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California según Joan Didion: el lado oscuro del sueño americano

Gran cronista de la contracultura norteamericana, leída y venerada por generaciones de escritoras, Joan Didion diseccionó a lo largo de su vida un conjunto de temas y territorios que dibujan un mapa histórico y personal de Estados Unidos. En «De dónde soy» (Literatura Random House), las memorias sobre su California natal editadas en español luego de su muerte en diciembre de 2021, Didion regresa al lugar donde creció y a las contradicciones de esa tierra prometida que formaron parte de su propia identidad como escritora: desde la fascinación californiana con la tierra, el agua y el dinero fácil hasta la dependencia vital de los ferrocarriles, la industria aeroespacial y el gobierno central, pasando por el culto al individualismo y el fetiche por las cárceles y los manicomios. Publicamos a continuación una selección de estos textos en los que la historia de un país convertido en imperio se proyecta sobre la intimidad familiar de la autora.

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En \u00abDe d\u00f3nde soy\u00bb (Literatura Random House), las memorias sobre su California natal editadas en espa\u00f1ol luego de su muerte en diciembre de 2021, Didion regresa al lugar donde creci\u00f3 y a las contradicciones de esa tierra prometida que formaron parte de su propia identidad como escritora: desde la fascinaci\u00f3n californiana con la tierra, el agua y el dinero f\u00e1cil hasta la dependencia vital de los ferrocarriles, la industria aeroespacial y el gobierno central, pasando por el culto al individualismo y el fetiche por las c\u00e1rceles y los manicomios. Publicamos a continuaci\u00f3n una selecci\u00f3n de estos textos en los que la historia de un pa\u00eds convertido en imperio se proyecta sobre la intimidad familiar de la autora.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"65ic6ta\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Joan Didion en su casa de Mailbu, California, en 1976, junto con su marido, el cr\u00edtico John Gregory Dunne, y la hija de ambos, Quintana, que murieron en 2003 y 2005. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.<span style=\\\"text-decoration: 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\/><br \/>A los doce o trece a\u00f1os, saqu\u00e9 de la biblioteca de Sacramento Middletown y Middletown in Transition de Lynds y le pregunt\u00e9 a mi madre a qu\u00e9 \u00abclase\u00bb pertenec\u00edamos.<br \/><br \/>\u2013Nosotros no usamos esa palabra \u2013me dijo\u2013. No pensamos as\u00ed.<br \/><br \/><\/p><p>Por un lado aquello me pareci\u00f3 una interpretaci\u00f3n intencionadamente err\u00f3nea de la que hasta una ni\u00f1a de doce a\u00f1os pod\u00eda ver que era la situaci\u00f3n, pero por otro lado entend\u00ed que era verdad: en California no pens\u00e1bamos as\u00ed. Cre\u00edamos en hacer borr\u00f3n y cuenta nueva. Cre\u00edamos en la buena suerte. Cre\u00edamos en el buscador de oro que reun\u00eda lo justo para un \u00faltimo pedazo de tierra y encontraba la veta Comstock. Cre\u00edamos en el buscador de petr\u00f3leo que alquilaba una tierra \u00e1rida a seis centavos y cuarto por hect\u00e1rea y acababa fundando Kettleman Hills, que dar\u00eda catorce millones de barriles de crudo en sus tres primeros a\u00f1os. Cre\u00edamos en todas las maneras en que unas posibilidades en apariencia agotadas pod\u00edan volverse verdes y doradas mientras dorm\u00edamos. \u00abPor una California verde y dorada\u00bb era el lema antiincendios del Oso Smokey por la \u00e9poca en que yo estaba leyendo los libros de Lynds. Apaga la fogata de tu campamento, mata a la serpiente de cascabel y mira c\u00f3mo entra el dinero a espuertas.<br \/><br \/>Y entraba.<br \/><br \/>Por mucho que fuera dinero de 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Se supon\u00eda que la prosperidad de hoy y la prosperidad todav\u00eda mayor de ma\u00f1ana se daban de forma natural, que llegaban con la misma regularidad que las olas a lo que anta\u00f1o hab\u00eda sido la costa del Rancho Irvine y luego se hab\u00eda convertido en Newport Beach, Balboa y la isla Lido. La prosperidad era la creencia fundamental del lugar, y fue su aparente ausencia gradual, a principios de la d\u00e9cada de 1990, lo que empez\u00f3 a inquietar a California de una forma que nadie quer\u00eda dilucidar. La conciencia de que la tendencia ya no era firmemente al alza lleg\u00f3 a California tarde y con dureza. El crac del mercado de 1987 fue visto de forma generalizada aunque no consciente por sus ciudadanos simplemente como uno m\u00e1s de los problemas que azotaban a la Am\u00e9rica que ellos hab\u00edan dejado atr\u00e1s, como simple evidencia de aquella negatividad cansina de la Costa Este que a ellos no les iba a llegar. 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hecho, era un estado en el que pr\u00e1cticamente no hab\u00eda condado que no dependiera en alguna medida de los contratos del Departamento de Defensa, desde los miles y miles de millones de d\u00f3lares federales que entraban a espuertas en el condado de Los \u00c1ngeles hasta los contratos de cinco d\u00edgitos de condados como Plumas, Tehama y Tuolomne, y sin embargo el aislamiento geogr\u00e1fico de distintas partes del estado tend\u00eda a ocultar el hecho elemental de que todo estaba interrelacionado. Incluso dentro del condado de Los \u00c1ngeles no parec\u00eda haberse llegado a la evidente conclusi\u00f3n de que si la General Motors cerraba su planta de montaje de Van Nuys, por ejemplo, como de hecho har\u00eda en 1992, provocando la p\u00e9rdida de veintis\u00e9is mil puestos de trabajo, la ola llegar\u00eda a Bel Air, donde viv\u00eda la gente que conced\u00eda los pr\u00e9stamos a la gente que conced\u00eda las hipotecas en Van Nuys. Recuerdo que en junio de 1988 le pregunt\u00e9 a una corredora inmobiliaria del West Side de Los \u00c1ngeles qu\u00e9 efecto tendr\u00edan unos posibles recortes del Departamento de Defensa en el boom de los inmuebles residenciales que hab\u00eda entonces. Ella me dijo que los recortes no tendr\u00edan ning\u00fan efecto en el West Side de Los \u00c1ngeles, porque la gente que trabajaba para la Hughes y la Douglas no viv\u00eda en Pacific Palisades ni en Santa M\u00f3nica ni en Malib\u00fa ni en Beverly Hills ni en Bel Air ni en Brentwood ni en Holmby Hills. \u00abViven en Torrance quiz\u00e1, o en Canoga Park o alg\u00fan sitio as\u00ed.\u00bb 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est\u00e1 junto a la autopista de San Diego, al oeste de Lakewood y al sur de El Segundo y Hawthorne y Lawndale y Gardena. Canoga Park est\u00e1 en el valle de San Fernando. La gente que trabajaba para la Hughes en 1988 s\u00ed que viv\u00eda en Torrance y en Canoga Park. Cinco a\u00f1os m\u00e1s tarde, despu\u00e9s de que la c\u00e1mara legislativa de Arizona aprobara una ley de incentivos fiscales conocida localmente como la \u00abLey Hughes\u00bb, la Hughes empez\u00f3 a trasladar buena parte de sus actividades de El Segundo y Canoga Park a Tucson, y un corredor de inmuebles residenciales bastante conocido en el West Side de Los \u00c1ngeles empez\u00f3 a informar a sus clientes de que el mercado de Beverly Hills hab\u00eda bajado un 47,5 por ciento. Recuerdo que, en los primeros meses despu\u00e9s de los disturbios de 1992, todo el mundo con quien hablaba en Los \u00c1ngeles me contaba cu\u00e1nto hab\u00edan \u00abcambiado\u00bb la ciudad los disturbios. La mayor\u00eda de quienes dec\u00edan esto hab\u00edan vivido en Los \u00c1ngeles, igual que yo, durante los disturbios de Watts de 1965, pero 1992, me aseguraban, hab\u00eda sido \u00abdistinto\u00bb, 1992 lo \u00abhab\u00eda cambiado todo\u00bb. Las palabras que usaban parec\u00edan muy negativas y vagamente inquietantes, palabras como \u00abtriste\u00bb y \u00abmalo\u00bb. Como se trataba en su mayor\u00eda de gente que hab\u00eda necesitado los disturbios para entender que exist\u00eda una diferencia potencialmente explosiva de circunstancias y de percepci\u00f3n entre los ricos y los pobres de la ciudad, lo que me dec\u00edan me dejaba perpleja, e insist\u00ed para que me describieran de forma m\u00e1s detallada c\u00f3mo hab\u00eda cambiado la ciudad. Despu\u00e9s de los disturbios, me contaron, era imposible vender una casa en Los \u00c1ngeles. 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En 1917, el derecho del estado a esterilizar se hab\u00eda ampliado dos veces, primero para abarcar los casos en que el paciente no aceptaba el procedimiento y despu\u00e9s los casos en los que al paciente ni siquiera le hab\u00edan diagnosticado un trastorno hereditario o incurable, sino solo \u00abperversi\u00f3n o desviaciones pronunciadas de la mentalidad normal\u00bb. 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La idea de c\u00f3mo tratar con la locura en California empezaba y terminaba con la detenci\u00f3n\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"nz99ldc\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Lo llamativo de esta din\u00e1mica de reclusiones era hasta qu\u00e9 punto se alejaba de la idea que ten\u00eda California de s\u00ed misma como lugar libre, menos r\u00edgido socialmente que el resto del pa\u00eds, m\u00e1s adaptable y m\u00e1s tolerante con las diferencias. Cuando Fox analiz\u00f3 los registros de reclusiones de San Francisco correspondientes a los a\u00f1os entre 1906 y 1929, descubri\u00f3 que la mayor\u00eda de los hospitalizados, el cincuenta y nueve por ciento, no hab\u00edan sido encerrados por violentos, ni porque supusieran una amenaza para los dem\u00e1s ni para s\u00ed mismos, sino simplemente porque alguien, a veces un agente de polic\u00eda pero a menudo un vecino o pariente, hab\u00eda denunciado que exhib\u00edan \u00abconductas extra\u00f1as o peculiares\u00bb. En 1914, por ejemplo, los m\u00e9dicos forenses de San Francisco concedieron a una mujer su deseo de recluir a su hermana soltera de treinta y siete a\u00f1os, bas\u00e1ndose en el hecho de que la hermana, a pesar de su apariencia \u00abcallada y amistosa\u00bb durante la detenci\u00f3n, hab\u00eda empezado a \u00abhacer tonter\u00edas, hab\u00eda perdido inter\u00e9s en todas las cosas que interesan a las mujeres, ya no pod\u00eda hacer ganchillo tan bien como antes y no le interesaba nada del presente\u00bb. En 1915 se intern\u00f3 a un oficinista de cuarenta y un a\u00f1os porque \u00abse ha pasado tres semanas molestando al director del registro municipal, llam\u00e1ndolo a diario e insistiendo en que es el subdirector\u00bb. En 1922 se recluy\u00f3 a una divorciada de veintitr\u00e9s a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s de que una vecina denunciara que era \u00abperezosa, desali\u00f1ada, desatiende su aspecto, se pasa d\u00edas fuera de casa, descuid\u00e1ndose y junt\u00e1ndose con hombres\u00bb. El mismo a\u00f1o se recluy\u00f3 a una pianista de cuarenta y ocho a\u00f1os bajo el argumento de que \u00ablleva a\u00f1os siendo una irresponsable; ha sido causa de enormes molestias a muchas instituciones como la Asociaci\u00f3n Cristiana de Mujeres J\u00f3venes, iglesias, etc\u00e9tera\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"2i4vx84\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abLo llamativo de esta din\u00e1mica de reclusiones era hasta qu\u00e9 punto se alejaba de la idea que ten\u00eda California de s\u00ed misma como lugar libre, menos r\u00edgido socialmente que el resto del pa\u00eds, m\u00e1s adaptable y m\u00e1s tolerante con las 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Tampoco parece que aquellos conciudadanos vieran su propia tendencia a deshacerse de parientes y vecinos molestos como un posible defecto de su propia socializaci\u00f3n. Muy pronto result\u00f3 conveniente creer que la locura era algo propio del lugar, igual que los terremotos. El primer Manicomio Estatal de California, el de Stockton, se fund\u00f3 en 1853 de manera espec\u00edfica para tratar a quienes se cre\u00eda que hab\u00edan enloquecido en los yacimientos de oro. Seg\u00fan un informe del Consejo Sanitario Estatal de 1873, esta locura end\u00e9mica ten\u00eda que ver con \u00abel esp\u00edritu especulador y fullero\u00bb del asentamiento de California. Ten\u00eda que ver con los \u00abelementos heterog\u00e9neos\u00bb, ten\u00eda que ver con el \u00abcambio de clima, h\u00e1bitos y modos de vida\u00bb, ten\u00eda que ver con verse \u00abaislado, despojado de compasi\u00f3n y de todas las influencias del hogar\u00bb. 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En la \u00e9poca en que me cay\u00f3 en las manos di por sentado que el ejemplar hab\u00eda pertenecido a mi abuelo, pero ahora veo que el ex libris dice: \u00abPropiedad de Chas F. Johnson, Bakersfield, Calif. n.\u00ba 230\u00bb, en otras palabras, es el desecho de otra familia. El libro est\u00e1 ilustrado con grabados y fotograf\u00edas, y en una cantidad sorprendente de estos aparecen los que en 1895 eran los cinco manicomios del estado, enormes estructuras victorianas que parec\u00edan haber brotado de los desiertos y campos de los condados rurales de California en medio de una soledad m\u00e1s punitiva que terap\u00e9utica. Entre las ilustraciones figuran los datos, desplegados en pulcras columnas: en el Manicomio Estatal de Napa hab\u00eda treinta y cinco \u00abenfermeros\u00bb, cada uno de los cuales recib\u00eda un salario anual de 540 d\u00f3lares. Todos estaban identificados por su nombre. Debajo de los \u00abenfermeros\u00bb, y tambi\u00e9n identificados por su nombre, estaba la lista de los \u00abauxiliares de enfermer\u00eda\u00bb, trece de los cuales cobraban 480 d\u00f3lares al a\u00f1o y el resto 420. En la plantilla del Manicomio Estatal de Agnews, en el condado de Santa Clara, al parecer hab\u00eda m\u00e1s \u00abcocineros\u00bb, \u00abayudantes de cocina\u00bb, \u00abpanaderos\u00bb y \u00abayudantes de panadero\u00bb que m\u00e9dicos (los \u00fanicos m\u00e9dicos que constaban eran el \u00abdirector m\u00e9dico\u00bb, que cobraba 3.500 d\u00f3lares, y dos \u00abayudantes de m\u00e9dico\u00bb, con sueldos respectivos de 2.500 y 2.100 d\u00f3lares), pero la plantilla tambi\u00e9n incluye \u2013un detalle que da escalofr\u00edos por el l\u00fagubre entretenimiento que sugiere\u2013 a un \u00abm\u00fasico y ayudante de enfermer\u00eda\u00bb, que recib\u00eda sesenta d\u00f3lares m\u00e1s del presupuesto que los dem\u00e1s ayudantes de enfermer\u00eda, presumiblemente no m\u00fasicos.<\/p><p>Estos lugares sobrevivieron durante mi infancia y adolescencia y hasta entrada mi vida adulta, y produc\u00edan un miedo todav\u00eda peor que el de ahogarse en los r\u00edos (ahogarse significaba que hab\u00edas malinterpretado al r\u00edo, ahogarse era algo que se entend\u00eda, ahogarse era aceptable): el miedo a que te llevaran \u2013no, peor, a que \u00abte encerraran\u00bb. Cerca de Sacramento hab\u00eda un manicomio al que \u00edbamos peri\u00f3dicamente nuestra tropa de girl scouts para exhibir ante los internos nuestra firme jovialidad mientras cant\u00e1bamos, ni\u00f1as de nueve a\u00f1os con insignias al m\u00e9rito en la manga a las que pon\u00edan a trabajar como m\u00fasicas y ayudantes de enfermer\u00eda. \u00ab<em>White coral bells upon a slender stalk<\/em> \u2013cant\u00e1bamos en la galer\u00eda, evitando mirar a nadie a los ojos\u2013, <em>lilies of the valley line your garden walk<\/em>\u00bb. A los nueve a\u00f1os no podr\u00eda haber sabido que la hermana de mi abuela, que hab\u00eda venido a vivir con nosotros sumida en la melancol\u00eda tras la muerte de su marido, terminar\u00eda falleciendo en el manicomio de Napa, pero la posibilidad de que aquel destino te tocara era el pan nuestro de cada 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don\u2019t you wish that you could hear them ring<\/em> \u2013cant\u00e1bamos, mientras nos iba fallando la voz a una tras otra, y es que solo las m\u00e1s fuertes o las menos perceptivas eran capaces de seguir cantando en presencia de aquella gente encerrada, ya irremediablemente perdida, abandonada\u2013, <em>that will happen only when the angels sing<\/em>\u00bb. Si era cuesti\u00f3n de elegir entre nosotras y ellas, \u00bfqui\u00e9nes de las que est\u00e1bamos en esa galer\u00eda no habr\u00edan incurrido en aquellos \u00abnuevos niveles de desatenci\u00f3n\u00bb y en aquella \u00abceguera in\u00e9dita a nuestros deberes sociales\u00bb? \u00bfQui\u00e9nes de las que est\u00e1bamos en esa galer\u00eda no habr\u00edan abandonado a la hu\u00e9rfana se\u00f1orita Gilmore y a su hermano junto al Little Sandy? \u00bfQui\u00e9nes de las que est\u00e1bamos en aquella galer\u00eda no compart\u00edan en alg\u00fan nivel el convencimiento avergonzado pero arraigado de que si eras d\u00e9bil o molestabas te acabar\u00edan abandonando? \u00bfQui\u00e9nes de las que est\u00e1bamos en aquella galer\u00eda no ver\u00edamos la serpiente de cascabel y la dejar\u00edamos vivir? \u00bfQui\u00e9nes de las que est\u00e1bamos en aquella galer\u00eda no vender\u00eda el cementerio? \u00bfAcaso aquellos abandonos no constitu\u00edan el esp\u00edritu mismo de la cr\u00f3nica de la traves\u00eda? \u00bfDeshacerse de lastres? \u00bfSeguir avanzando? \u00bfEnterrar a los muertos en el camino y hacer pasar los carromatos por encima? 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Nunca examines tus sentimientos, no te van a ayudar en nada.\u00bb<\/p><p><\/p><p><\/p><p><br \/><strong><br \/><br \/><br \/>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/despedidas\/joan-didion-zadie-smith#\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Joan Didion por Zadie Smith: la otra cara del pensamiento m\u00e1gico<br \/><\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/todo-esta-guardado-en-la-memoria-de-edna-o-brien\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Todo est\u00e1 guardado en la memoria de Edna O'Brien<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/jonathan-franzen-encrucijadas-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Franzen por Franzen: retrato de familia en 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10 minutos

Joan Didion en su casa de Mailbu, California, en 1976, junto con su marido, el crítico John Gregory Dunne, y la hija de ambos, Quintana, que murieron en 2003 y 2005. Crédito: Getty Images.

1

A los doce o trece años, saqué de la biblioteca de Sacramento Middletown y Middletown in Transition de Lynds y le pregunté a mi madre a qué «clase» pertenecíamos.

–Nosotros no usamos esa palabra –me dijo–. No pensamos así.

Por un lado aquello me pareció una interpretación intencionadamente errónea de la que hasta una niña de doce años podía ver que era la situación, pero por otro lado entendí que era verdad: en California no pensábamos así. Creíamos en hacer borrón y cuenta nueva. Creíamos en la buena suerte. Creíamos en el buscador de oro que reunía lo justo para un último pedazo de tierra y encontraba la veta Comstock. Creíamos en el buscador de petróleo que alquilaba una tierra árida a seis centavos y cuarto por hectárea y acababa fundando Kettleman Hills, que daría catorce millones de barriles de crudo en sus tres primeros años. Creíamos en todas las maneras en que unas posibilidades en apariencia agotadas podían volverse verdes y doradas mientras dormíamos. «Por una California verde y dorada» era el lema antiincendios del Oso Smokey por la época en que yo estaba leyendo los libros de Lynds. Apaga la fogata de tu campamento, mata a la serpiente de cascabel y mira cómo entra el dinero a espuertas.

Y entraba.

Por mucho que fuera dinero de otros.

Sería difícil sobrestimar hasta qué punto los años del boom de la posguerra confirmaron este giro en la imaginación de California. Se suponía que la prosperidad de hoy y la prosperidad todavía mayor de mañana se daban de forma natural, que llegaban con la misma regularidad que las olas a lo que antaño había sido la costa del Rancho Irvine y luego se había convertido en Newport Beach, Balboa y la isla Lido. La prosperidad era la creencia fundamental del lugar, y fue su aparente ausencia gradual, a principios de la década de 1990, lo que empezó a inquietar a California de una forma que nadie quería dilucidar. La conciencia de que la tendencia ya no era firmemente al alza llegó a California tarde y con dureza. El crac del mercado de 1987 fue visto de forma generalizada aunque no consciente por sus ciudadanos simplemente como uno más de los problemas que azotaban a la América que ellos habían dejado atrás, como simple evidencia de aquella negatividad cansina de la Costa Este que a ellos no les iba a llegar. Aun cuando empezaron a cerrar las plantas dedicadas a Defensa por toda la autopista de San Diego y empezaron a aparecer letreros de se alquila por todo el condado de Orange, muy poca gente quiso ver una conexión con la forma en que se iba a vivir en aquella California que ya no era inmediatamente identificable como un «cohete».

«La prosperidad era la creencia fundamental del lugar, y fue su aparente ausencia gradual, a principios de la década de 1990, lo que empezó a inquietar a California de una forma que nadie quería dilucidar».

De hecho, era un estado en el que prácticamente no había condado que no dependiera en alguna medida de los contratos del Departamento de Defensa, desde los miles y miles de millones de dólares federales que entraban a espuertas en el condado de Los Ángeles hasta los contratos de cinco dígitos de condados como Plumas, Tehama y Tuolomne, y sin embargo el aislamiento geográfico de distintas partes del estado tendía a ocultar el hecho elemental de que todo estaba interrelacionado. Incluso dentro del condado de Los Ángeles no parecía haberse llegado a la evidente conclusión de que si la General Motors cerraba su planta de montaje de Van Nuys, por ejemplo, como de hecho haría en 1992, provocando la pérdida de veintiséis mil puestos de trabajo, la ola llegaría a Bel Air, donde vivía la gente que concedía los préstamos a la gente que concedía las hipotecas en Van Nuys. Recuerdo que en junio de 1988 le pregunté a una corredora inmobiliaria del West Side de Los Ángeles qué efecto tendrían unos posibles recortes del Departamento de Defensa en el boom de los inmuebles residenciales que había entonces. Ella me dijo que los recortes no tendrían ningún efecto en el West Side de Los Ángeles, porque la gente que trabajaba para la Hughes y la Douglas no vivía en Pacific Palisades ni en Santa Mónica ni en Malibú ni en Beverly Hills ni en Bel Air ni en Brentwood ni en Holmby Hills. «Viven en Torrance quizá, o en Canoga Park o algún sitio así.»

«En 1992 la idea de que quizá fuera imposible vender una casa en Los Ángeles por el hecho de que el dinero se había marchado todavía iba tan en contra de la mentalidad del lugar que la mayoría seguía rechazando».

Torrance está junto a la autopista de San Diego, al oeste de Lakewood y al sur de El Segundo y Hawthorne y Lawndale y Gardena. Canoga Park está en el valle de San Fernando. La gente que trabajaba para la Hughes en 1988 sí que vivía en Torrance y en Canoga Park. Cinco años más tarde, después de que la cámara legislativa de Arizona aprobara una ley de incentivos fiscales conocida localmente como la «Ley Hughes», la Hughes empezó a trasladar buena parte de sus actividades de El Segundo y Canoga Park a Tucson, y un corredor de inmuebles residenciales bastante conocido en el West Side de Los Ángeles empezó a informar a sus clientes de que el mercado de Beverly Hills había bajado un 47,5 por ciento. Recuerdo que, en los primeros meses después de los disturbios de 1992, todo el mundo con quien hablaba en Los Ángeles me contaba cuánto habían «cambiado» la ciudad los disturbios. La mayoría de quienes decían esto habían vivido en Los Ángeles, igual que yo, durante los disturbios de Watts de 1965, pero 1992, me aseguraban, había sido «distinto», 1992 lo «había cambiado todo». Las palabras que usaban parecían muy negativas y vagamente inquietantes, palabras como «triste» y «malo». Como se trataba en su mayoría de gente que había necesitado los disturbios para entender que existía una diferencia potencialmente explosiva de circunstancias y de percepción entre los ricos y los pobres de la ciudad, lo que me decían me dejaba perpleja, e insistí para que me describieran de forma más detallada cómo había cambiado la ciudad. Después de los disturbios, me contaron, era imposible vender una casa en Los Ángeles. En 1992 la idea de que quizá fuera imposible vender una casa en Los Ángeles por una razón más simple –por el hecho de que el dinero se había marchado– todavía iba tan en contra de la mentalidad del lugar que la mayoría la seguía rechazando.

  Crédito: Getty Images.

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Desde la década de 1870 hasta la de 1920, según el estudio de 1978 de Richard W. Fox So Far Disordered in Mind: Insanity in California 1870-1930, California tuvo una tasa más alta de reclusiones por locura que ningún otro estado de la nación, una desproporción que se podía explicar de manera muy razonable, sugiere Fox, «por el celo con que los funcionarios del estado de California se dedicaban a localizar, detener y tratar no solo a quienes consideraban “enfermos mentales”, sino también a una amplia gama de otros anormales, entre ellos, citando a los médicos de los hospitales estatales, “imbéciles, seniles, idiotas, borrachos, cortos de luces, simples” y también “ancianos, vagabundos y desamparados”». No solo tenía California aquella tasa notablemente más elevada de reclusiones, sino que además las instituciones en las que internaba a sus ciudadanos diferían fundamentalmente de las del Este, donde la estrategia para tratar con la locura había estado desde el principio medicalizada, basada en regímenes –por poco que se cumplieran– de tratamiento y terapia. La idea de cómo tratar con la locura en California empezaba y terminaba con la detención.

Tan amplios eran los criterios para la reclusión, y tan generalizada era la inclinación a dejar que el estado se hiciera cargo de lo que en otra cultura se habría interpretado como una carga familiar, que incluso muchos de los médicos que dirigían el sistema se sentían incómodos. Ya en 1862, según So Far Disordered in Mind, el médico residente del Manicomio Estatal de Stockton se quejaba de que recibía pacientes «que, si tienen las mentes afectadas por algo, es por la debilidad de la edad anciana, o por los excesos, o quizá de forma más habitual por ambas cosas». En 1870, el censo federal clasificaba a uno de cada 489 californianos como demente. Llegado 1880, la proporción se había elevado a uno de cada 345. Después de 1903, cuando la tasa se había elevado a uno de cada 260 y los manicomios habían rebasado su capacidad, ganó aceptación la idea de esterilizar a los reclusos, pensando que de esa forma se podría poner en libertad a cierto número de ellos sin peligro de que se reprodujeran. La esterilización de los reclusos, o su «asexualización», que ya se había legalizado en otros estados en 1907, se legalizó en California en 1909. En 1917, el derecho del estado a esterilizar se había ampliado dos veces, primero para abarcar los casos en que el paciente no aceptaba el procedimiento y después los casos en los que al paciente ni siquiera le habían diagnosticado un trastorno hereditario o incurable, sino solo «perversión o desviaciones pronunciadas de la mentalidad normal». A finales de 1920, de las 3.233 esterilizaciones por demencia o debilidad mental que se habían realizado hasta la fecha en Estados Unidos, 2.558, o el setenta y nueve por ciento, habían tenido lugar en California.

«En el Este, la estrategia para tratar con la locura había estado desde el principio medicalizada, basada en regímenes de tratamiento y terapia. La idea de cómo tratar con la locura en California empezaba y terminaba con la detención».

Lo llamativo de esta dinámica de reclusiones era hasta qué punto se alejaba de la idea que tenía California de sí misma como lugar libre, menos rígido socialmente que el resto del país, más adaptable y más tolerante con las diferencias. Cuando Fox analizó los registros de reclusiones de San Francisco correspondientes a los años entre 1906 y 1929, descubrió que la mayoría de los hospitalizados, el cincuenta y nueve por ciento, no habían sido encerrados por violentos, ni porque supusieran una amenaza para los demás ni para sí mismos, sino simplemente porque alguien, a veces un agente de policía pero a menudo un vecino o pariente, había denunciado que exhibían «conductas extrañas o peculiares». En 1914, por ejemplo, los médicos forenses de San Francisco concedieron a una mujer su deseo de recluir a su hermana soltera de treinta y siete años, basándose en el hecho de que la hermana, a pesar de su apariencia «callada y amistosa» durante la detención, había empezado a «hacer tonterías, había perdido interés en todas las cosas que interesan a las mujeres, ya no podía hacer ganchillo tan bien como antes y no le interesaba nada del presente». En 1915 se internó a un oficinista de cuarenta y un años porque «se ha pasado tres semanas molestando al director del registro municipal, llamándolo a diario e insistiendo en que es el subdirector». En 1922 se recluyó a una divorciada de veintitrés años después de que una vecina denunciara que era «perezosa, desaliñada, desatiende su aspecto, se pasa días fuera de casa, descuidándose y juntándose con hombres». El mismo año se recluyó a una pianista de cuarenta y ocho años bajo el argumento de que «lleva años siendo una irresponsable; ha sido causa de enormes molestias a muchas instituciones como la Asociación Cristiana de Mujeres Jóvenes, iglesias, etcétera».

«Lo llamativo de esta dinámica de reclusiones era hasta qué punto se alejaba de la idea que tenía California de sí misma como lugar libre, menos rígido socialmente que el resto del país, más adaptable y más tolerante con las diferencias».

No da la impresión de que esta necesidad en apariencia imperiosa de detener a ciudadanos californianos que en muchísimos casos solo estaban trastornados de forma muy marginal y someterlos a una privación de libertad indefinida fuera interpretada por el resto de la ciudadanía como un ansia excesiva de control social. Tampoco parece que aquellos conciudadanos vieran su propia tendencia a deshacerse de parientes y vecinos molestos como un posible defecto de su propia socialización. Muy pronto resultó conveniente creer que la locura era algo propio del lugar, igual que los terremotos. El primer Manicomio Estatal de California, el de Stockton, se fundó en 1853 de manera específica para tratar a quienes se creía que habían enloquecido en los yacimientos de oro. Según un informe del Consejo Sanitario Estatal de 1873, esta locura endémica tenía que ver con «el espíritu especulador y fullero» del asentamiento de California. Tenía que ver con los «elementos heterogéneos», tenía que ver con el «cambio de clima, hábitos y modos de vida», tenía que ver con verse «aislado, despojado de compasión y de todas las influencias del hogar». California en sí, por tanto, según su propio Consejo Sanitario, era un lugar «diseñado para romper algún eslabón en la cadena de la razón e inducir confusión incluso en las propiedades mentales más equilibradas».

Rodrigo Fresán

Didion visitó Alcatraz en 1967: la prisión había sido cerrada en 1963 y era administrada como una atracción turística del Área Nacional de Recreación del Golden Gate. Crédito: Getty Images.

En mi mesa tengo un ejemplar del California Blue Book, or State Roster [Libro Azul de California, o Directorio Estatal], del año 1895, un desecho de familia, rescatado de una caja de la organización benéfica Good Will durante una mudanza de mi madre. En la época en que me cayó en las manos di por sentado que el ejemplar había pertenecido a mi abuelo, pero ahora veo que el ex libris dice: «Propiedad de Chas F. Johnson, Bakersfield, Calif. n.º 230», en otras palabras, es el desecho de otra familia. El libro está ilustrado con grabados y fotografías, y en una cantidad sorprendente de estos aparecen los que en 1895 eran los cinco manicomios del estado, enormes estructuras victorianas que parecían haber brotado de los desiertos y campos de los condados rurales de California en medio de una soledad más punitiva que terapéutica. Entre las ilustraciones figuran los datos, desplegados en pulcras columnas: en el Manicomio Estatal de Napa había treinta y cinco «enfermeros», cada uno de los cuales recibía un salario anual de 540 dólares. Todos estaban identificados por su nombre. Debajo de los «enfermeros», y también identificados por su nombre, estaba la lista de los «auxiliares de enfermería», trece de los cuales cobraban 480 dólares al año y el resto 420. En la plantilla del Manicomio Estatal de Agnews, en el condado de Santa Clara, al parecer había más «cocineros», «ayudantes de cocina», «panaderos» y «ayudantes de panadero» que médicos (los únicos médicos que constaban eran el «director médico», que cobraba 3.500 dólares, y dos «ayudantes de médico», con sueldos respectivos de 2.500 y 2.100 dólares), pero la plantilla también incluye –un detalle que da escalofríos por el lúgubre entretenimiento que sugiere– a un «músico y ayudante de enfermería», que recibía sesenta dólares más del presupuesto que los demás ayudantes de enfermería, presumiblemente no músicos.

Estos lugares sobrevivieron durante mi infancia y adolescencia y hasta entrada mi vida adulta, y producían un miedo todavía peor que el de ahogarse en los ríos (ahogarse significaba que habías malinterpretado al río, ahogarse era algo que se entendía, ahogarse era aceptable): el miedo a que te llevaran –no, peor, a que «te encerraran». Cerca de Sacramento había un manicomio al que íbamos periódicamente nuestra tropa de girl scouts para exhibir ante los internos nuestra firme jovialidad mientras cantábamos, niñas de nueve años con insignias al mérito en la manga a las que ponían a trabajar como músicas y ayudantes de enfermería. «White coral bells upon a slender stalk –cantábamos en la galería, evitando mirar a nadie a los ojos–, lilies of the valley line your garden walk». A los nueve años no podría haber sabido que la hermana de mi abuela, que había venido a vivir con nosotros sumida en la melancolía tras la muerte de su marido, terminaría falleciendo en el manicomio de Napa, pero la posibilidad de que aquel destino te tocara era el pan nuestro de cada día.

«Los manicomios sobrevivieron durante mi infancia y adolescencia y hasta entrada mi vida adulta, y producían un miedo todavía peor que el de ahogarse en los ríos: el miedo a que te llevaran –no, peor: a que te encerraran».

«Oh don’t you wish that you could hear them ring –cantábamos, mientras nos iba fallando la voz a una tras otra, y es que solo las más fuertes o las menos perceptivas eran capaces de seguir cantando en presencia de aquella gente encerrada, ya irremediablemente perdida, abandonada–, that will happen only when the angels sing». Si era cuestión de elegir entre nosotras y ellas, ¿quiénes de las que estábamos en esa galería no habrían incurrido en aquellos «nuevos niveles de desatención» y en aquella «ceguera inédita a nuestros deberes sociales»? ¿Quiénes de las que estábamos en esa galería no habrían abandonado a la huérfana señorita Gilmore y a su hermano junto al Little Sandy? ¿Quiénes de las que estábamos en aquella galería no compartían en algún nivel el convencimiento avergonzado pero arraigado de que si eras débil o molestabas te acabarían abandonando? ¿Quiénes de las que estábamos en aquella galería no veríamos la serpiente de cascabel y la dejaríamos vivir? ¿Quiénes de las que estábamos en aquella galería no vendería el cementerio? ¿Acaso aquellos abandonos no constituían el espíritu mismo de la crónica de la travesía? ¿Deshacerse de lastres? ¿Seguir avanzando? ¿Enterrar a los muertos en el camino y hacer pasar los carromatos por encima? No te detengas a pensar en lo que dejaste atrás, no mires atrás para nada. «Acuérdate –nos había avisado Virginia Reed a los atentos hijos de California, aquellos que habíamos sido aleccionados prácticamente desde la infancia con los horrores a los que ella había sobrevivido–, no cojáis ningún atajo y apresuraos tanto como podáis.»

Una vez, durante un trayecto en coche al lago Tahoe, me sentí impulsada a impartirles a los hijos pequeños de mi hermano la siniestra lección de la expedición Donner [pioneros americanos que migraron a California en tren], por si acaso a él se le había ocurrido ahorrársela. «No te preocupes –recordaba haberse dicho a sí misma otra hija atenta de California, Patricia Hearst, en la época en que sus secuestradores la tenían encerrada en un trastero–. No examines tus sentimientos. Nunca examines tus sentimientos, no te van a ayudar en nada.»





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