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El verdadero legado de Al Qaeda

«La torre elevada» es un extraordinario trabajo de investigación y narración periodística que comienza en las vidas cotidianas afectadas por los atentados del 11-S para sumergirse de a poco –de NY a Jartum, pasando por Langley y Guantánamo– hasta las profundidades de una trama compleja, hilvanada por amistades, traiciones, casualidades y perseverancias que permiten explicar un evento complejo cuyos efectos Occidente no termina de conocer. En este prólogo a la edición conmemorativa publicada en Estados Unidos, Lawrence Wright explica cómo construyó esa inquietante figura en el tapiz de la Historia reciente y qué nos queda aún por ver.

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Nadie se puso a gritar, nadie entr\u00f3 en p\u00e1nico. La puerta del ascensor estaba atascada y se quedaron abiertas unas tres cuartas partes. El ascensorista dijo: \\\"\u00bfQu\u00e9 ha sido eso?\\\". Yo pensaba que hab\u00eda estallado una bomba en el edificio\u00bb. Kjeldsen sali\u00f3 al vest\u00edbulo y el humo ya empezaba a llenar el patio interior. Vio restos de cemento en el suelo. \u00abHab\u00eda un fragmento del tama\u00f1o de un despertador y, al darme la vuelta, vi un trozo de mesa\u00bb. Vio una puerta que daba al exterior y crey\u00f3 que era una salida, pero llevaba a una terraza cerrada. Hab\u00eda calzado por todas partes \u2014zapatos de tac\u00f3n, mocasines y zapatos de vestir\u2014, adem\u00e1s de equipajes y lo que, seg\u00fan descubri\u00f3, eran torsos humanos. <strong>\u00abLa gente estaba saltando [\u2026] agitando los brazos y las piernas al caer. 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emociones de aquellos momentos a\u00fan son dif\u00edciles de expresar. Mientras entrevist\u00e9 a Kjeldsen a lo largo de dos d\u00edas, lloraba al escribir, lleno de ira y tristeza, y trataba de contener la desesperaci\u00f3n por momentos. Pero apareci\u00f3 otro sentimiento que compart\u00eda con muchos miembros de mi generaci\u00f3n: <strong>nuestro pa\u00eds tendr\u00eda que defender algo otra vez.<\/strong> Hasta el momento nos hab\u00edamos zafado con facilidad, sin oposici\u00f3n desde la Guerra Fr\u00eda. Los hechos hist\u00f3ricos\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/harari-sandel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u2014guerras mundiales, depresiones econ\u00f3micas, plagas y revoluciones\u2014<\/a><\/span> no formaban parte de nuestra experiencia. Pero, ahora, nuestro pa\u00eds estaba siendo atacado y nos hab\u00eda llegado el turno de demostrar una vez m\u00e1s que Estados Unidos era una fuerza del bien en el mundo.<\/p><p>Esa sensaci\u00f3n se desmoron\u00f3 con excesiva rapidez. La naci\u00f3n, herida, se sumi\u00f3 en la confusi\u00f3n y la desuni\u00f3n, se meti\u00f3 en una guerra innecesaria y tortur\u00f3 a sospechosos en celdas secretas.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"q7983bq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abHab\u00eda un hombre sin piel. Estaba cubierto de polvo blanco. Parec\u00eda un espectro. Y, cuando pas\u00e9 a toda prisa junto a \u00e9l, inhal\u00f3 dos veces, una especie de \\\"ah, ah\\\", y se qued\u00f3 quieto como el cemento que lo rodeaba\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"gcm0g42\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Empec\u00e9 a leer las necrol\u00f3gicas publicadas en internet, buscando a individuos destacados cuya vida hiciera avanzar mi relato. En la p\u00e1gina de <em>The Washington Post<\/em> encontr\u00e9 una menci\u00f3n a John O'Neill, que hab\u00eda sido director de antiterrorismo en la oficina del FBI de Nueva York, la cual ten\u00eda en su haber la orden de detenci\u00f3n de Osama bin Laden y al-Qaeda. Fue expulsado del FBI por sacar informaci\u00f3n clasificada de la oficina y empez\u00f3 a trabajar como jefe de seguridad en el World Trade Center.\u00a0<strong><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/monica-bernabe-afganistan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">En lugar de dar caza a Bin Laden, Bin Laden le dio caza a \u00e9l.<\/a><\/span><\/strong> La historia de O\u2019Neill nos llevar\u00eda a los dominios secretos del espionaje estadounidense y desvelar\u00eda c\u00f3mo y por qu\u00e9 no frenamos el complot para atacar a Estados Unidos.\u00a0<\/p><p>Sobre mi investigaci\u00f3n period\u00edstica pend\u00eda una inquietante experiencia personal. En 1998, tres a\u00f1os antes del 11-S, lleg\u00f3 a los cines <em>Estado de sitio,<\/em> una pel\u00edcula de la cual fui coguionista. La pregunta que yo planteaba en el guion era:<strong> \u00bfqu\u00e9 suceder\u00eda si unos terroristas atacaran Estados Unidos?<\/strong> En realidad, al-Qaeda ya hab\u00eda colocado bombas en dos embajadas estadounidenses en \u00c1frica Oriental, que acabaron con la vida de 224 personas en agosto de ese a\u00f1o. El mismo mes se produjo otro atentado. El 25 de agosto de 1998 estall\u00f3 un artefacto en un restaurante Planet Hollywood de Ciudad del Cabo, Sud\u00e1frica. Murieron dos turistas brit\u00e1nicos y una ni\u00f1a perdi\u00f3 una pierna. Un grupo islamista radical reivindic\u00f3 la autor\u00eda y asegur\u00f3 que fueron los tr\u00e1ileres de <em>Estado de sitio<\/em> los que los hab\u00edan motivado a actuar. Hab\u00edan atacado un Planet Hollywood porque Bruce Willis, que participaba en la pel\u00edcula, era uno de los copropietarios. Cuando se estren\u00f3 el largometraje en noviembre, fue recibido con protestas de musulmanes que consideraban que Hollywood los estereotipaba. <strong>Fue un fracaso de taquilla. Despu\u00e9s del 11-S, se convirti\u00f3 en la pel\u00edcula m\u00e1s alquilada en Estados Unidos.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>La trama de <em>Estado de sitio<\/em> ahonda en el antagonismo manifiesto entre el FBI y la CIA. En aquel momento, pugnaban por controlar el terrorismo dentro de Estados Unidos. En la pel\u00edcula, Denzel Washington ocupa el puesto que desempe\u00f1aba John O'Neill en la vida real. La CIA estaba representada por Annette Bening. En la pel\u00edcula, aprend\u00edan a trabajar juntos para impedir los ataques. Creo que por eso la gente alquil\u00f3 <em>Estado de sitio:<\/em> el final era esperanzador. Pero en la vida real eso no sucedi\u00f3. <strong>Hoy sigo convencido de que habr\u00eda podido evitarse el 11-S si esos dos organismos hubieran cooperado.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>En febrero de 2002, cinco meses despu\u00e9s de los atentados, firm\u00e9 el contrato para escribir un libro calificado como \u00abuna cr\u00f3nica exhaustiva de los acontecimientos del 11 de septiembre de 2001\u00bb. Supuestamente, deb\u00eda entregar la mitad del libro en febrero del a\u00f1o siguiente. Tach\u00e9 febrero en el contrato y lo reemplac\u00e9 por marzo. <strong>Poco imagin\u00e1bamos el editor y yo d\u00f3nde nos est\u00e1bamos metiendo. Present\u00e9 el manuscrito completo cinco a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Esos a\u00f1os fueron de los m\u00e1s solitarios de mi vida, pero tambi\u00e9n de los m\u00e1s emocionantes. Primero viaj\u00e9 a Egipto para escribir sobre Ayman al-Zawahiri, que en aquel momento era casi un desconocido en Occidente. Sus familiares y ac\u00f3litos lo describ\u00edan como el cerebro detr\u00e1s de Bin Laden. Treinta a\u00f1os antes, yo hab\u00eda sido profesor de ingl\u00e9s en la Universidad Estadounidense de El Cairo (AUC). Zawahiri era cuatro a\u00f1os m\u00e1s joven que yo, es decir, ten\u00eda m\u00e1s o menos la misma edad que mis alumnos de la AUC. Por aquel entonces, estudiaba medicina en la Universidad de El Cairo. Su vida es una demostraci\u00f3n del grado de compromiso que ten\u00edan nuestros adversarios. A los quince a\u00f1os, Zawahiri hab\u00eda creado una c\u00e9lula clandestina para derrocar al gobierno egipcio.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"4p80y0u\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abNuestro pa\u00eds estaba siendo atacado y nos hab\u00eda llegado el turno de demostrar una vez m\u00e1s que Estados Unidos era una fuerza del bien en el mundo. Esa sensaci\u00f3n se desmoron\u00f3 con excesiva rapidez. 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Finalmente, encontr\u00e9 trabajo como profesor de j\u00f3venes periodistas en<em> The Saudi Gazette,<\/em> un diario en lengua inglesa con sede en Yeda, la ciudad natal de Bin Laden. Gozaba de m\u00e1s libertad como trabajador extranjero que como periodista, y los j\u00f3venes que ten\u00eda a mi cargo me brindaron informaci\u00f3n inestimable sobre su neur\u00f3tica y represiva sociedad.\u00a0<\/p><p>Yamal Jalifa era el mejor amigo de Bin Laden. Tambi\u00e9n trab\u00f3 amistad conmigo, lo que result\u00f3 un v\u00ednculo inesperado con el l\u00edder terrorista. Adem\u00e1s de ser una fuente animada y perspicaz, Yamal me permiti\u00f3 entrevistar a una de sus cuatro esposas, que era la hermana favorita de bin Laden. Yamal fue asesinado en Madagascar en 2007, donde era due\u00f1o de una mina de piedras preciosas. <strong>Los asesinos solo se llevaron el disco duro de su ordenador y dejaron el dinero y las joyas, cosa que hizo pensar a su familia que lo liquidaron las Fuerzas Especiales de Estados Unidos.<\/strong> Otro amigo y fuente valiosa fue el periodista Yamal Jashoggi, que hab\u00eda escrito cr\u00f3nicas sobre Bin Laden en Afganist\u00e1n y lo denunci\u00f3 p\u00fablicamente despu\u00e9s del 11-S. Fue asesinado en 2018 por agentes saud\u00edes supuestamente dirigidos por el pr\u00edncipe Muhammad bin Salman. Esos dos hombres eran fuentes muy preciadas que me proveyeron de conocimientos y detalles \u00edntimos sobre Bin Laden y su 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Yo segu\u00eda manteniendo la ingenua suposici\u00f3n de que los periodistas gozaban de una especie de inmunidad, una ilusi\u00f3n que se ha visto desmentida por la muerte de tantos valerosos compa\u00f1eros por todo el mundo, pero que era bastante \u00edntima para los periodistas que quer\u00edan entender esta nueva era de salvajismo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"hr315sc\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abYamal Jalifa era el mejor amigo de Bin Laden. Tambi\u00e9n trab\u00f3 amistad conmigo, lo que result\u00f3 un v\u00ednculo inesperado con el terrorista. Adem\u00e1s de ser una fuente animada y perspicaz, Yamal me permiti\u00f3 entrevistar a una de sus cuatro esposas, que era la hermana favorita de Bin Laden\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"h22wl7n\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Sin embargo, aquello pas\u00f3 factura f\u00edsica. Me hab\u00eda lesionado la espalda, y los interminables viajes en avi\u00f3n a Oriente Pr\u00f3ximo o el sur de Asia agravaron el dolor. Empec\u00e9 a llevar uno de esos voluminosos balones hinchables para sentarme. La primera vez que fui a Jartum, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/monica-bernabe-afganistan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">donde Bin Laden hab\u00eda reubicado al-Qaeda entre 1992 y 1996<\/a><\/span>, llevaba el bal\u00f3n. Me result\u00f3 muy pr\u00e1ctico un d\u00eda que llamaron a la puerta y un esp\u00eda sudan\u00e9s cuya confianza hab\u00eda intentado ganarme trajo a un hombre al que describi\u00f3 como miembro de al-Qaeda.<strong> Le ofrec\u00ed la \u00fanica silla que hab\u00eda. El esp\u00eda se ech\u00f3 en la cama y se qued\u00f3 dormido al instante. Yo me sent\u00e9 en el bal\u00f3n.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p>Esa nueva fuente era un hombre alegre que sol\u00eda darse una palmada en la rodilla cuando contaba algo gracioso, como el momento en que Bin Laden le anunci\u00f3 su intenci\u00f3n de fundar un grupo terrorista por la causa isl\u00e1mica que operara en todo el mundo. \u00abLe dije: \\\"\u00bfY c\u00f3mo piensas llevarlos hasta all\u00ed? \u00bfCon Air France?\\\"\u00bb. Palmada en la rodilla.\u00a0<\/p><p>Usaba solo el nombre de Loay y parec\u00eda saberlo todo sobre Bin Laden. Cuando volv\u00ed a Estados Unidos, logr\u00e9 identificarlo como a Muhammad Loay Baizid. Su nombre yihad\u00ed era Abu Rida al-Suri. Hab\u00eda sido asesor empresarial de Bin Laden en Jartum y fue el responsable de tomar notas durante la fundaci\u00f3n de al-Qaeda en Peshawar, Pakist\u00e1n, el 20 de agosto de 1988. \u00a1Si lo hubiera sabido! Volv\u00ed r\u00e1pidamente a Sud\u00e1n, pero Loay se negaba a verme. Accedi\u00f3 a reunirse conmigo en un tercer viaje y, en esa ocasi\u00f3n, me proporcion\u00f3 la informaci\u00f3n privilegiada que anhela todo periodista.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Loay, \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 no quisiste verme la \u00faltima vez? \u2014le pregunt\u00e9, un tanto molesto, mientras intentaba aliviar el dolor de espalda\u2014. Viajar a Jartum no es f\u00e1cil.<\/p><p>\u2014Bueno, no sab\u00eda hasta qu\u00e9 punto deb\u00eda tomarte en serio \u2014repuso\u2014. La \u00faltima vez que nos reunimos estabas sentado encima de un globo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"14\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"44\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"a629598\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abGrupos nacionales no isl\u00e1micos, neonazis, supremacistas blancos: en 2021, Christopher Wray, director del FBI, alud\u00eda a un bufet de ideolog\u00edas en el que los terroristas en potencia saltan de una causa a otra, tanteando movimientos para justificar una violencia por la que ya se sienten atra\u00eddos\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"246heie\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La organizaci\u00f3n que atac\u00f3 Estados Unidos en 2001 consist\u00eda en unos trescientos o cuatrocientos hombres, m\u00e1s o menos la misma cifra de combatientes de al-Qaeda que al parecer hay en Afganist\u00e1n ahora mismo. La red de al-Qaeda incluye a unos treinta mil o cuarenta mil combatientes en organizaciones afiliadas que van desde Marruecos hasta India. Otros grupos terroristas nacionales no isl\u00e1micos, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/Antonio-Scurati-Pablo-Simon-Mussolini-Fascismo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">entre ellos neonazis y supremacistas blancos<\/a><\/span>, siguen abiertamente el modelo de la creaci\u00f3n de Bin Laden. En 2021, Christopher Wray, director del FBI, alud\u00eda a un bufet de ideolog\u00edas en el que los terroristas en potencia saltan de una causa a otra, tanteando movimientos para justificar una violencia por la que ya se sienten atra\u00eddos.\u00a0<\/p><p>Ayman al-Zawahiri, el sucesor de Bin Laden, observaba en una ocasi\u00f3n que <strong>\u00abAl-Qaeda es antes un mensaje que una organizaci\u00f3n\u00bb.<\/strong> Ese mensaje ha sido recibido. El mundo que, en parte, al-Qaeda cre\u00f3 est\u00e1 repleto de ideolog\u00edas que atraen a gente marginada y desesperada, y tambi\u00e9n a otros que se sienten cautivados por la violencia y aspiran a dejar sus huellas sangrientas en el muro de la historia.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/corea-del-norte-florencia-grieco\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Sonriente y nuclear: Corea del Norte, la tierra del \u00faltimo l\u00edder comunista<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/harari-sandel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Yuval Noah Harari y Michael J. Sandel: estos son los fantasmas que recorren nuestro mundo<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/monica-bernabe-afganistan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">M\u00f3nica Bernab\u00e9 y Afganist\u00e1n a 20 a\u00f1os del 11-S: en el cementerio de los 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15 minutos

Crédito: Getty Images.

Empecé a informar sobre el 11-S aquella misma mañana. En Manhattan no funcionaban los teléfonos, así que envié un correo electrónico a David Remnick, mi director en The New Yorker, pidiéndole que me pusiera a trabajar. Aquella tarde, cuando se restablecieron las líneas, Remnick habló por teleconferencia con una docena de compañeros. Estábamos dispersados por todo el país, muchos por otros encargos. David nos pidió que recabáramos historias de gente cuya vida se había visto transformada por los acontecimientos, y él hilvanaría una narración con todas ellas. 

Contacté con Kirk Kjeldsen, un joven periodista que trabajaba para una empresa de finanzas llamada Risk Waters Group. El 11 de septiembre debía informar, supuestamente, sobre una conferencia que celebraría esa compañía en el World Trade Center. Kjeldsen se había quedado dormido en el metro y se pasó de parada, así que ya llegaba tarde cuando subió corriendo las escaleras mecánicas que llevaban a los ascensores. Le dijeron que había un ascensor que iba directo a la planta 78, donde tenía que coger otro hasta el restaurante Windows on the World, situado en la planta 106, la cima del que en su día fue el edificio más alto del mundo. 

Eran las 8.44. Kjeldsen esperó impaciente mientras un empleado sostenía las puertas del ascensor a una pareja que asistía a la misma conferencia. Si las puertas se hubieran cerrado y el ascensor hubiera empezado a subir, Kjeldsen habría perecido con las al menos doscientas personas que se quedaron atrapadas en los 198 ascensores de las dos torres del World Trade Center. Los huecos se convirtieron en sumideros para el combustible que escupían los aviones destrozados. Algunos pasajeros fueron incinerados o se precipitaron al vacío cuando se rompieron los cables. Pero a Kirk Kjeldsen le salvó la vida la pareja que se demoró en cruzar el vestíbulo. Justo cuando la mujer entraba en el ascensor, Kjeldsen vio una rosa tatuada en su tobillo. Y entonces, el edificio empezó a tambalearse.

«El ascensor subía y bajaba como un yoyó —me dijo Kjeldsen—. Nadie se puso a gritar, nadie entró en pánico. La puerta del ascensor estaba atascada y se quedaron abiertas unas tres cuartas partes. El ascensorista dijo: "¿Qué ha sido eso?". Yo pensaba que había estallado una bomba en el edificio». Kjeldsen salió al vestíbulo y el humo ya empezaba a llenar el patio interior. Vio restos de cemento en el suelo. «Había un fragmento del tamaño de un despertador y, al darme la vuelta, vi un trozo de mesa». Vio una puerta que daba al exterior y creyó que era una salida, pero llevaba a una terraza cerrada. Había calzado por todas partes —zapatos de tacón, mocasines y zapatos de vestir—, además de equipajes y lo que, según descubrió, eran torsos humanos. «La gente estaba saltando […] agitando los brazos y las piernas al caer. Puede que haya visto un millón de películas donde la gente se cae y siempre parece coreografiado, pero aquello fue realmente espantoso. Parecían lemmings, gente poniéndose en fila y cayendo, demasiada gente cayendo. Entonces aterrizó algo a mi lado y volví adentro». 

Había un hombre sin piel. «Estaba cubierto de polvo blanco. Parecía un espectro. Y, cuando pasé a toda prisa junto a él, inhaló dos veces, una especie de "ah, ah", y se quedó quieto como el cemento que lo rodeaba». Kjeldsen siguió a la multitud por una pasarela. Cuando salió, miró hacia arriba y vio el segundo avión. «Parecía que una flecha en llamas hubiera atravesado el edificio». El viaje de Kirk Kjeldsen desde el World Trade Center hasta su apartamento en Queens se convirtió en el contexto para mi crónica de The New Yorker, y es una fuente de algunas descripciones y sentimientos sobre ese día que aparecen en La torre elevada. También fue el relato que hizo que me diera cuenta de que tendría que dedicar gran parte de mi vida a entender por qué había sucedido todo aquello. 

Las emociones de aquellos momentos aún son difíciles de expresar. Mientras entrevisté a Kjeldsen a lo largo de dos días, lloraba al escribir, lleno de ira y tristeza, y trataba de contener la desesperación por momentos. Pero apareció otro sentimiento que compartía con muchos miembros de mi generación: nuestro país tendría que defender algo otra vez. Hasta el momento nos habíamos zafado con facilidad, sin oposición desde la Guerra Fría. Los hechos históricos —guerras mundiales, depresiones económicas, plagas y revoluciones— no formaban parte de nuestra experiencia. Pero, ahora, nuestro país estaba siendo atacado y nos había llegado el turno de demostrar una vez más que Estados Unidos era una fuerza del bien en el mundo.

Esa sensación se desmoronó con excesiva rapidez. La nación, herida, se sumió en la confusión y la desunión, se metió en una guerra innecesaria y torturó a sospechosos en celdas secretas.

«Había un hombre sin piel. Estaba cubierto de polvo blanco. Parecía un espectro. Y, cuando pasé a toda prisa junto a él, inhaló dos veces, una especie de "ah, ah", y se quedó quieto como el cemento que lo rodeaba».

Empecé a leer las necrológicas publicadas en internet, buscando a individuos destacados cuya vida hiciera avanzar mi relato. En la página de The Washington Post encontré una mención a John O'Neill, que había sido director de antiterrorismo en la oficina del FBI de Nueva York, la cual tenía en su haber la orden de detención de Osama bin Laden y al-Qaeda. Fue expulsado del FBI por sacar información clasificada de la oficina y empezó a trabajar como jefe de seguridad en el World Trade Center. En lugar de dar caza a Bin Laden, Bin Laden le dio caza a él. La historia de O’Neill nos llevaría a los dominios secretos del espionaje estadounidense y desvelaría cómo y por qué no frenamos el complot para atacar a Estados Unidos. 

Sobre mi investigación periodística pendía una inquietante experiencia personal. En 1998, tres años antes del 11-S, llegó a los cines Estado de sitio, una película de la cual fui coguionista. La pregunta que yo planteaba en el guion era: ¿qué sucedería si unos terroristas atacaran Estados Unidos? En realidad, al-Qaeda ya había colocado bombas en dos embajadas estadounidenses en África Oriental, que acabaron con la vida de 224 personas en agosto de ese año. El mismo mes se produjo otro atentado. El 25 de agosto de 1998 estalló un artefacto en un restaurante Planet Hollywood de Ciudad del Cabo, Sudáfrica. Murieron dos turistas británicos y una niña perdió una pierna. Un grupo islamista radical reivindicó la autoría y aseguró que fueron los tráileres de Estado de sitio los que los habían motivado a actuar. Habían atacado un Planet Hollywood porque Bruce Willis, que participaba en la película, era uno de los copropietarios. Cuando se estrenó el largometraje en noviembre, fue recibido con protestas de musulmanes que consideraban que Hollywood los estereotipaba. Fue un fracaso de taquilla. Después del 11-S, se convirtió en la película más alquilada en Estados Unidos. 

La trama de Estado de sitio ahonda en el antagonismo manifiesto entre el FBI y la CIA. En aquel momento, pugnaban por controlar el terrorismo dentro de Estados Unidos. En la película, Denzel Washington ocupa el puesto que desempeñaba John O'Neill en la vida real. La CIA estaba representada por Annette Bening. En la película, aprendían a trabajar juntos para impedir los ataques. Creo que por eso la gente alquiló Estado de sitio: el final era esperanzador. Pero en la vida real eso no sucedió. Hoy sigo convencido de que habría podido evitarse el 11-S si esos dos organismos hubieran cooperado. 

En febrero de 2002, cinco meses después de los atentados, firmé el contrato para escribir un libro calificado como «una crónica exhaustiva de los acontecimientos del 11 de septiembre de 2001». Supuestamente, debía entregar la mitad del libro en febrero del año siguiente. Taché febrero en el contrato y lo reemplacé por marzo. Poco imaginábamos el editor y yo dónde nos estábamos metiendo. Presenté el manuscrito completo cinco años después. 

Esos años fueron de los más solitarios de mi vida, pero también de los más emocionantes. Primero viajé a Egipto para escribir sobre Ayman al-Zawahiri, que en aquel momento era casi un desconocido en Occidente. Sus familiares y acólitos lo describían como el cerebro detrás de Bin Laden. Treinta años antes, yo había sido profesor de inglés en la Universidad Estadounidense de El Cairo (AUC). Zawahiri era cuatro años más joven que yo, es decir, tenía más o menos la misma edad que mis alumnos de la AUC. Por aquel entonces, estudiaba medicina en la Universidad de El Cairo. Su vida es una demostración del grado de compromiso que tenían nuestros adversarios. A los quince años, Zawahiri había creado una célula clandestina para derrocar al gobierno egipcio.

«Nuestro país estaba siendo atacado y nos había llegado el turno de demostrar una vez más que Estados Unidos era una fuerza del bien en el mundo. Esa sensación se desmoronó con excesiva rapidez. La nación, herida, se sumió en la confusión y la desunión, se metió en una guerra innecesaria y torturó a sospechosos en celdas secretas».

Tenía que escribir sobre Bin Laden, pero los saudíes no me permitían entrar como periodista. Finalmente, encontré trabajo como profesor de jóvenes periodistas en The Saudi Gazette, un diario en lengua inglesa con sede en Yeda, la ciudad natal de Bin Laden. Gozaba de más libertad como trabajador extranjero que como periodista, y los jóvenes que tenía a mi cargo me brindaron información inestimable sobre su neurótica y represiva sociedad. 

Yamal Jalifa era el mejor amigo de Bin Laden. También trabó amistad conmigo, lo que resultó un vínculo inesperado con el líder terrorista. Además de ser una fuente animada y perspicaz, Yamal me permitió entrevistar a una de sus cuatro esposas, que era la hermana favorita de bin Laden. Yamal fue asesinado en Madagascar en 2007, donde era dueño de una mina de piedras preciosas. Los asesinos solo se llevaron el disco duro de su ordenador y dejaron el dinero y las joyas, cosa que hizo pensar a su familia que lo liquidaron las Fuerzas Especiales de Estados Unidos. Otro amigo y fuente valiosa fue el periodista Yamal Jashoggi, que había escrito crónicas sobre Bin Laden en Afganistán y lo denunció públicamente después del 11-S. Fue asesinado en 2018 por agentes saudíes supuestamente dirigidos por el príncipe Muhammad bin Salman. Esos dos hombres eran fuentes muy preciadas que me proveyeron de conocimientos y detalles íntimos sobre Bin Laden y su círculo.

Memorial de las víctimas en la zona cero de Manhattan. 10 de septiembre de 2011. Crédito: Getty Images.

Casi nunca me sentí en peligro, aunque mientras firmaba mi contrato editorial el periodista Daniel Pearl, de The Wall Street Journal, fue secuestrado en Pakistán. Fue decapitado, evidentemente por Jaled Sheij Muhammad, el miembro de al-Qaeda que planeó los atentados del 11-S. Yo seguía manteniendo la ingenua suposición de que los periodistas gozaban de una especie de inmunidad, una ilusión que se ha visto desmentida por la muerte de tantos valerosos compañeros por todo el mundo, pero que era bastante íntima para los periodistas que querían entender esta nueva era de salvajismo.

«Yamal Jalifa era el mejor amigo de Bin Laden. También trabó amistad conmigo, lo que resultó un vínculo inesperado con el terrorista. Además de ser una fuente animada y perspicaz, Yamal me permitió entrevistar a una de sus cuatro esposas, que era la hermana favorita de Bin Laden».

Sin embargo, aquello pasó factura física. Me había lesionado la espalda, y los interminables viajes en avión a Oriente Próximo o el sur de Asia agravaron el dolor. Empecé a llevar uno de esos voluminosos balones hinchables para sentarme. La primera vez que fui a Jartum, donde Bin Laden había reubicado al-Qaeda entre 1992 y 1996, llevaba el balón. Me resultó muy práctico un día que llamaron a la puerta y un espía sudanés cuya confianza había intentado ganarme trajo a un hombre al que describió como miembro de al-Qaeda. Le ofrecí la única silla que había. El espía se echó en la cama y se quedó dormido al instante. Yo me senté en el balón. 

Esa nueva fuente era un hombre alegre que solía darse una palmada en la rodilla cuando contaba algo gracioso, como el momento en que Bin Laden le anunció su intención de fundar un grupo terrorista por la causa islámica que operara en todo el mundo. «Le dije: "¿Y cómo piensas llevarlos hasta allí? ¿Con Air France?"». Palmada en la rodilla. 

Usaba solo el nombre de Loay y parecía saberlo todo sobre Bin Laden. Cuando volví a Estados Unidos, logré identificarlo como a Muhammad Loay Baizid. Su nombre yihadí era Abu Rida al-Suri. Había sido asesor empresarial de Bin Laden en Jartum y fue el responsable de tomar notas durante la fundación de al-Qaeda en Peshawar, Pakistán, el 20 de agosto de 1988. ¡Si lo hubiera sabido! Volví rápidamente a Sudán, pero Loay se negaba a verme. Accedió a reunirse conmigo en un tercer viaje y, en esa ocasión, me proporcionó la información privilegiada que anhela todo periodista. 

—Loay, ¿por qué no quisiste verme la última vez? —le pregunté, un tanto molesto, mientras intentaba aliviar el dolor de espalda—. Viajar a Jartum no es fácil.

—Bueno, no sabía hasta qué punto debía tomarte en serio —repuso—. La última vez que nos reunimos estabas sentado encima de un globo.

«Grupos nacionales no islámicos, neonazis, supremacistas blancos: en 2021, Christopher Wray, director del FBI, aludía a un bufet de ideologías en el que los terroristas en potencia saltan de una causa a otra, tanteando movimientos para justificar una violencia por la que ya se sienten atraídos».

La organización que atacó Estados Unidos en 2001 consistía en unos trescientos o cuatrocientos hombres, más o menos la misma cifra de combatientes de al-Qaeda que al parecer hay en Afganistán ahora mismo. La red de al-Qaeda incluye a unos treinta mil o cuarenta mil combatientes en organizaciones afiliadas que van desde Marruecos hasta India. Otros grupos terroristas nacionales no islámicos, entre ellos neonazis y supremacistas blancos, siguen abiertamente el modelo de la creación de Bin Laden. En 2021, Christopher Wray, director del FBI, aludía a un bufet de ideologías en el que los terroristas en potencia saltan de una causa a otra, tanteando movimientos para justificar una violencia por la que ya se sienten atraídos. 

Ayman al-Zawahiri, el sucesor de Bin Laden, observaba en una ocasión que «Al-Qaeda es antes un mensaje que una organización». Ese mensaje ha sido recibido. El mundo que, en parte, al-Qaeda creó está repleto de ideologías que atraen a gente marginada y desesperada, y también a otros que se sienten cautivados por la violencia y aspiran a dejar sus huellas sangrientas en el muro de la historia.  



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