Literatura

Una muy breve historia de la novela negra

Del original «¿Quién lo hizo?» a su inclasificable estado actual pasando por aquellos detectives duros de pelar de los atribulados años 20 (¡no estos, los otros!), la novela negra (o policíaca) hace suyo el concepto misterio para llevarnos a los rincones más oscuros del ser humano (vicio, corrupción, violencia). En el texto que sigue, unas líneas que forman parte del libro «Diccionario apasionado de la novela negra» (Salamandra), Pierre Lemaitre recorre con apenas unos plumazos un género vivo que no ha dejado de mutar en más de un siglo de existencia. 

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En el texto que sigue, unas l\u00edneas que forman parte del libro \u00abDiccionario apasionado de la novela negra\u00bb (Salamandra), Pierre Lemaitre recorre con apenas unos plumazos un g\u00e9nero vivo que no ha dejado de mutar en m\u00e1s de un siglo de 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">1950. Agatha Christie ante el escritorio de su casa de Wallingford, Berkshire (Inglaterra). Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"10\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"30\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"6l7v3jh\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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primero fue <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/108371-novela-policiaca\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la novela policiaca<\/a>, una novela de enigma cuyo objetivo era jugar con el lector, que deb\u00eda seguir una investigaci\u00f3n a partir de los elementos propuestos (con mayor o menor honestidad) por el autor. Lo importante era averiguar qui\u00e9n hab\u00eda cometido el crimen, raz\u00f3n por la que el g\u00e9nero acab\u00f3 conoci\u00e9ndose como <em>whodunit<\/em> (del ingl\u00e9s Who [has] done it?: \u00ab\u00bfQui\u00e9n lo hizo?\u00bb).\u00a0<\/p><p>De\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/27532-ebook-agatha-christie-los-planes-del-crimen\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Agatha Christie<\/a> a Rex Stout, el g\u00e9nero se desarroll\u00f3 desde finales del siglo xix hasta el final de la Primera Guerra Mundial y, se diga lo que se diga, produjo novelas excelentes (salvo para quien lo considere detestable), como <em>Diez negritos<\/em> (1939).\u00a0<\/p><p>Tuvo numerosas variantes, aunque la m\u00e1s radical fue sin duda la del \u00abmisterio de la habitaci\u00f3n cerrada\u00bb, que llevaba la dificultad al extremo, puesto que, en teor\u00eda, se trataba de un asesinato imposible de cometer. Para decirlo brevemente: era imposible que el asesino entrara en la habitaci\u00f3n. <em>El misterio del cuarto amarillo<\/em> (1907) de Gaston Leroux y <em>La c\u00e1mara ardiente<\/em> (1937) de John Dickson Carr son buenos ejemplos.<\/p><p>Otra variante famosa: la<em> inverted tale<\/em> o \u00abhistoria invertida\u00bb. El lector sabe qui\u00e9n es el culpable desde el principio y la gracia est\u00e1 en averiguar qu\u00e9 har\u00e1 el investigador para saber tanto como \u00e9l. Este subg\u00e9nero, inaugurado por Richard Austin Freeman, produjo obras maestras y tambi\u00e9n la serie televisiva <em>Colombo.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p>Tras el <em>whodunit<\/em> vino el<em> hard boiled<\/em> (o sea, el \u00abduro de pelar\u00bb). Los tiempos hab\u00edan cambiado. Estamos en la d\u00e9cada de 1920, el mundo occidental entra en una nueva era, m\u00e1s urbana que rural, y con ella llega la explosi\u00f3n demogr\u00e1fica y el aumento del crimen, el Crack del 29, el auge del capitalismo con los estragos que todos conocemos... La novela policiaca se transforma en <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/20-novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">novela negra<\/a>. El personaje emblem\u00e1tico es el detective privado y se tratan asuntos relacionados con el sexo, la violencia, la corrupci\u00f3n o el vicio. El tema \u00faltimo es la realidad social y la moral recibe un guantazo en plena cara. El g\u00e9nero, nacido con Dashiell Hammett <em>(Cosecha roja, La llave de cristal,<\/em> etc\u00e9tera), se desarrolla con autores como\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/411-raymond-chandler\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Raymond Chandler<\/a>\u00a0<em>(<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/33195-libro-el-sueno-eterno-philip-marlowe-1-9788490325735\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El sue\u00f1o eterno<\/a>),<\/em> William Burnett <em>(El peque\u00f1o C\u00e9sar)<\/em> o <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinrandomhouse.com\/authors\/13050\/chester-himes\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Chester 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gran aportaci\u00f3n francesa ser\u00e1 una evoluci\u00f3n fundamental desarrollada por un tal Jean-Patrick Manchette. Como afirma sin ambages Fran\u00e7ois Gu\u00e9rif: \u00abLa llegada de Manchette fue como una bofetada en pleno rostro: volvi\u00f3 a poner la cr\u00edtica social en el centro de la novela negra.\u00bb Se hab\u00eda acabado el folclore del \u00abcentro\u00bb a lo Jean Gabin con di\u00e1logos de Albert Simonin: la nueva novela policiaca <em>(Nada, o Le petit bleu de la c\u00f4te ouest [Balada de la Costa Oeste])<\/em> se ocupa de la ciudad, pero incluye el extrarradio, denuncia la corrupci\u00f3n a la francesa, pone en escena a los secretas, la lucha de clases, la marginalidad, la droga, el sexo... Este movimiento (aunque hablemos de \u00abmovimiento\u00bb, sus autores conforman un grupo de lo m\u00e1s variopinto) auspiciar\u00e1 la emergencia de nuevos escritores como Didier Daeninckx <em>(Asesinatos archivados),<\/em> Fr\u00e9d\u00e9ric H. Fajardie <em>(Tueurs de flics [Asesinos de polis]),<\/em> Thierry Jonquet <em>(Les orpailleurs [Los buscadores de oro]),<\/em> Jean-Bernard Pouy <em>(Spinoza encule Hegel [Spinoza le da por saco a Hegel])<\/em> y otros. El detective \u2014figura bastante artificial en Francia\u2014 cede el sitio al polic\u00eda, un paso del sector privado al p\u00fablico bastante ir\u00f3nico si se tiene en cuenta el contexto, puesto que se produce en un momento en que la pol\u00edtica francesa se dispone a avanzar decididamente en la direcci\u00f3n opuesta.<\/p><p>Despu\u00e9s, el panorama se vuelve m\u00e1s confuso. \u00bfEs el resultado de la globalizaci\u00f3n de la literatura? \u00bfDe un estancamiento del g\u00e9nero? \u00bfDel lento alumbramiento de la posdemocracia? Sea como sea, lo cierto es que el mundo de\u00a0<a href=\\\"(Nada, o Le petit bleu de la c\u00f4te ouest\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la novela policiaca se fragmenta<\/a> y resulta muy complicado encontrar un factor com\u00fan indiscutible \u2014aparte del misterio, por supuesto, una rara constante en el c\u00f3digo gen\u00e9tico de este organismo que no deja de mutar\u2014 entre novelas como <em>La chica del tren<\/em> de Paula Hawkins y <em>Zul\u00fa<\/em> de Caryl F\u00e9rey, <em>El c\u00f3digo Da Vinci<\/em> de\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinrandomhouse.com\/authors\/3446\/dan-brown\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Dan Brown<\/a> y<em> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/26482-ebook-el-cuarteto-de-los-angeles\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El Cuarteto de Los \u00c1ngeles<\/a><\/em>\u00a0de <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4790-james-ellroy\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">James Ellroy<\/a>, <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/novela-negra-misterio-y-thriller\/8308-libro-el-padrino-9788490707616\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>El padrino<\/em><\/a> de\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/909-mario-puzo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Mario Puzo<\/a> y <em>Tar\u00e1ntula<\/em> de Thierry Jonquet...\u00a0<\/p><p>En un sistema social en el que la transparencia es una virtud, la visibilidad un ideal y el secreto un motivo de sospecha, la novela policiaca es un g\u00e9nero relativamente asincr\u00f3nico: uno de los \u00faltimos sitios en los que\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/dennis-lehane-mystic-river\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el misterio sigue siendo una cualidad<\/a> y la mentira un camino para llegar a la verdad.<\/p><p><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a 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6 minutos

1950. Agatha Christie ante el escritorio de su casa de Wallingford, Berkshire (Inglaterra). Crédito: Getty Images.

Lo primero fue la novela policiaca, una novela de enigma cuyo objetivo era jugar con el lector, que debía seguir una investigación a partir de los elementos propuestos (con mayor o menor honestidad) por el autor. Lo importante era averiguar quién había cometido el crimen, razón por la que el género acabó conociéndose como whodunit (del inglés Who [has] done it?: «¿Quién lo hizo?»). 

De Agatha Christie a Rex Stout, el género se desarrolló desde finales del siglo xix hasta el final de la Primera Guerra Mundial y, se diga lo que se diga, produjo novelas excelentes (salvo para quien lo considere detestable), como Diez negritos (1939). 

Tuvo numerosas variantes, aunque la más radical fue sin duda la del «misterio de la habitación cerrada», que llevaba la dificultad al extremo, puesto que, en teoría, se trataba de un asesinato imposible de cometer. Para decirlo brevemente: era imposible que el asesino entrara en la habitación. El misterio del cuarto amarillo (1907) de Gaston Leroux y La cámara ardiente (1937) de John Dickson Carr son buenos ejemplos.

Otra variante famosa: la inverted tale o «historia invertida». El lector sabe quién es el culpable desde el principio y la gracia está en averiguar qué hará el investigador para saber tanto como él. Este subgénero, inaugurado por Richard Austin Freeman, produjo obras maestras y también la serie televisiva Colombo. 

Tras el whodunit vino el hard boiled (o sea, el «duro de pelar»). Los tiempos habían cambiado. Estamos en la década de 1920, el mundo occidental entra en una nueva era, más urbana que rural, y con ella llega la explosión demográfica y el aumento del crimen, el Crack del 29, el auge del capitalismo con los estragos que todos conocemos... La novela policiaca se transforma en novela negra. El personaje emblemático es el detective privado y se tratan asuntos relacionados con el sexo, la violencia, la corrupción o el vicio. El tema último es la realidad social y la moral recibe un guantazo en plena cara. El género, nacido con Dashiell Hammett (Cosecha roja, La llave de cristal, etcétera), se desarrolla con autores como Raymond Chandler (El sueño eterno), William Burnett (El pequeño César) o Chester Himes.

Tzvetan Todorov, en sus Nouvelles recherches sur le récit [Nuevas investigaciones sobre el relato], señaló una diferencia esencial entre el whodunit y el hard boiled: el primero excita la curiosidad yendo del efecto a la causa, mientras que el segundo crea suspense yendo de la causa al efecto. 

Esta «nueva ola» de la novela policiaca arriba a las costas francesas después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Marcel Duhamel lanza la colección Série Noire en la editorial Gallimard y descubre al público galo a Horace McCoy (¿Acaso no matan a los caballos?) y a James M. Cain (El cartero siempre llama dos veces), entre muchos otros. El género negro francés se adaptará y verá aparecer a nuevos autores, como Léo Malet (Calle de la Estación, 120) o Jean Amila (La lune d'Omaha [La luna de Omaha]).

1946. Lauren Bacall con su por entonces marido, Humphrey Bogart, en el set de rodaje de «El sueño eterno», dirigida por Howard Hawks. Crédito: Getty Images.

La gran aportación francesa será una evolución fundamental desarrollada por un tal Jean-Patrick Manchette. Como afirma sin ambages François Guérif: «La llegada de Manchette fue como una bofetada en pleno rostro: volvió a poner la crítica social en el centro de la novela negra.» Se había acabado el folclore del «centro» a lo Jean Gabin con diálogos de Albert Simonin: la nueva novela policiaca (Nada, o Le petit bleu de la côte ouest [Balada de la Costa Oeste]) se ocupa de la ciudad, pero incluye el extrarradio, denuncia la corrupción a la francesa, pone en escena a los secretas, la lucha de clases, la marginalidad, la droga, el sexo... Este movimiento (aunque hablemos de «movimiento», sus autores conforman un grupo de lo más variopinto) auspiciará la emergencia de nuevos escritores como Didier Daeninckx (Asesinatos archivados), Frédéric H. Fajardie (Tueurs de flics [Asesinos de polis]), Thierry Jonquet (Les orpailleurs [Los buscadores de oro]), Jean-Bernard Pouy (Spinoza encule Hegel [Spinoza le da por saco a Hegel]) y otros. El detective —figura bastante artificial en Francia— cede el sitio al policía, un paso del sector privado al público bastante irónico si se tiene en cuenta el contexto, puesto que se produce en un momento en que la política francesa se dispone a avanzar decididamente en la dirección opuesta.

Después, el panorama se vuelve más confuso. ¿Es el resultado de la globalización de la literatura? ¿De un estancamiento del género? ¿Del lento alumbramiento de la posdemocracia? Sea como sea, lo cierto es que el mundo de la novela policiaca se fragmenta y resulta muy complicado encontrar un factor común indiscutible —aparte del misterio, por supuesto, una rara constante en el código genético de este organismo que no deja de mutar— entre novelas como La chica del tren de Paula Hawkins y Zulú de Caryl Férey, El código Da Vinci de Dan Brown y El Cuarteto de Los Ángeles de James Ellroy, El padrino de Mario Puzo y Tarántula de Thierry Jonquet... 

En un sistema social en el que la transparencia es una virtud, la visibilidad un ideal y el secreto un motivo de sospecha, la novela policiaca es un género relativamente asincrónico: uno de los últimos sitios en los que el misterio sigue siendo una cualidad y la mentira un camino para llegar a la verdad.




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