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Doris Lessing: Vosotros al infierno, nosotros al cielo

«Esta es una época en que da miedo estar vivo, en que es difícil pensar en los seres humanos como criaturas racionales. Dondequiera que uno mire solo ve brutalidad y estupidez [...]». Militante comunista en los cincuenta, Doris Lessing devino en una de las pensadoras más críticas con los excesos del estalinismo y de otros totalitarismos. Y lo hizo con una capacidad profética asombrosa: sus ensayos, tan lúcidos como poderosos, ofrecen hoy, a diez años de su muerte en noviembre de 2013, un contexto muy adecuado para entender qué demonios ocurre en el mundo. El libro «Las cárceles que elegimos» (Lumen, 2018), una compilación de conferencias impartidas por Lessing en 1985 bajo los auspicios de la Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), recoge buena parte de la sabiduría de la Premio Nobel de Literatura 2007. En «Vosotros al infierno, nosotros al cielo», uno de los textos que conforman el volumen, pieza que reproducimos íntegra a continuación, Doris Lessing nos contagia la necesidad de cuestionar algunas de las convicciones políticas y morales que marcaron el siglo XX y nos emplaza a cultivar un pensamiento crítico individual como única manera de hacer frente a los axiomas heredados del pasado.

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Dondequiera que uno mire solo ve brutalidad y estupidez [...]\u00bb. Militante comunista en los cincuenta, Doris Lessing devino en una de las pensadoras m\u00e1s cr\u00edticas con los excesos del estalinismo y de otros totalitarismos. Y lo hizo con una capacidad prof\u00e9tica asombrosa: sus ensayos, tan l\u00facidos como poderosos, ofrecen hoy, a diez a\u00f1os de su muerte en noviembre de 2013, un contexto muy adecuado para entender qu\u00e9 demonios ocurre en el mundo. El libro \u00abLas c\u00e1rceles que elegimos\u00bb (Lumen, 2018), una compilaci\u00f3n de conferencias impartidas por Lessing en 1985 bajo los auspicios de la Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), recoge buena parte de la sabidur\u00eda de la Premio Nobel de Literatura 2007. 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En la vieja Rodesia del Sur la actitud de los blancos respecto a los negros era extrema, llena de prejuicios e ignorancia. Para decirlo con mayor exactitud, era una actitud considerada irrebatible e inalterable, aunque un simple vistazo a la historia les habr\u00eda bastado (muchos blancos eran gente culta) para darse cuenta de que aquello no pod\u00eda durar, que sus certezas eran cuando menos provisionales. Pero ning\u00fan miembro de la minor\u00eda blanca estaba autorizado a mostrar su desacuerdo con esas certezas. Quien osaba hacerlo se enfrentaba al ostracismo inmediato: o cambiaba de opini\u00f3n, o se callaba, o se largaba. Mientras dur\u00f3 el r\u00e9gimen de los blancos \u2014noventa a\u00f1os, una nader\u00eda en t\u00e9rminos hist\u00f3ricos\u2014, cualquier disidente era un hereje y un traidor. Adem\u00e1s, las reglas de este juego estipulaban que no bastaba con decir: \u00abFulano discrepa de nosotros, que somos los poseedores de la verdad\u00bb, sino que hab\u00eda que decir tambi\u00e9n: \u00abFulano es malo, corrupto y un pervertido sexual\u00bb, por ejemplo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pocos meses despu\u00e9s de iniciada la huelga de los mineros en Gran Breta\u00f1a, en 1984, justo cuando entraba en su segunda, y m\u00e1s violenta, fase, la esposa de un minero sali\u00f3 en la televisi\u00f3n contando su historia. Su marido llevaba varios meses en huelga y no ten\u00edan dinero. \u00c9l apoyaba al sindicato y estaba de acuerdo con la convocatoria, pero opinaba tambi\u00e9n que Arthur Scargill hab\u00eda gestionado muy mal la huelga. El caso es que este hombre, junto con unos pocos compa\u00f1eros m\u00e1s, hab\u00eda vuelto al trabajo. Una cuadrilla de mineros hab\u00eda roto las ventanas de la casa de esta pareja, destrozado todo lo que encontraron dentro y dado una paliza al hombre. La mujer asegur\u00f3 que sab\u00eda qui\u00e9nes lo hab\u00edan hecho: la comunidad minera estaba muy unida. Aquellos hombres eran amigos suyos, cosa que la dej\u00f3 perpleja y at\u00f3nita. No pod\u00eda creer que gente decente y trabajadora hubiera podido hacer semejante cosa. Dijo que uno de los que formaban parte del grupo la saludaba cuando iba solo, \u00abcomo ha hecho toda la vida\u00bb, pero que cuando estaba con sus amigos fing\u00eda no haberla visto.<\/p><p>Aquello no le cab\u00eda en la cabeza, coment\u00f3 la esposa del minero. 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Se ha puesto de moda denigrarlas, tildarlas de ciencias \u00abfallidas\u00bb. Uno se topa a cada paso con referencias desde\u00f1osas o despectivas a estas disciplinas \u00abfallidas\u00bb. Son esos departamentos los primeros que se caen de la lista cuando hay recortes. Pero lo interesante es que se trata de \u00e1reas nuevas de estudio, muy nuevas en realidad, pues algunas tienen menos de medio siglo de antig\u00fcedad. En conjunto, constituyen una postura totalmente nueva respecto a nosotros mismos y a nuestras instituciones; esa actitud anal\u00edtica que se muestra distante, curiosa y paciente a la vez y que considero lo m\u00e1s valioso que tenemos para hacer frente a nuestro salvajismo ancestral, a nuestra larga historia como animales sociales. Est\u00e1 realiz\u00e1ndose un trabajo ingente; se ha hecho, y se est\u00e1 haciendo, gran n\u00famero de experimentos, algunos de los cuales cambian la idea que tenemos de nosotros mismos, y hay bibliotecas llenas de libros totalmente novedosos, fruto de un nuevo tipo de investigaci\u00f3n.<\/p><p>Como dije en mi \u00faltima conferencia, creo que los que vendr\u00e1n despu\u00e9s de nosotros se maravillar\u00e1n, por un lado, de que hayamos acumulado tant\u00edsima informaci\u00f3n sobre nuestro comportamiento, mientras que, por el otro, no hayamos hecho el menor intento de aprovechar dicha informaci\u00f3n para mejorar la vida que llevamos.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"jgefagq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>(...) si uno pertenece a una comunidad muy unida, sabe perfectamente que si discrepa de las ideas de dicha comunidad corre el riesgo de que lo vean como un apestado, un criminal, un malhechor. Este proceso es por completo autom\u00e1tico; casi todos, en situaciones semejantes, nos comportamos de manera autom\u00e1tica. Pero siempre hay una minor\u00eda que no lo hace, y en mi opini\u00f3n el futuro, el futuro de todos nosotros, depende de esa minor\u00eda.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kpu7dh6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Tomemos, por ejemplo, lo que se sabe ahora sobre c\u00f3mo funcionamos en grupo. La gente, lo sabemos, suele comportarse en grupo de maneras estereotipadas y predecibles. No obstante, cuando unos ciudadanos se unen para, pongo por caso, fundar una asociaci\u00f3n para la protecci\u00f3n del unicornio, no dicen: \u00abEste organismo que estamos creando es probable que se desarrolle de una de entre varias maneras. Teng\u00e1moslo en cuenta y estemos atentos a nuestro proceder para que seamos nosotros quienes controlemos la asociaci\u00f3n, y no al rev\u00e9s\u00bb. Otro ejemplo: a la izquierda podr\u00eda resultarle \u00fatil decir algo a este tenor: \u00abSe ha podido observar desde hace tiempo que grupos como el nuestro acaban dividi\u00e9ndose, y que los dos grupos as\u00ed formados devienen enemigos provistos de l\u00edderes que se insultan entre s\u00ed. Siendo conscientes de este impulso aparentemente innato de todo grupo a dividirse tal vez logremos conducirnos de forma menos mec\u00e1nica\u00bb Pues no, parece que no basta con ser conscientes de lo que es muy probable que suceda. Cuentan que aquellas personas de gran inteligencia que fundaron el Partido Bolchevique en Londres, creo que en 1905, se dijeron: \u00abAprendamos de la Revoluci\u00f3n francesa y no nos dividamos violentamente por tal o cual detalle y empecemos luego a asesinarnos unos a otros\u00bb. Pero es exactamente lo que pas\u00f3 despu\u00e9s. Se vieron impotentes ante fuerzas que ellos mismos hab\u00edan contribuido a dejar sueltas. No entendieron lo que estaba ocurri\u00e9ndoles. Tenemos cada vez m\u00e1s informaci\u00f3n que, si la utilizamos, puede ayudarnos a comprender lo que nos pasa en diversas situaciones.\u00a0<\/p><p>Sin embargo, por doquier y entre todo tipo de personas, este nuevo e importante logro es objeto de una mala acogida. \u00bfPor qu\u00e9? Creo que en este caso hay algo m\u00e1s que el cl\u00e1sico rechazo de las viejos intelectuales frente a las nuevas perspectivas. Creo que lo que inconscientemente han estado buscando, sin encontrarlo, son certezas y dogmas, recetas homologadas que puedan aplicarse a cualquier situaci\u00f3n.\u00a0<\/p><p>A la gente le gustan las certezas. Es m\u00e1s, anhelan las certezas, persiguen las certezas y las verdades sentenciosas. Le gusta sentirse parte de un movimiento provisto de estas verdades y certezas, y si surgen rebeldes o herejes, pues a\u00fan mejor, porque esa estructura la llevamos todos muy arraigada.\u00a0<\/p><p>En Gran Breta\u00f1a, que est\u00e1 convirti\u00e9ndose a marchas forzadas en un pa\u00eds muy polarizado (casi da miedo pertenecer a \u00e9l), fue la huelga de los mineros lo que precipit\u00f3 o puso en evidencia un proceso que se hab\u00eda iniciado, creo, con el colapso y la fragmentaci\u00f3n de la izquierda. Durante mucho tiempo en Gran Breta\u00f1a ha existido un equilibrio entre derecha e izquierda, cada bando con su propio y amplio abanico de opiniones diferentes. Este equilibrio ha desaparecido. La izquierda es un batiburrillo de grupos peque\u00f1os y grandes; una forma segura de que se produzcan des\u00f3rdenes sociales o incluso una 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polarizaci\u00f3n puede verse adem\u00e1s no solo en la pol\u00edtica, sino en las universidades. Una amiga m\u00eda decidi\u00f3 estudiar antropolog\u00eda y descubri\u00f3 que no ten\u00eda m\u00e1s alternativa que asistir a clases basadas en la ideolog\u00eda y las posturas marxistas. Si alguien me dice que el marxismo ya no es algo unitario sino una serie de peque\u00f1as sectas, cada una con sus dogmas, estar\u00e9 de acuerdo, pero hay ciertas posturas comunes. Una vez m\u00e1s, se trata de algo inconsciente. De algunas cosas no se habla, apenas si se las menciona. Uno puede asistir a charlas de horas, o d\u00edas enteros, sobre la guerra y no o\u00edr ni una sola vez que una de las causas de la guerra es que hay gente a la que le gusta, o a la que le gusta la idea de la guerra. Del mismo modo, uno puede o\u00edr, o leer, hasta la saciedad sobre los problemas de la izquierda sin que a nadie se le ocurra comentar que el motivo de que la izquierda se halle en un aprieto es que la gente ha visto el socialismo en acci\u00f3n en multitud de pa\u00edses y ha quedado aterrada. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/sofi-oksanen-putin-stalin-rusia-finlandia-el-parque-de-los-perros\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica<\/a><\/span>: una tiran\u00eda en la que si uno discrepa puede acabar en un manicomio porque por definici\u00f3n tiene que estar loco; un pa\u00eds en que se calcula que veinte millones de personas murieron por los excesos de Stalin. China, donde entre veinte y sesenta millones de personas (la cifra var\u00eda seg\u00fan la fuente) fueron masacradas durante la Revoluci\u00f3n cultural y donde el progreso retrocedi\u00f3, seg\u00fan los propios c\u00e1lculos oficiales, en una generaci\u00f3n. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/el-mapa-de-sal-ivan-de-la-nuez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cuba...<\/a><\/span> Etiop\u00eda... Somalia... Yemen del Sur... Podr\u00eda continuar, pero no es necesario. No es necesario salvo para los que est\u00e1n dentro de la izquierda. Como en todo movimiento que engloba a grandes masas, en la izquierda reinan varias certezas sentimentales que quedan fuera de toda discusi\u00f3n. Una es que los socialistas son mejores que los no socialistas \u2014\u00e9ticamente mejores, quiero decir\u2014, pese al hecho de que el socialismo ha generado las m\u00e1s monstruosas tiran\u00edas y asesinado a millones de almas. Y sigue haci\u00e9ndolo. Otra certeza es que todos los capitalistas son malos, que solo quieren lo peor para la comunidad y que son despiadados y corruptos. Otra, que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/shows.acast.com\/revista-lengua\/episodes\/margaret-atwood-soy-una-mala-feminista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">las mujeres son intr\u00ednsecamente m\u00e1s pac\u00edficas que los hombres<\/a><\/span>. No puede decirse que la historia confirme este punto.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pero aqu\u00ed, m\u00e1s que de socialismo, capitalismo, marxismo, etc\u00e9tera, estoy hablando de fe: de las estructuras de la fe. Algunos describen el tiempo en que vivimos como la Edad de la Fe. Y no, no es la primera vez que el mundo ha tenido que sufrirla... Pero volvamos a la huelga de mineros, que tan profusa fue, por desgracia, en incidentes \u00fatiles para mi hip\u00f3tesis.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"u5ge0lo\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Todo el mundo sabe que una huelga, una guerra civil, la guerra en general dan pie a toda clase de tragedias, grandes y peque\u00f1as, entre otras cosas porque emergen los amantes del salvajismo que existen en toda sociedad. Pero la clave est\u00e1 en que los \u00fanicos que no lo saben son las personas directamente implicadas, que vistas desde fuera parece que estuvieran borrachas o hipnotizadas, o que hubieran perdido el juicio. 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estas alturas ya es un lugar com\u00fan que los movimientos pol\u00edticos procedan igual que los movimientos religiosos. Hablamos de las \u00absectas\u00bb o \u00abiglesias\u00bb del socialismo; de los \u00abdogmas\u00bb del marxismo, similares a los de los fan\u00e1ticos religiosos. Pero me pregunto si esta manera de pensar no ser\u00e1 en realidad un medio para no pensar. Tal como est\u00e1n las cosas, podemos hablar hasta hartarnos de fanatismo pol\u00edtico, de extremismo, de movimientos de masa y su comportamiento, sin mencionar una sola vez nuestra historia religiosa salvo con vaguedades como, por ejemplo, que \u00ablas religiones y los movimientos pol\u00edticos tienen mucho en com\u00fan\u00bb.<\/p><p>Nos olvidamos \u2014y los j\u00f3venes no lo saben puesto que no leen historia\u2014 de que somos herederos de dos mil a\u00f1os, aproximadamente, de un r\u00e9gimen de lo m\u00e1s tir\u00e1nico, al lado del cual Hitler y Stalin parecen ni\u00f1os de pecho. Y no ser\u00e1 que los tiranos modernos no hayan aprendido de las iglesias. En tiempos de la Primera Guerra Mundial, las iglesias perdieron fuerza y dejaron de ser la principal influencia en nuestras sociedades occidentales. Ahora se han vuelto afables, suelen estar orientadas hacia un tipo de obra apenas distinguible del trabajo social o la beneficencia, se hallan infinitamente divididas, y aunque algunas de las sectas son totalitarias, la Iglesia no se ve capaz \u2014como hab\u00eda ocurrido hasta hace solo un par de d\u00edas, en t\u00e9rminos hist\u00f3ricos\u2014 de dominar al conjunto de una sociedad como \u00fanico \u00e1rbitro de la conducta y el pensamiento. Pero durante cientos de a\u00f1os Europa estuvo bajo el yugo de un tirano \u2014la Iglesia cat\u00f3lica\u2014 que no permit\u00eda otras formas de pensar, que cort\u00f3 toda influencia del exterior y no vacil\u00f3 en matar, extirpar, perseguir, quemar y torturar en nombre de Dios. No se trata aqu\u00ed de mantener vivo el recuerdo de las viejas tiran\u00edas, sino de identificar la tiran\u00eda presente, pues estas pautas todav\u00eda las llevamos dentro. Ser\u00eda raro que no fuera as\u00ed.\u00a0<\/p><p>Son esas pautas lo que en mi opini\u00f3n debemos estudiar; si somos conscientes de ellas, podremos identificarlas cuando surjan en nosotros y en nuestras sociedades.\u00a0<\/p><p>Afirmar que el socialismo es una forma de religi\u00f3n o que el nazismo era una religi\u00f3n, el fascismo era una religi\u00f3n, o que los comunistas modernos echan mano con frecuencia de la fraseolog\u00eda religiosa, no va a ayudarnos mucho a menos que entendamos cu\u00e1l es exactamente el patr\u00f3n que debemos buscar.\u00a0<\/p><p>El legado del cristianismo m\u00e1s f\u00e1cilmente observable en el pensamiento socialista es, claro est\u00e1, su sectarismo. Todos sabemos que las sectas socialistas odian menos al enemigo que a las sectas rivales, o eso se deduce de la forma que tienen de atacarse mutuamente; todos sabemos que cuanto m\u00e1s extremista es el dogma, m\u00e1s extremista es el ataque. As\u00ed como los cristianos se pasaron siglos mat\u00e1ndose entre ellos por la correcta interpretaci\u00f3n de una palabra, una frase, un vers\u00edculo de la Biblia, as\u00ed las sectas socialistas se injurian entre s\u00ed, se juzgan las unas a las otras. Lo prioritario es destapar la herej\u00eda a fin de extirparla.\u00a0<\/p><p>Es esa herencia de pensamiento cristiano que arrastramos lo que deber\u00edamos someter a estudio.\u00a0<\/p><p>El cristiano cree que est\u00e1 en un valle de l\u00e1grimas y que necesita ser rescatado, o \u00abredimido\u00bb, de esa situaci\u00f3n. La \u00abredenci\u00f3n\u00bb ser\u00e1 posible gracias al sacrificio voluntario de un ser superior que asume los pecados del mundo. En el futuro habr\u00e1 un estado de perfecci\u00f3n absoluta, en que no existir\u00e1n las penas ni el sufrimiento, pero antes de alcanzar este estado se dar\u00e1 un per\u00edodo intermedio de preparaci\u00f3n y sufrimiento.\u00a0<\/p><p>Comunistas y socialistas creen que el sistema en que vivimos es malo, que los capitalistas y los empresarios son malvados (en el mejor de los casos, bienintencionados), que la \u00fanica manera de salir de eso es un cambio total que, por fuerza, deber\u00e1 ser violento; una revoluci\u00f3n que exigir\u00e1 sangre y sacrificios. Extremistas y fan\u00e1ticos de derechas y de izquierdas creen que tal cambio lo llevar\u00e1 a cabo un l\u00edder, un jefe al que rendir extraordinarios homenajes. Tras el cambio de un sistema a otro habr\u00e1 un per\u00edodo de incontables ajustes, preparativos e incomodidades \u2014sin romper los huevos es imposible hacer la tortilla\u2014, pero es inevitable purgar al pueblo de los errores que emanan del pasado. Y una vez superado este per\u00edodo de purga, vendr\u00e1 una \u00e9poca de felicidad absoluta, de realizaci\u00f3n personal, de socialismo y comunismo plenos, en que el pecado ya no existir\u00e1. He aqu\u00ed la estructura del pensamiento cristiano; he aqu\u00ed la estructura del pensamiento pol\u00edtico de la izquierda y de muchos grupos pol\u00edticos que no son de izquierdas, pero que creen en un cambio dr\u00e1stico y violento porque todos los grupos herejes y malos deben ser perseguidos a muerte o \u00abreeducados\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"i8208az\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>(...) durante cientos de a\u00f1os Europa estuvo bajo el yugo de un tirano \u2014la Iglesia cat\u00f3lica\u2014 que no permit\u00eda otras formas de pensar, que cort\u00f3 toda influencia del exterior y no vacil\u00f3 en matar, extirpar, perseguir, quemar y torturar en nombre de Dios.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"15gbu3g\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Explicado as\u00ed, suena a cosa de locos..., y lo es. Una locura de fuerza colosal. De joven, tuve mi \u00e9poca de comunista. Fue una conversi\u00f3n, aparentemente repentina y completa (aunque de corto alcance). De hecho, el comunismo era un germen o un virus que llevaba dentro desde hac\u00eda bastante tiempo debido a mi rechazo de la injusta y represiva sociedad de la vieja \u00c1frica dominada por los blancos. Pero a lo que voy es a otra cosa: en su mejor momento nuestro grupo contaba con unas cuarenta personas. Ninguno de nosotros era un exc\u00e9ntrico ni un bicho raro. Todos \u00e9ramos miembros normales de la sociedad, o lo hab\u00edamos sido, porque hab\u00eda una guerra y algunas de dichas personas eran refugiados. En conjunto, puede decirse que \u00e9ramos m\u00e1s din\u00e1micos, activos y cultos que la mayor\u00eda. Sin embargo, durante un par de a\u00f1os, mientras el grupo estuvo unido antes de dividirse para acabar disgreg\u00e1ndose del todo, consider\u00e1bamos axiomas ciertos art\u00edculos de fe que no pod\u00edan cuestionarse. Por ejemplo, que en un tiempo muy breve, una decena de a\u00f1os, es decir, cuando la guerra hubiera terminado y el mundo recuperara la normalidad, la gente reconocer\u00eda las ventajas del comunismo, el mundo ser\u00eda comunista y no habr\u00eda cr\u00edmenes, prejuicios raciales ni prejuicios sexuales. (Debo aclarar aqu\u00ed que el movimiento feminista de los a\u00f1os sesenta no dio pie a ninguna cr\u00edtica del sexismo.) Cre\u00edamos firmemente que el mundo entero vivir\u00eda en armon\u00eda, amor, abundancia y paz.\u00a0<\/p><p>Era de locos. Y sin embargo, nos lo cre\u00edamos. Y sin embargo, surgen grupos as\u00ed constantemente y en todas partes, tienen per\u00edodos en que se alimentan de creencias como estas, y pobre del que no est\u00e9 de acuerdo, porque ser\u00e1 vilipendiado, perseguido y odiado. Es un proceso que se da en todo momento y creo que seguir\u00e1 d\u00e1ndose, porque las pautas del pasado est\u00e1n tan grabadas en nosotros que criticar a la sociedad y desear cambiarla encaja a la perfecci\u00f3n en dichas 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creo que algo muy primitivo, muy poderoso, nos tiene agarrados y a\u00fan no hemos empezado a controlarlo. A estudiarlo, s\u00ed, eso est\u00e1 haci\u00e9ndose en un centenar de universidades; pero no a aplicarlo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Hace poco me encontr\u00e9 a una vieja amiga y le pregunt\u00e9, como siempre:\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014\u00bfQu\u00e9 tal te van las cosas?\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Fatal \u2014me dijo\u2014. No s\u00e9 qu\u00e9 hacer. Mi hija peque\u00f1a, que ahora tiene dieciocho a\u00f1os, est\u00e1 totalmente cambiada. Ya sabes que siempre fuimos una familia muy feliz. Me temo que yo lo daba por sentado, porque todo eso ha cambiado por completo.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00abAh, claro, a la pobre Anne le ha dado un ataque de pol\u00edtica revolucionaria, seguro\u00bb, pens\u00e9. Pero mi amiga prosigui\u00f3:\u00a0<\/p><p>\u2014Ella siempre fue un poquito religiosa, como ya sabes. Le interesaban los cultos, pero ahora se ha hecho cristiana renacida. Cambi\u00f3 de un d\u00eda para otro. Sigue viviendo en casa, pero apenas nos dirige la palabra. Ni te imaginas lo mucho que me odia. Se pasa el d\u00eda con sus nuevos amigos, cree que son todos maravillosos, los ve como a unos santos. A m\u00ed me parece gente bastante vulgar, nada del otro mundo, vaya, y hay dos que est\u00e1n bastante chiflados. Ah, pero ellos est\u00e1n salvados y nosotros no, \u00bfentiendes? Nosotros iremos al infierno, mientras que ellos en cambio ir\u00e1n al para\u00edso. Tienen un l\u00edder. Yo creo que es alguien a quien le encanta el poder sin m\u00e1s, pero ella no se da cuenta, lo considera una especie de santo. Cuando le pregunto c\u00f3mo puede tratarnos, a nosotros, que somos su familia, como si fu\u00e9ramos basura, ella me contesta que Jes\u00fas le dijo a su madre: \u00abMujer, \u00bfqu\u00e9 tengo yo que ver contigo?\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Ya estamos: es la misma pauta, ni m\u00e1s ni menos.\u00a0<\/p><p>Por supuesto, mi amiga sabe (como cre\u00edan mis padres, esperanzados, cuando les sal\u00ed con la misma cantinela del vosotros os condenar\u00e9is, mis amigos y yo nos salvaremos) que a su hija \u00abse le pasar\u00e1 con el tiempo\u00bb. El mundo occidental est\u00e1 lleno de personas que han vivido esa experiencia de pertenecer en su juventud a un grupo de fan\u00e1ticos delirantes y lo han superado despu\u00e9s. Dir\u00eda incluso que la mitad de la gente que conozco en Gran Breta\u00f1a entra en esta categor\u00eda. Pero en nuestro caso fue algo pol\u00edtico, no religioso. Cuando rememoramos aquella \u00e9poca de compromiso total con una serie de dogmas que ahora nos parecen pat\u00e9ticos, solemos lucir una sonrisa burlona.\u00a0<\/p><p>Entretanto, vemos a las nuevas generaciones pasar por ese mismo trance y, sabiendo de lo que somos capaces, tememos por ellas. Quiz\u00e1 no sea exagerado decir que en estos tiempos tan violentos lo m\u00e1s sensato que podemos desear a los j\u00f3venes deber\u00eda ser: \u00abOjal\u00e1 que ese tiempo de inmersi\u00f3n en la locura grupal, en el farise\u00edsmo colectivo, no coincida con un per\u00edodo de la historia de vuestros respectivos pa\u00edses en que teng\u00e1is ocasi\u00f3n de poner en pr\u00e1ctica vuestras demenciales y est\u00fapidas ideas.\u00a0<\/p><p>\u00bbCon suerte, saldr\u00e9is de esta muy reforzados por la experiencia de lo que uno es capaz de hacer llevado por el fanatismo y la intolerancia. Comprender\u00e9is muy bien que personas cuerdas, en etapas de locura colectiva, pueden asesinar, destruir, mentir y jurar que lo negro es 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/Alice-Munro-El-perdon-en-las-familias-Algo-que-queria-contarte\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abEl perd\u00f3n en las familias\u00bb, un relato original de Alice Munro<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/margaret-atwood-soy-una-mala-feminista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Margaret Atwood: \u00bfSoy una mala feminista?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/svetlana-alexievich-premio-nobel-literatura\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Svetlana Alexi\u00e9vich: la persona es m\u00e1s que la guerra<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span 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15 minutos
Doris Lessing en el Museo Antoine Bourdelle de París en junio de 1992. Crédito: Getty Images.

Doris Lessing en el Museo Antoine Bourdelle de París en junio de 1992. Crédito: Getty Images.

Me crie en un país donde una pequeña minoría blanca dominaba a la mayoría negra. En la vieja Rodesia del Sur la actitud de los blancos respecto a los negros era extrema, llena de prejuicios e ignorancia. Para decirlo con mayor exactitud, era una actitud considerada irrebatible e inalterable, aunque un simple vistazo a la historia les habría bastado (muchos blancos eran gente culta) para darse cuenta de que aquello no podía durar, que sus certezas eran cuando menos provisionales. Pero ningún miembro de la minoría blanca estaba autorizado a mostrar su desacuerdo con esas certezas. Quien osaba hacerlo se enfrentaba al ostracismo inmediato: o cambiaba de opinión, o se callaba, o se largaba. Mientras duró el régimen de los blancos —noventa años, una nadería en términos históricos—, cualquier disidente era un hereje y un traidor. Además, las reglas de este juego estipulaban que no bastaba con decir: «Fulano discrepa de nosotros, que somos los poseedores de la verdad», sino que había que decir también: «Fulano es malo, corrupto y un pervertido sexual», por ejemplo. 

Pocos meses después de iniciada la huelga de los mineros en Gran Bretaña, en 1984, justo cuando entraba en su segunda, y más violenta, fase, la esposa de un minero salió en la televisión contando su historia. Su marido llevaba varios meses en huelga y no tenían dinero. Él apoyaba al sindicato y estaba de acuerdo con la convocatoria, pero opinaba también que Arthur Scargill había gestionado muy mal la huelga. El caso es que este hombre, junto con unos pocos compañeros más, había vuelto al trabajo. Una cuadrilla de mineros había roto las ventanas de la casa de esta pareja, destrozado todo lo que encontraron dentro y dado una paliza al hombre. La mujer aseguró que sabía quiénes lo habían hecho: la comunidad minera estaba muy unida. Aquellos hombres eran amigos suyos, cosa que la dejó perpleja y atónita. No podía creer que gente decente y trabajadora hubiera podido hacer semejante cosa. Dijo que uno de los que formaban parte del grupo la saludaba cuando iba solo, «como ha hecho toda la vida», pero que cuando estaba con sus amigos fingía no haberla visto.

Aquello no le cabía en la cabeza, comentó la esposa del minero. Yo, sin embargo, y es solo mi opinión, pienso que no únicamente tenía que haberlo entendido, sino incluso habérselo esperado; que todos deberíamos entender, y esperar, este tipo de cosas e incorporar lo que sabemos por la historia y las leyes que ya tenemos a la manera de organizar nuestras instituciones.

Se podrá argumentar, por supuesto, que es una manera bastante deprimente de ver la vida. Significa, por ejemplo, que podemos estar en una misma habitación rodeados de buenos amigos sabiendo que nueve de cada diez, si el grupo lo exige, se volverán contra nosotros (o por decirlo de otra forma: que romperán nuestras ventanas a pedradas). Significa que si uno pertenece a una comunidad muy unida, sabe perfectamente que si discrepa de las ideas de dicha comunidad corre el riesgo de que lo vean como un apestado, un criminal, un malhechor. Este proceso es por completo automático; casi todos, en situaciones semejantes, nos comportamos de manera automática. 

Pero siempre hay una minoría que no lo hace, y en mi opinión el futuro, el futuro de todos nosotros, depende de esa minoría. Y creo que deberíamos encontrar maneras de educar a nuestros hijos en el sentido de fortalecer a la minoría y no, como hacemos por regla general, de venerar al grupo, a la manada. 

¿Que es deprimente? Sí, desde luego. Pero, como todos sabemos, crecer es difícil y doloroso, y aquí de lo que estamos hablando es de nuestro crecimiento en cuanto animales sociales. Los adultos que se aferran a toda clase de cómodas ilusiones e ideas reconfortantes siguen siendo inmaduros, y lo mismo puede decirse de nosotros como grupo o miembros de un grupo, o sea, como animales sociales. 

Ahora me resulta fácil hablar de «animal social» o «grupal». Ya es un lugar común decir que los seres humanos fuimos antes animales y que buena parte de nuestra conducta hunde sus raíces en un comportamiento animal ancestral. Esta manera de pensar ha ido abriéndose paso a través de una revolución silenciosa durante los últimos treinta o cuarenta años. Resulta contradictorio e interesante a la vez que, si bien esta revolución ha seguido adelante hasta triunfar, en conjunto lo ha hecho sin contar con el visto bueno de los expertos de los diversos campos. Y tampoco es una novedad que a los divulgadores se los mire con malos ojos: a los profesionales, es decir, a quienes poseen un determinado ámbito de conocimientos, no les gusta que colegas inconformistas compartan ese saber con la plebe.

Otra cosa contradictoria está sucediendo, y sucede en esos campos que se conocen como las «ciencias blandas» —psicología, sociología, psicología social, antropología social, etcétera—, precisamente las áreas en que están haciéndose tantos descubrimientos fascinantes sobre el ser humano. Se ha puesto de moda denigrarlas, tildarlas de ciencias «fallidas». Uno se topa a cada paso con referencias desdeñosas o despectivas a estas disciplinas «fallidas». Son esos departamentos los primeros que se caen de la lista cuando hay recortes. Pero lo interesante es que se trata de áreas nuevas de estudio, muy nuevas en realidad, pues algunas tienen menos de medio siglo de antigüedad. En conjunto, constituyen una postura totalmente nueva respecto a nosotros mismos y a nuestras instituciones; esa actitud analítica que se muestra distante, curiosa y paciente a la vez y que considero lo más valioso que tenemos para hacer frente a nuestro salvajismo ancestral, a nuestra larga historia como animales sociales. Está realizándose un trabajo ingente; se ha hecho, y se está haciendo, gran número de experimentos, algunos de los cuales cambian la idea que tenemos de nosotros mismos, y hay bibliotecas llenas de libros totalmente novedosos, fruto de un nuevo tipo de investigación.

Como dije en mi última conferencia, creo que los que vendrán después de nosotros se maravillarán, por un lado, de que hayamos acumulado tantísima información sobre nuestro comportamiento, mientras que, por el otro, no hayamos hecho el menor intento de aprovechar dicha información para mejorar la vida que llevamos.

(...) si uno pertenece a una comunidad muy unida, sabe perfectamente que si discrepa de las ideas de dicha comunidad corre el riesgo de que lo vean como un apestado, un criminal, un malhechor. Este proceso es por completo automático; casi todos, en situaciones semejantes, nos comportamos de manera automática. Pero siempre hay una minoría que no lo hace, y en mi opinión el futuro, el futuro de todos nosotros, depende de esa minoría. 

Tomemos, por ejemplo, lo que se sabe ahora sobre cómo funcionamos en grupo. La gente, lo sabemos, suele comportarse en grupo de maneras estereotipadas y predecibles. No obstante, cuando unos ciudadanos se unen para, pongo por caso, fundar una asociación para la protección del unicornio, no dicen: «Este organismo que estamos creando es probable que se desarrolle de una de entre varias maneras. Tengámoslo en cuenta y estemos atentos a nuestro proceder para que seamos nosotros quienes controlemos la asociación, y no al revés». Otro ejemplo: a la izquierda podría resultarle útil decir algo a este tenor: «Se ha podido observar desde hace tiempo que grupos como el nuestro acaban dividiéndose, y que los dos grupos así formados devienen enemigos provistos de líderes que se insultan entre sí. Siendo conscientes de este impulso aparentemente innato de todo grupo a dividirse tal vez logremos conducirnos de forma menos mecánica» Pues no, parece que no basta con ser conscientes de lo que es muy probable que suceda. Cuentan que aquellas personas de gran inteligencia que fundaron el Partido Bolchevique en Londres, creo que en 1905, se dijeron: «Aprendamos de la Revolución francesa y no nos dividamos violentamente por tal o cual detalle y empecemos luego a asesinarnos unos a otros». Pero es exactamente lo que pasó después. Se vieron impotentes ante fuerzas que ellos mismos habían contribuido a dejar sueltas. No entendieron lo que estaba ocurriéndoles. Tenemos cada vez más información que, si la utilizamos, puede ayudarnos a comprender lo que nos pasa en diversas situaciones. 

Sin embargo, por doquier y entre todo tipo de personas, este nuevo e importante logro es objeto de una mala acogida. ¿Por qué? Creo que en este caso hay algo más que el clásico rechazo de las viejos intelectuales frente a las nuevas perspectivas. Creo que lo que inconscientemente han estado buscando, sin encontrarlo, son certezas y dogmas, recetas homologadas que puedan aplicarse a cualquier situación. 

A la gente le gustan las certezas. Es más, anhelan las certezas, persiguen las certezas y las verdades sentenciosas. Le gusta sentirse parte de un movimiento provisto de estas verdades y certezas, y si surgen rebeldes o herejes, pues aún mejor, porque esa estructura la llevamos todos muy arraigada. 

En Gran Bretaña, que está convirtiéndose a marchas forzadas en un país muy polarizado (casi da miedo pertenecer a él), fue la huelga de los mineros lo que precipitó o puso en evidencia un proceso que se había iniciado, creo, con el colapso y la fragmentación de la izquierda. Durante mucho tiempo en Gran Bretaña ha existido un equilibrio entre derecha e izquierda, cada bando con su propio y amplio abanico de opiniones diferentes. Este equilibrio ha desaparecido. La izquierda es un batiburrillo de grupos pequeños y grandes; una forma segura de que se produzcan desórdenes sociales o incluso una revolución.

Doris Lessing circa 1985. Crédito: Getty Images.

Doris Lessing circa 1985. Crédito: Getty Images.

La polarización puede verse además no solo en la política, sino en las universidades. Una amiga mía decidió estudiar antropología y descubrió que no tenía más alternativa que asistir a clases basadas en la ideología y las posturas marxistas. Si alguien me dice que el marxismo ya no es algo unitario sino una serie de pequeñas sectas, cada una con sus dogmas, estaré de acuerdo, pero hay ciertas posturas comunes. Una vez más, se trata de algo inconsciente. De algunas cosas no se habla, apenas si se las menciona. Uno puede asistir a charlas de horas, o días enteros, sobre la guerra y no oír ni una sola vez que una de las causas de la guerra es que hay gente a la que le gusta, o a la que le gusta la idea de la guerra. Del mismo modo, uno puede oír, o leer, hasta la saciedad sobre los problemas de la izquierda sin que a nadie se le ocurra comentar que el motivo de que la izquierda se halle en un aprieto es que la gente ha visto el socialismo en acción en multitud de países y ha quedado aterrada. La Unión Soviética: una tiranía en la que si uno discrepa puede acabar en un manicomio porque por definición tiene que estar loco; un país en que se calcula que veinte millones de personas murieron por los excesos de Stalin. China, donde entre veinte y sesenta millones de personas (la cifra varía según la fuente) fueron masacradas durante la Revolución cultural y donde el progreso retrocedió, según los propios cálculos oficiales, en una generación. Cuba... Etiopía... Somalia... Yemen del Sur... Podría continuar, pero no es necesario. No es necesario salvo para los que están dentro de la izquierda. Como en todo movimiento que engloba a grandes masas, en la izquierda reinan varias certezas sentimentales que quedan fuera de toda discusión. Una es que los socialistas son mejores que los no socialistas —éticamente mejores, quiero decir—, pese al hecho de que el socialismo ha generado las más monstruosas tiranías y asesinado a millones de almas. Y sigue haciéndolo. Otra certeza es que todos los capitalistas son malos, que solo quieren lo peor para la comunidad y que son despiadados y corruptos. Otra, que las mujeres son intrínsecamente más pacíficas que los hombres. No puede decirse que la historia confirme este punto. 

Pero aquí, más que de socialismo, capitalismo, marxismo, etcétera, estoy hablando de fe: de las estructuras de la fe. Algunos describen el tiempo en que vivimos como la Edad de la Fe. Y no, no es la primera vez que el mundo ha tenido que sufrirla... Pero volvamos a la huelga de mineros, que tan profusa fue, por desgracia, en incidentes útiles para mi hipótesis.

Todo el mundo sabe que una huelga, una guerra civil, la guerra en general dan pie a toda clase de tragedias, grandes y pequeñas, entre otras cosas porque emergen los amantes del salvajismo que existen en toda sociedad. Pero la clave está en que los únicos que no lo saben son las personas directamente implicadas, que vistas desde fuera parece que estuvieran borrachas o hipnotizadas, o que hubieran perdido el juicio. Y lo han perdido, en efecto. 

Al principio las cosas fluían, se hablaba de negociar un acuerdo. Pasaron varios meses y las posturas fueron radicalizándose. Desde el inicio de la huelga, muchos mineros habían seguido yendo al trabajo. Los huelguistas no los odiaban tanto como a los mineros que primero hicieron huelga y luego volvieron al tajo. Es un patrón psicológico clásico. El adversario nunca es odiado con tanto furor como el antiguo aliado. Llegada la Navidad, ver a los representantes de ambos bandos debatiendo en televisión era ya una imagen habitual. Según unos, los culpables de los disturbios, la violencia y los altercados eran los mineros; según los mineros, la culpa era de la policía y los esquiroles. Ninguna de las dos partes tenía nada bueno que decir de la otra, ambas mentían... y mentían a conciencia, ya que el fin justifica los medios. La mayor parte de los espectadores sabía que ambas partes se equivocaban, que ambas eran responsables de la violencia, que ambas mentían y que mentían a conciencia. Todo el mundo sabe que una huelga, una guerra civil, la guerra en general dan pie a toda clase de tragedias, grandes y pequeñas, entre otras cosas porque emergen los amantes del salvajismo que existen en toda sociedad. Pero la clave está en que los únicos que no lo saben son las personas directamente implicadas, que vistas desde fuera parece que estuvieran borrachas o hipnotizadas, o que hubieran perdido el juicio. Y lo han perdido, en efecto. Han entrado a formar parte de una gran demencia colectiva, e inmersas como están en ella son incapaces del más mínimo criterio individual. 

Lo que dicen queda formalizado en una serie de posturas que son absolutamente predecibles.

Por ejemplo, al hablar de esos compañeros suyos que decidieron volver al trabajo, los mineros, con un despliegue de vituperios que parece imposible (en tiempos normales), los calificaban de esquiroles, canalla, mugre, basura, mafia. Eso era de esperar, pero lo interesante del caso es que en muchos casos recurrieran a un vocabulario religioso. Los mineros que estaban en el trabajo habían «abandonado el rebaño», tenían que «volver al rebaño», o serán perdonados si «vuelven al rebaño». Los huelguistas tenían un «derecho divino» a tal o cual cosa. Su lucha, cómo no, había sido santificada mediante el sufrimiento, mediante sacrificios.

Doris Lessing en Londres en octubre de 1994. Crédito: Getty Images.

Doris Lessing en Londres en octubre de 1994. Crédito: Getty Images.

A estas alturas ya es un lugar común que los movimientos políticos procedan igual que los movimientos religiosos. Hablamos de las «sectas» o «iglesias» del socialismo; de los «dogmas» del marxismo, similares a los de los fanáticos religiosos. Pero me pregunto si esta manera de pensar no será en realidad un medio para no pensar. Tal como están las cosas, podemos hablar hasta hartarnos de fanatismo político, de extremismo, de movimientos de masa y su comportamiento, sin mencionar una sola vez nuestra historia religiosa salvo con vaguedades como, por ejemplo, que «las religiones y los movimientos políticos tienen mucho en común».

Nos olvidamos —y los jóvenes no lo saben puesto que no leen historia— de que somos herederos de dos mil años, aproximadamente, de un régimen de lo más tiránico, al lado del cual Hitler y Stalin parecen niños de pecho. Y no será que los tiranos modernos no hayan aprendido de las iglesias. En tiempos de la Primera Guerra Mundial, las iglesias perdieron fuerza y dejaron de ser la principal influencia en nuestras sociedades occidentales. Ahora se han vuelto afables, suelen estar orientadas hacia un tipo de obra apenas distinguible del trabajo social o la beneficencia, se hallan infinitamente divididas, y aunque algunas de las sectas son totalitarias, la Iglesia no se ve capaz —como había ocurrido hasta hace solo un par de días, en términos históricos— de dominar al conjunto de una sociedad como único árbitro de la conducta y el pensamiento. Pero durante cientos de años Europa estuvo bajo el yugo de un tirano —la Iglesia católica— que no permitía otras formas de pensar, que cortó toda influencia del exterior y no vaciló en matar, extirpar, perseguir, quemar y torturar en nombre de Dios. No se trata aquí de mantener vivo el recuerdo de las viejas tiranías, sino de identificar la tiranía presente, pues estas pautas todavía las llevamos dentro. Sería raro que no fuera así. 

Son esas pautas lo que en mi opinión debemos estudiar; si somos conscientes de ellas, podremos identificarlas cuando surjan en nosotros y en nuestras sociedades. 

Afirmar que el socialismo es una forma de religión o que el nazismo era una religión, el fascismo era una religión, o que los comunistas modernos echan mano con frecuencia de la fraseología religiosa, no va a ayudarnos mucho a menos que entendamos cuál es exactamente el patrón que debemos buscar. 

El legado del cristianismo más fácilmente observable en el pensamiento socialista es, claro está, su sectarismo. Todos sabemos que las sectas socialistas odian menos al enemigo que a las sectas rivales, o eso se deduce de la forma que tienen de atacarse mutuamente; todos sabemos que cuanto más extremista es el dogma, más extremista es el ataque. Así como los cristianos se pasaron siglos matándose entre ellos por la correcta interpretación de una palabra, una frase, un versículo de la Biblia, así las sectas socialistas se injurian entre sí, se juzgan las unas a las otras. Lo prioritario es destapar la herejía a fin de extirparla. 

Es esa herencia de pensamiento cristiano que arrastramos lo que deberíamos someter a estudio. 

El cristiano cree que está en un valle de lágrimas y que necesita ser rescatado, o «redimido», de esa situación. La «redención» será posible gracias al sacrificio voluntario de un ser superior que asume los pecados del mundo. En el futuro habrá un estado de perfección absoluta, en que no existirán las penas ni el sufrimiento, pero antes de alcanzar este estado se dará un período intermedio de preparación y sufrimiento. 

Comunistas y socialistas creen que el sistema en que vivimos es malo, que los capitalistas y los empresarios son malvados (en el mejor de los casos, bienintencionados), que la única manera de salir de eso es un cambio total que, por fuerza, deberá ser violento; una revolución que exigirá sangre y sacrificios. Extremistas y fanáticos de derechas y de izquierdas creen que tal cambio lo llevará a cabo un líder, un jefe al que rendir extraordinarios homenajes. Tras el cambio de un sistema a otro habrá un período de incontables ajustes, preparativos e incomodidades —sin romper los huevos es imposible hacer la tortilla—, pero es inevitable purgar al pueblo de los errores que emanan del pasado. Y una vez superado este período de purga, vendrá una época de felicidad absoluta, de realización personal, de socialismo y comunismo plenos, en que el pecado ya no existirá. He aquí la estructura del pensamiento cristiano; he aquí la estructura del pensamiento político de la izquierda y de muchos grupos políticos que no son de izquierdas, pero que creen en un cambio drástico y violento porque todos los grupos herejes y malos deben ser perseguidos a muerte o «reeducados».

(...) durante cientos de años Europa estuvo bajo el yugo de un tirano —la Iglesia católica— que no permitía otras formas de pensar, que cortó toda influencia del exterior y no vaciló en matar, extirpar, perseguir, quemar y torturar en nombre de Dios. 

Explicado así, suena a cosa de locos..., y lo es. Una locura de fuerza colosal. De joven, tuve mi época de comunista. Fue una conversión, aparentemente repentina y completa (aunque de corto alcance). De hecho, el comunismo era un germen o un virus que llevaba dentro desde hacía bastante tiempo debido a mi rechazo de la injusta y represiva sociedad de la vieja África dominada por los blancos. Pero a lo que voy es a otra cosa: en su mejor momento nuestro grupo contaba con unas cuarenta personas. Ninguno de nosotros era un excéntrico ni un bicho raro. Todos éramos miembros normales de la sociedad, o lo habíamos sido, porque había una guerra y algunas de dichas personas eran refugiados. En conjunto, puede decirse que éramos más dinámicos, activos y cultos que la mayoría. Sin embargo, durante un par de años, mientras el grupo estuvo unido antes de dividirse para acabar disgregándose del todo, considerábamos axiomas ciertos artículos de fe que no podían cuestionarse. Por ejemplo, que en un tiempo muy breve, una decena de años, es decir, cuando la guerra hubiera terminado y el mundo recuperara la normalidad, la gente reconocería las ventajas del comunismo, el mundo sería comunista y no habría crímenes, prejuicios raciales ni prejuicios sexuales. (Debo aclarar aquí que el movimiento feminista de los años sesenta no dio pie a ninguna crítica del sexismo.) Creíamos firmemente que el mundo entero viviría en armonía, amor, abundancia y paz. 

Era de locos. Y sin embargo, nos lo creíamos. Y sin embargo, surgen grupos así constantemente y en todas partes, tienen períodos en que se alimentan de creencias como estas, y pobre del que no esté de acuerdo, porque será vilipendiado, perseguido y odiado. Es un proceso que se da en todo momento y creo que seguirá dándose, porque las pautas del pasado están tan grabadas en nosotros que criticar a la sociedad y desear cambiarla encaja a la perfección en dichas pautas.

Doris Lessing en una foto tomada en 1990. Crédito: Getty Images.

Doris Lessing en una foto tomada en 1990. Crédito: Getty Images.

Yo creo que algo muy primitivo, muy poderoso, nos tiene agarrados y aún no hemos empezado a controlarlo. A estudiarlo, sí, eso está haciéndose en un centenar de universidades; pero no a aplicarlo. 

Hace poco me encontré a una vieja amiga y le pregunté, como siempre: 

—¿Qué tal te van las cosas? 

—Fatal —me dijo—. No sé qué hacer. Mi hija pequeña, que ahora tiene dieciocho años, está totalmente cambiada. Ya sabes que siempre fuimos una familia muy feliz. Me temo que yo lo daba por sentado, porque todo eso ha cambiado por completo. 

«Ah, claro, a la pobre Anne le ha dado un ataque de política revolucionaria, seguro», pensé. Pero mi amiga prosiguió: 

—Ella siempre fue un poquito religiosa, como ya sabes. Le interesaban los cultos, pero ahora se ha hecho cristiana renacida. Cambió de un día para otro. Sigue viviendo en casa, pero apenas nos dirige la palabra. Ni te imaginas lo mucho que me odia. Se pasa el día con sus nuevos amigos, cree que son todos maravillosos, los ve como a unos santos. A mí me parece gente bastante vulgar, nada del otro mundo, vaya, y hay dos que están bastante chiflados. Ah, pero ellos están salvados y nosotros no, ¿entiendes? Nosotros iremos al infierno, mientras que ellos en cambio irán al paraíso. Tienen un líder. Yo creo que es alguien a quien le encanta el poder sin más, pero ella no se da cuenta, lo considera una especie de santo. Cuando le pregunto cómo puede tratarnos, a nosotros, que somos su familia, como si fuéramos basura, ella me contesta que Jesús le dijo a su madre: «Mujer, ¿qué tengo yo que ver contigo?». 

Ya estamos: es la misma pauta, ni más ni menos. 

Por supuesto, mi amiga sabe (como creían mis padres, esperanzados, cuando les salí con la misma cantinela del vosotros os condenaréis, mis amigos y yo nos salvaremos) que a su hija «se le pasará con el tiempo». El mundo occidental está lleno de personas que han vivido esa experiencia de pertenecer en su juventud a un grupo de fanáticos delirantes y lo han superado después. Diría incluso que la mitad de la gente que conozco en Gran Bretaña entra en esta categoría. Pero en nuestro caso fue algo político, no religioso. Cuando rememoramos aquella época de compromiso total con una serie de dogmas que ahora nos parecen patéticos, solemos lucir una sonrisa burlona. 

Entretanto, vemos a las nuevas generaciones pasar por ese mismo trance y, sabiendo de lo que somos capaces, tememos por ellas. Quizá no sea exagerado decir que en estos tiempos tan violentos lo más sensato que podemos desear a los jóvenes debería ser: «Ojalá que ese tiempo de inmersión en la locura grupal, en el fariseísmo colectivo, no coincida con un período de la historia de vuestros respectivos países en que tengáis ocasión de poner en práctica vuestras demenciales y estúpidas ideas. 

»Con suerte, saldréis de esta muy reforzados por la experiencia de lo que uno es capaz de hacer llevado por el fanatismo y la intolerancia. Comprenderéis muy bien que personas cuerdas, en etapas de locura colectiva, pueden asesinar, destruir, mentir y jurar que lo negro es blanco».