tarea. Si se trata de novelas, enseguida pensamos en Flaubert o en las primeras escenas del <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ulises-carlos-gamerro-salas-subirat\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>Ulises<\/em> de Joyce<\/a><\/span>; si de relatos, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">en <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/irene-nemirovsky-la-vida-de-chejov\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ch\u00e9jov<\/a><\/span>, por supuesto, y de nuevo en Joyce y sus <em>Dublineses.<\/em> Esos escritores maravillosos no escriben sobre la realidad: su obra es la realidad en s\u00ed misma. Al leerlos, nos olvidamos de que estamos ante una versi\u00f3n muy elaborada y mediatizada del mundo. Emma Bovary moribunda, Leopold Bloom llev\u00e1ndole el desayuno a la cama a su mujer, la se\u00f1ora del perrito que se enamora y se desenamora y vuelve a enamorarse, Gabriel Conroy contemplando los n\u00edveos restos de su matrimonio y de s\u00ed mismo... todas esas escenas nos llegan con la fuerza de una vida realmente vivida, inmediata, tangible, prosaica y sublime a la vez.<\/p><p>Probablemente, James Salter es mejor conocido como novelista. Dos de sus libros,<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/28134-ebook-juego-y-distraccion-9788415630586\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Juego y distracci\u00f3n<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0y <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/28133-ebook-anos-luz-9788415630579\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">A\u00f1os luz<\/a><\/span><\/em>, son cl\u00e1sicos del g\u00e9nero, y en 2013, a los ochenta y siete, public\u00f3 <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/28135-ebook-todo-lo-que-hay-9788415630593\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Todo lo que hay<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> una novela extensa y ambiciosa sobre la guerra y la vida de los soldados despu\u00e9s de la guerra, sobre la escritura y el mundo editorial, sobre Estados Unidos y Europa, sobre el amor y la p\u00e9rdida del amor; una obra fascinante que cualquier escritor con la mitad de sus a\u00f1os habr\u00eda querido escribir. Con ella, lleg\u00f3 esta magn\u00edfica colecci\u00f3n de cuentos provenientes de dos vol\u00famenes m\u00e1s bien breves: <em>Anochecer (1988) y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/28137-ebook-la-ultima-noche-9788415630623\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La \u00faltima noche<\/a><\/span><\/em>\u00a0(2005; Salamandra, 2006), a los que se suma un espl\u00e9ndido regalo: el relato \u00abCarisma\u00bb. En todos ellos, Salter demuestra ser un magistral cronista de la vida 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El cuento evocativamente titulado \u00abHijos perdidos\u00bb \u2014 en cuya escena inicial resuena de un modo inquietante el cuento \u00abDespu\u00e9s de la carrera\u00bb de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/665-james-joyce\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Joyce<\/a><\/span>, sobre el desenfreno juvenil \u2014, describe una reuni\u00f3n de antiguos alumnos de West Point con un estilo directo y expeditivo:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"7dmpqch\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En la zona de la recepci\u00f3n se celebraba una fiesta de bienvenida. Algunas caras apenas hab\u00edan cambiado, pero en otros casos, como en el de Reemstma, muchos no ten\u00edan otra opci\u00f3n que leer varias veces el distintivo con su nombre. Alguien iba y ven\u00eda con albornoz de cadete, una c\u00e1mara en una mano y el flash en la otra; otros hab\u00edan preferido instalarse a beber en las barracas. Se abr\u00edan puertas de las que sal\u00edan las voces en tropel.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"040\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"k3f1ze4\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00c9sta es la clase de escritura que Salter domina como nadie: el ritmo es apresurado, pero de vez en cuando salta un detalle \u2014 el hecho de que a varias personas no les quede otra que leer \u00abvarias veces\u00bb el distintivo con el nombre de Reemstma para enterarse de qui\u00e9n es \u2014 al que la atenci\u00f3n del lector se queda enganchada como una u\u00f1a en un vestido de seda. Y no es s\u00f3lo el peculiar nombre de Reemstma lo que lo diferencia de los dem\u00e1s: tras dejar la academia se ha dedicado a la pintura, y al volver brevemente a la vieja escuela reflexiona con cierta melancol\u00eda sobre la vida que podr\u00eda haber llevado: \u00abLo recorri\u00f3 una oleada de tristeza: recuerdos de desfiles, del final de los bailes, los permisos de Navidad [...]. Todo aquello se hab\u00eda acabado, pero esa clase de cosas nunca quedaban definitivamente atr\u00e1s.\u00bb<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"nqz5k31\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Los a\u00f1os en los que Salter abandon\u00f3 la vida de acci\u00f3n para dedicarse a la literatura atestiguaron una fascinante transformaci\u00f3n de Estados Unidos: la emoci\u00f3n y las certezas de los tiempos de guerra se vieron reemplazadas por la cruda realidad de la vida 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es un fen\u00f3meno poco com\u00fan: el del hombre de acci\u00f3n que se convierte en un escritor exitoso, m\u00e1s que exitoso \u2014 el tipo de carrera que Hemingway s\u00f3lo pudo so\u00f1ar \u2014. Tras formarse como piloto en West Point, lo destinaron a Filipinas y Jap\u00f3n; y tras hacer un posgrado en la Universidad de Georgetown, lo transfirieron al Mando A\u00e9reo T\u00e1ctico. Un par de a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s se present\u00f3 voluntario para servir en la guerra de Corea y recibi\u00f3 entrenamiento como piloto del caza F-86 Sabre. Al cabo, particip\u00f3 en m\u00e1s de un centenar de misiones de combate. Sus dos primeras novelas, <em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/28048-ebook-los-cazadores-9788418107368\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Los cazadores<\/a>\u00a0(1957; Salamandra, 2020) y The Arm of Flesh<\/em> (1961), est\u00e1n inspiradas en esas experiencias; eran obras de principiante sobre las que a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s se mostr\u00f3 muy cr\u00edtico, aunque volvi\u00f3 a publicar la segunda en el a\u00f1o 2000 con el t\u00edtulo de <em>Cassada.<\/em><\/p><p>En total, Salter sirvi\u00f3 doce a\u00f1os en la Fuerza A\u00e9rea y otros tres o cuatro como reservista <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/joseph-heller-por-rodrigo-fresan-american-mad-man-psycho\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">antes de abandonar la vida militar para dedicarse a tiempo completo a escribir<\/a><\/span>. Debi\u00f3 de ser una decisi\u00f3n dif\u00edcil: era un aviador nato y llevaba en la sangre la emoci\u00f3n del combate; adem\u00e1s, estaba casado y ten\u00eda dos hijos peque\u00f1os. Sus primeros libros no gozaron del favor de los editores ni del p\u00fablico y \u00e9l empez\u00f3 a granjearse la temida fama de \u00abescritor para escritores\u00bb; a pesar de ese terrible h\u00e1ndicap, se lanz\u00f3 al mercado y empez\u00f3 a escribir guiones de cine, una experiencia que result\u00f3 descorazonadora, como para tantos otros. El cuento \u00abEl cine\u00bb, con su t\u00edtulo sard\u00f3nicamente pomposo y su estilo lleno de lo que los editores de cine llaman \u00absaltos de corte\u00bb <em>(jump cuts),<\/em> refleja a la perfecci\u00f3n su desencanto: \u00abS\u00ed, t\u00fa apunta, apunta\u00bb, insta un director a su protagonista. \u00abEstoy diciendo una serie de cosas brillantes.\u00bb<\/p><p>Finalmente, escribi\u00f3 un guion para Robert Redford y, cuando \u00e9ste lo rechaz\u00f3, \u00e9l lo convirti\u00f3 en la novela <em>En solitario<\/em> (1979): una metamorfosis de lo m\u00e1s acertada que se\u00f1al\u00f3 el final de su per\u00edodo cinematogr\u00e1fico.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cd268pn\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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a\u00f1os en los que Salter abandon\u00f3 la vida de acci\u00f3n para dedicarse a la literatura atestiguaron una fascinante transformaci\u00f3n de Estados Unidos: la emoci\u00f3n y las certezas de los tiempos de guerra se vieron reemplazadas por la cruda realidad de la vida civil. Las mujeres, que durante la contienda hab\u00edan disfrutado de libertades jam\u00e1s so\u00f1adas hasta entonces en el terreno laboral, la casa y la cama, tuvieron que despojarse de sus monos de trabajo \u2014 literal y figurativamente \u2014 y volver a los vestidos de guing\u00e1n y los zapatos de tac\u00f3n.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/raymond-chandler-la-noche-de-los-oscar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Hollywood fue una de las fuerzas impulsoras<\/a><\/span> de esa campa\u00f1a normativa \u2014 basta recordar a Doris Day y aquellas comedias musicales llenas de tel\u00e9fonos blancos y protagonistas viriles como Rock Hudson.<\/p><p>Salter escribe sobre la posguerra con perspicacia, precisi\u00f3n e ingenio. Los primeros relatos, datados entre las d\u00e9cadas de 1960 y 1980, tienen un ritmo jazz\u00edstico y el fulgor satinado y fr\u00e1gil del mundo de <em>Mad Men.<\/em> Los personajes son nerviosos y astutos y se utilizan unos a otros. Estamos en la segunda mitad del siglo estadounidense por excelencia y se est\u00e1n planificando <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/lawrence-wright-la-torre-elevada\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">las Torres Gemelas<\/a><\/span>, \u00bfqu\u00e9 podr\u00eda salir mal? Y sin embargo, casi todo sale mal. En \u00abVeinte minutos\u00bb, uno de los relatos m\u00e1s famosos de Salter, el caballo tira a una mujer rica que se queda tendida en el suelo y, mientras agoniza, repasa momentos aleatorios de su pasado que, por alguna raz\u00f3n, no terminan de conformar una vida. \u00abQuedaban pendientes todas las cosas que hab\u00eda tenido la intenci\u00f3n de hacer alguna vez: volver al este, visitar a ciertos amigos, vivir un a\u00f1o junto al mar. No pod\u00eda creer que \u00e9se fuera el fin...\u00bb<\/p><p>Los personajes de Salter est\u00e1n descritos de manera imprecisa y, sin embargo, se vuelven memorables al instante. Se le da especialmente bien escribir sobre mujeres j\u00f3venes, una habilidad que ha conservado a lo largo de toda su carrera; basta con leer la escena inicial de \u00abCarisma\u00bb, en la que dos j\u00f3venes brillantes que est\u00e1n en una fiesta en Nueva York hablan de Lucien Freud, a quien una de ellas ha visto mirando cuadros en el Museo Metropolitano:<\/p><p>\u2014\u00bfY c\u00f3mo puede hacer tantas cosas?<\/p><p>\u2014Ni idea \u2014respondi\u00f3 Cecily.<\/p><p>Pensaron en ello.<\/p><p>\u2014Aun as\u00ed, yo me lo follar\u00eda \u2014admiti\u00f3.<\/p><p>\u2014\u00bfS\u00ed?<\/p><p>\u2014Ahora mismo.<\/p><p>\u2014Yo tambi\u00e9n.<\/p><p>Muchos cuentos de Salter est\u00e1n cargados de una tensi\u00f3n er\u00f3tica de alto voltaje. En la eterna guerra entre hombres y mujeres, sus personajes se apresuran a tomar posiciones en el frente y plantarse cara. La mayor\u00eda de las veces, la lucha est\u00e1 llena de golpes bajos. En \u00abAmerican Express\u00bb, dos abogados, Frank y Alan, ambos exitosos, zafios y \u00e1vidos de mundo, se toman unas largas vacaciones en Italia y, mientras recorren Arezzo en coche, recogen en una esquina a una colegiala que Frank se lleva a su habitaci\u00f3n de hotel. \u00abEn un momento determinado le pareci\u00f3 que ella temblaba, que su cuerpo se estremec\u00eda. \\\"\u00bfEst\u00e1s bien?\\\", le pregunt\u00f3.\u00bb M\u00e1s tarde, los tres viajan juntos a Florencia, Spoleto y otras ciudades tur\u00edsticas e, inevitablemente, Alan empieza a desear a la chica. Entonces, el bueno de Frank se ofrece con total naturalidad a compartirla: eso hacen los colegas, despu\u00e9s de todo. La chica, la ni\u00f1a, no cuenta; es pr\u00e1cticamente un objeto. 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En apariencia, no sucede nada relevante: la acci\u00f3n crucial est\u00e1 como sumergida o tiene lugar en los espacios entre las palabras. El cuento es un despliegue de virtuosismo, un brillante ejemplo del arte de decir poco y transmitir mucho. Al final, un p\u00e1jaro enjaulado muere y entendemos que con \u00e9l mueren muchas m\u00e1s cosas. Las \u00faltimas frases se sirven del material m\u00e1s banal para crear una desolaci\u00f3n estremecedora: \u00abTiene los pechos peque\u00f1os y los pezones grandes; tambi\u00e9n, como ella misma dice, un trasero m\u00e1s bien grande. Su padre tiene tres secretarias. Hamburgo est\u00e1 cerca del mar.\u00bb<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"3973j81\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Los personajes de Salter est\u00e1n descritos de manera imprecisa y, sin embargo, se vuelven memorables al instante. Se le da especialmente bien escribir sobre mujeres j\u00f3venes, una habilidad que ha conservado a lo largo de toda su carrera.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"6ff1fpa\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>All\u00ed, como en muchos otros lugares, Salter utiliza el correlato objetivo con un efecto brillante. En uno de los cuentos m\u00e1s conmovedores y tristemente hermosos, \u00abOcaso\u00bb, la se\u00f1ora Chandler, una divorciada de cierta edad y posici\u00f3n social (\u00abSab\u00eda organizar cenas, cuidar perros, entrar en restaurantes...\u00bb), recibe la visita de su flem\u00e1tico amante, que le anuncia que se ha reconciliado con su esposa y va a volver con ella. Para la se\u00f1ora Chandler es una p\u00e9rdida entre muchas, la m\u00e1s dura de las cuales fue la muerte de su hijo menor. Reza por ese ni\u00f1o: \u00abAy, Se\u00f1or, no dejes de fijarte en \u00e9l, \u00a1es tan peque\u00f1ajo!\u00bb El relato no tiene m\u00e1s de ocho p\u00e1ginas, pero posee una gran fuerza, sobre todo la secuencia final, perfectamente modulada y de una intimidad desgarradora. A lo largo del mismo se repiten im\u00e1genes de gansos salvajes que son abatidos por cazadores y, a medida que el atardecer da paso a la noche, la mujer siente que la oscuridad invade su coraz\u00f3n:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bkube3s\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Imagin\u00f3 que en alg\u00fan lugar, sobre la hierba h\u00fameda, yacer\u00eda alguno con el pecho oscurecido y empapado, el elegante cuello extendido todav\u00eda, las grandes alas esforz\u00e1ndose por batir, la sangre gorgoteando en los hoyuelos del pico. Ech\u00f3 a andar por la casa encendiendo luces. Ca\u00eda la lluvia, romp\u00eda el mar, un camarada yac\u00eda muerto en la arremolinada oscuridad.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"40\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"jffxl4w\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En \u00abContigo, Mi Se\u00f1or\u00bb, el elemento er\u00f3tico se funde con el poder disruptivo del arte. Brennan, un poeta borracho y fracasado que vive en el barrio, interrumpe una cena burguesa. Entre los comensales hay una joven llamada Ardis que reacciona alarmada y fascinada a la vez ante la presencia perturbadora del hombre. Al d\u00eda siguiente, al volver de la playa, da un rodeo hasta la casa de Brennan. No parece haber nadie, aparte de un enorme perro silencioso que la sigue hasta su casa (\u00abTrotaba de un modo extra\u00f1o, como un hombre grueso apresur\u00e1ndose bajo la lluvia\u00bb) y se queda con ella, durmiendo en la hierba detr\u00e1s de la vivienda. Ardis lleva al perro de vuelta a la casa de Brennan y, al ver que nuevamente no hay nadie, entra a echar un vistazo. Es una experiencia extra\u00f1a e inquietante para ella, que apenas puede creer que se est\u00e9 comportando as\u00ed. \u00abPausadamente, sin pensar, empez\u00f3 a quitarse la ropa. No lleg\u00f3 m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de la cintura, sorprendida por lo que estaba haciendo.\u00bb Al final, el perro deja de formar parte de su vida, \u00abhab\u00eda desaparecido o se hab\u00eda extraviado; tal vez su nombre saldr\u00eda a relucir en alg\u00fan verso, aunque lo m\u00e1s probable era que nadie lo recordara, salvo ella\u00bb.<\/p><p>Una versi\u00f3n fantasmal del perro del poeta recorre todos estos relatos como un s\u00edmbolo del misterioso y amenazante poder de la vida, como un recordatorio mudo e inexorable de la imposibilidad de domesticarla y de alcanzar aquello que m\u00e1s anhelamos. James Salter es un mago cuyos prodigios est\u00e1n exquisitamente ejecutados, pero a la vez demuestran una s\u00f3lida comprensi\u00f3n de las realidades cotidianas. En estas p\u00e1ginas, consigue una y otra vez lo que John Updike defini\u00f3 como la tarea del escritor: \u00abDescubrir la belleza en lo ordinario.\u00bb Al realizar esa tarea, Salter muestra lo ordinario como lo que realmente es: lo verdaderamente maravilloso.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"60\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"do90oiz\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>M\u00c1S CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/John-Banville-Benjamin-Black-Rodrigo-Fresan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abBenjamin Black est\u00e1 muerto (y vive en Espa\u00f1a)\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/zelda-fitzgerald-francis-scott-fitzgerald-cartas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Zelda Fitzgerald en tres cartas<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/cormac-mccarthy-emiliano-monge\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cormac McCarthy por Emiliano Monge: un padre y un hijo, un hijo y un padre<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/joseph-heller-por-rodrigo-fresan-american-mad-man-psycho\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Joseph Heller por Rodrigo Fres\u00e1n: American Mad Man Psycho<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/donald-ray-pollock-guillermo-saccomanno\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Donald Ray Pollock por Guillermo Saccomanno: un predicador en la noche oscura<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/jonathan-franzen-encrucijadas-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Franzen por Franzen: retrato de familia en 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10 minutos
James Salter en Gales, en una foto de mayo de 2013. Crédito: Getty Images.

James Salter en Gales, en una foto de mayo de 2013. Crédito: Getty Images.

Nada hay más difícil en literatura que representar una realidad común y corriente: sólo los mejores han tenido éxito en esa tarea. Si se trata de novelas, enseguida pensamos en Flaubert o en las primeras escenas del Ulises de Joyce; si de relatos, en Chéjov, por supuesto, y de nuevo en Joyce y sus Dublineses. Esos escritores maravillosos no escriben sobre la realidad: su obra es la realidad en sí misma. Al leerlos, nos olvidamos de que estamos ante una versión muy elaborada y mediatizada del mundo. Emma Bovary moribunda, Leopold Bloom llevándole el desayuno a la cama a su mujer, la señora del perrito que se enamora y se desenamora y vuelve a enamorarse, Gabriel Conroy contemplando los níveos restos de su matrimonio y de sí mismo... todas esas escenas nos llegan con la fuerza de una vida realmente vivida, inmediata, tangible, prosaica y sublime a la vez.

Probablemente, James Salter es mejor conocido como novelista. Dos de sus libros, Juego y distracción y Años luz, son clásicos del género, y en 2013, a los ochenta y siete, publicó Todo lo que hay, una novela extensa y ambiciosa sobre la guerra y la vida de los soldados después de la guerra, sobre la escritura y el mundo editorial, sobre Estados Unidos y Europa, sobre el amor y la pérdida del amor; una obra fascinante que cualquier escritor con la mitad de sus años habría querido escribir. Con ella, llegó esta magnífica colección de cuentos provenientes de dos volúmenes más bien breves: Anochecer (1988) y La última noche (2005; Salamandra, 2006), a los que se suma un espléndido regalo: el relato «Carisma». En todos ellos, Salter demuestra ser un magistral cronista de la vida cotidiana.

Su nombre de nacimiento era James Arnold Horowitz, y vio la luz en Nueva Jersey en 1925. Su padre era agente inmobiliario, pero se había graduado en West Point y había servido en el ejército; siguiendo su ejemplo, el joven Horowitz entró en esa misma academia militar a los diecisiete años. Corría el verano de 1942 y la guerra mundial hacía estragos. Fue un estudiante aplicado y se graduó en 1945 con mención honorífica. El cuento evocativamente titulado «Hijos perdidos» — en cuya escena inicial resuena de un modo inquietante el cuento «Después de la carrera» de Joyce, sobre el desenfreno juvenil —, describe una reunión de antiguos alumnos de West Point con un estilo directo y expeditivo:

En la zona de la recepción se celebraba una fiesta de bienvenida. Algunas caras apenas habían cambiado, pero en otros casos, como en el de Reemstma, muchos no tenían otra opción que leer varias veces el distintivo con su nombre. Alguien iba y venía con albornoz de cadete, una cámara en una mano y el flash en la otra; otros habían preferido instalarse a beber en las barracas. Se abrían puertas de las que salían las voces en tropel.

Ésta es la clase de escritura que Salter domina como nadie: el ritmo es apresurado, pero de vez en cuando salta un detalle — el hecho de que a varias personas no les quede otra que leer «varias veces» el distintivo con el nombre de Reemstma para enterarse de quién es — al que la atención del lector se queda enganchada como una uña en un vestido de seda. Y no es sólo el peculiar nombre de Reemstma lo que lo diferencia de los demás: tras dejar la academia se ha dedicado a la pintura, y al volver brevemente a la vieja escuela reflexiona con cierta melancolía sobre la vida que podría haber llevado: «Lo recorrió una oleada de tristeza: recuerdos de desfiles, del final de los bailes, los permisos de Navidad [...]. Todo aquello se había acabado, pero esa clase de cosas nunca quedaban definitivamente atrás.»

Los años en los que Salter abandonó la vida de acción para dedicarse a la literatura atestiguaron una fascinante transformación de Estados Unidos: la emoción y las certezas de los tiempos de guerra se vieron reemplazadas por la cruda realidad de la vida civil.

Salter es un fenómeno poco común: el del hombre de acción que se convierte en un escritor exitoso, más que exitoso — el tipo de carrera que Hemingway sólo pudo soñar —. Tras formarse como piloto en West Point, lo destinaron a Filipinas y Japón; y tras hacer un posgrado en la Universidad de Georgetown, lo transfirieron al Mando Aéreo Táctico. Un par de años después se presentó voluntario para servir en la guerra de Corea y recibió entrenamiento como piloto del caza F-86 Sabre. Al cabo, participó en más de un centenar de misiones de combate. Sus dos primeras novelas, Los cazadores (1957; Salamandra, 2020) y The Arm of Flesh (1961), están inspiradas en esas experiencias; eran obras de principiante sobre las que años después se mostró muy crítico, aunque volvió a publicar la segunda en el año 2000 con el título de Cassada.

En total, Salter sirvió doce años en la Fuerza Aérea y otros tres o cuatro como reservista antes de abandonar la vida militar para dedicarse a tiempo completo a escribir. Debió de ser una decisión difícil: era un aviador nato y llevaba en la sangre la emoción del combate; además, estaba casado y tenía dos hijos pequeños. Sus primeros libros no gozaron del favor de los editores ni del público y él empezó a granjearse la temida fama de «escritor para escritores»; a pesar de ese terrible hándicap, se lanzó al mercado y empezó a escribir guiones de cine, una experiencia que resultó descorazonadora, como para tantos otros. El cuento «El cine», con su título sardónicamente pomposo y su estilo lleno de lo que los editores de cine llaman «saltos de corte» (jump cuts), refleja a la perfección su desencanto: «Sí, tú apunta, apunta», insta un director a su protagonista. «Estoy diciendo una serie de cosas brillantes.»

Finalmente, escribió un guion para Robert Redford y, cuando éste lo rechazó, él lo convirtió en la novela En solitario (1979): una metamorfosis de lo más acertada que señaló el final de su período cinematográfico.

El actor estadounidense Robert Mitchum y la actriz sueca May Britt en el set de Entre dos pasiones, película dirigida por Dick Powell basada en la Los cazadores, la primera novela de James Salter. Crédito: Getty Images.

El actor estadounidense Robert Mitchum y la actriz sueca May Britt en el set de Entre dos pasiones, película dirigida por Dick Powell basada en la Los cazadores, la primera novela de James Salter. Crédito: Getty Images.

Los años en los que Salter abandonó la vida de acción para dedicarse a la literatura atestiguaron una fascinante transformación de Estados Unidos: la emoción y las certezas de los tiempos de guerra se vieron reemplazadas por la cruda realidad de la vida civil. Las mujeres, que durante la contienda habían disfrutado de libertades jamás soñadas hasta entonces en el terreno laboral, la casa y la cama, tuvieron que despojarse de sus monos de trabajo — literal y figurativamente — y volver a los vestidos de guingán y los zapatos de tacón. Hollywood fue una de las fuerzas impulsoras de esa campaña normativa — basta recordar a Doris Day y aquellas comedias musicales llenas de teléfonos blancos y protagonistas viriles como Rock Hudson.

Salter escribe sobre la posguerra con perspicacia, precisión e ingenio. Los primeros relatos, datados entre las décadas de 1960 y 1980, tienen un ritmo jazzístico y el fulgor satinado y frágil del mundo de Mad Men. Los personajes son nerviosos y astutos y se utilizan unos a otros. Estamos en la segunda mitad del siglo estadounidense por excelencia y se están planificando las Torres Gemelas, ¿qué podría salir mal? Y sin embargo, casi todo sale mal. En «Veinte minutos», uno de los relatos más famosos de Salter, el caballo tira a una mujer rica que se queda tendida en el suelo y, mientras agoniza, repasa momentos aleatorios de su pasado que, por alguna razón, no terminan de conformar una vida. «Quedaban pendientes todas las cosas que había tenido la intención de hacer alguna vez: volver al este, visitar a ciertos amigos, vivir un año junto al mar. No podía creer que ése fuera el fin...»

Los personajes de Salter están descritos de manera imprecisa y, sin embargo, se vuelven memorables al instante. Se le da especialmente bien escribir sobre mujeres jóvenes, una habilidad que ha conservado a lo largo de toda su carrera; basta con leer la escena inicial de «Carisma», en la que dos jóvenes brillantes que están en una fiesta en Nueva York hablan de Lucien Freud, a quien una de ellas ha visto mirando cuadros en el Museo Metropolitano:

—¿Y cómo puede hacer tantas cosas?

—Ni idea —respondió Cecily.

Pensaron en ello.

—Aun así, yo me lo follaría —admitió.

—¿Sí?

—Ahora mismo.

—Yo también.

Muchos cuentos de Salter están cargados de una tensión erótica de alto voltaje. En la eterna guerra entre hombres y mujeres, sus personajes se apresuran a tomar posiciones en el frente y plantarse cara. La mayoría de las veces, la lucha está llena de golpes bajos. En «American Express», dos abogados, Frank y Alan, ambos exitosos, zafios y ávidos de mundo, se toman unas largas vacaciones en Italia y, mientras recorren Arezzo en coche, recogen en una esquina a una colegiala que Frank se lleva a su habitación de hotel. «En un momento determinado le pareció que ella temblaba, que su cuerpo se estremecía. "¿Estás bien?", le preguntó.» Más tarde, los tres viajan juntos a Florencia, Spoleto y otras ciudades turísticas e, inevitablemente, Alan empieza a desear a la chica. Entonces, el bueno de Frank se ofrece con total naturalidad a compartirla: eso hacen los colegas, después de todo. La chica, la niña, no cuenta; es prácticamente un objeto. En unas pocas páginas, Salter crea algo así como una versión en miniatura de una novela de Henry James: estadounidenses en Europa, el abuso de la inocencia, la sensación extrañamente contingente de que la vida transcurre. «No sabía qué hacer, pero aparte de eso todo era perfecto.»

James Salter. Crédito: Getty Images.

James Salter. Crédito: Getty Images.

En otro relato, «Am Strande von Tanger», otro trío viajero compuesto por un joven estadounidense y dos mujeres alemanas pasa un tiempo en Barcelona. En apariencia, no sucede nada relevante: la acción crucial está como sumergida o tiene lugar en los espacios entre las palabras. El cuento es un despliegue de virtuosismo, un brillante ejemplo del arte de decir poco y transmitir mucho. Al final, un pájaro enjaulado muere y entendemos que con él mueren muchas más cosas. Las últimas frases se sirven del material más banal para crear una desolación estremecedora: «Tiene los pechos pequeños y los pezones grandes; también, como ella misma dice, un trasero más bien grande. Su padre tiene tres secretarias. Hamburgo está cerca del mar.»

Los personajes de Salter están descritos de manera imprecisa y, sin embargo, se vuelven memorables al instante. Se le da especialmente bien escribir sobre mujeres jóvenes, una habilidad que ha conservado a lo largo de toda su carrera.

Allí, como en muchos otros lugares, Salter utiliza el correlato objetivo con un efecto brillante. En uno de los cuentos más conmovedores y tristemente hermosos, «Ocaso», la señora Chandler, una divorciada de cierta edad y posición social («Sabía organizar cenas, cuidar perros, entrar en restaurantes...»), recibe la visita de su flemático amante, que le anuncia que se ha reconciliado con su esposa y va a volver con ella. Para la señora Chandler es una pérdida entre muchas, la más dura de las cuales fue la muerte de su hijo menor. Reza por ese niño: «Ay, Señor, no dejes de fijarte en él, ¡es tan pequeñajo!» El relato no tiene más de ocho páginas, pero posee una gran fuerza, sobre todo la secuencia final, perfectamente modulada y de una intimidad desgarradora. A lo largo del mismo se repiten imágenes de gansos salvajes que son abatidos por cazadores y, a medida que el atardecer da paso a la noche, la mujer siente que la oscuridad invade su corazón:

Imaginó que en algún lugar, sobre la hierba húmeda, yacería alguno con el pecho oscurecido y empapado, el elegante cuello extendido todavía, las grandes alas esforzándose por batir, la sangre gorgoteando en los hoyuelos del pico. Echó a andar por la casa encendiendo luces. Caía la lluvia, rompía el mar, un camarada yacía muerto en la arremolinada oscuridad.

En «Contigo, Mi Señor», el elemento erótico se funde con el poder disruptivo del arte. Brennan, un poeta borracho y fracasado que vive en el barrio, interrumpe una cena burguesa. Entre los comensales hay una joven llamada Ardis que reacciona alarmada y fascinada a la vez ante la presencia perturbadora del hombre. Al día siguiente, al volver de la playa, da un rodeo hasta la casa de Brennan. No parece haber nadie, aparte de un enorme perro silencioso que la sigue hasta su casa («Trotaba de un modo extraño, como un hombre grueso apresurándose bajo la lluvia») y se queda con ella, durmiendo en la hierba detrás de la vivienda. Ardis lleva al perro de vuelta a la casa de Brennan y, al ver que nuevamente no hay nadie, entra a echar un vistazo. Es una experiencia extraña e inquietante para ella, que apenas puede creer que se esté comportando así. «Pausadamente, sin pensar, empezó a quitarse la ropa. No llegó más allá de la cintura, sorprendida por lo que estaba haciendo.» Al final, el perro deja de formar parte de su vida, «había desaparecido o se había extraviado; tal vez su nombre saldría a relucir en algún verso, aunque lo más probable era que nadie lo recordara, salvo ella».

Una versión fantasmal del perro del poeta recorre todos estos relatos como un símbolo del misterioso y amenazante poder de la vida, como un recordatorio mudo e inexorable de la imposibilidad de domesticarla y de alcanzar aquello que más anhelamos. James Salter es un mago cuyos prodigios están exquisitamente ejecutados, pero a la vez demuestran una sólida comprensión de las realidades cotidianas. En estas páginas, consigue una y otra vez lo que John Updike definió como la tarea del escritor: «Descubrir la belleza en lo ordinario.» Al realizar esa tarea, Salter muestra lo ordinario como lo que realmente es: lo verdaderamente maravilloso.

Salter y Banville, Banville y Salter

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