Despedidas

Joan Didion por Zadie Smith: la otra cara del pensamiento mágico

Cuando murió a finales de 2021, Joan Didion era una de las referentes más veneradas y admiradas por varias generaciones de escritoras. Gran cronista de la contracultura norteamericana, sofisticada estilista en las aguas de la no ficción, capaz de diseccionar con lucidez y agudeza territorios como California, Nueva York, El Salvador, la Miami cubana, sistemas como el de la Justicia, el estrellato y la familia, la publicación de «El año del pensamiento mágico» (2005) y de «Noches azules» (2011), sobre las muertes de su marido y de su hija, la puso –una vez más— en perfecta sintonía con la sensibilidad de la época. Las despedidas en todo el mundo literario fueron una muestra de lo que esa combinación de rigor periodístico e intimidad supieron generar. De todas ellas, quizá la más brillante e irreverente haya sido la despedida de Zadie Smith publicada originalmente en «The New Yorker». ¿Por qué? Porque lo hace a la mejor manera de Didion: auscultando el reverso de sus frases, sus palabras, sus sentencias y su impenitente ironía.

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De todas ellas, quiz\u00e1 la m\u00e1s brillante haya sido la de Zadie Smith por hacerlo a la mejor manera de Didion: auscultando el reverso de sus palabras.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA Joan Didion Zadie Smith","short_content":"<p>Cuando muri\u00f3 a finales de 2021, Joan Didion era una de las referentes m\u00e1s veneradas y admiradas por varias generaciones de escritoras. Gran cronista de la contracultura norteamericana, sofisticada estilista en las aguas de la no ficci\u00f3n, capaz de diseccionar con lucidez y agudeza territorios como California, Nueva York, El Salvador, la Miami cubana, sistemas como el de la Justicia, el estrellato y la familia, la publicaci\u00f3n de \u00abEl a\u00f1o del pensamiento m\u00e1gico\u00bb (2005) y de \u00abNoches azules\u00bb (2011), sobre las muertes de su marido y de su hija, la puso \u2013una vez m\u00e1s\u2014 en perfecta sinton\u00eda con la sensibilidad de la \u00e9poca. 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Joan Didion con un grupo de hippies en el Golden Gate Park (San Francisco). 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peculiaridad de\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1359-joan-didion\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la obra de Joan Didion<\/a> es que sus enunciados m\u00e1s ir\u00f3nicos se leen ahora como si fuesen sinceros, mientras que a sus provocaciones m\u00e1s sinceras se les quita mucho hierro. Tal vez, cuando el tema que tratas es el delirio, acabas suscitando ese estado en otros, aunque tu intenci\u00f3n sea definirlo y esclarecerlo. \u00bfC\u00f3mo explicar si no las extra\u00f1as inversiones que hacemos de sus sentencias? \u00abNos contamos historias a nosotros mismos para poder vivir\u00bb. Una frase que pretend\u00eda ser una acusaci\u00f3n se ha transformado en credo personal. Ocurre lo mismo con el <em>pensamiento m\u00e1gico.<\/em> El pensamiento m\u00e1gico es un trastorno de la conciencia: ve causalidad donde no la hay, confunde las emociones \u00edntimas con la realidad circundante, impone \u2014como Didion describe a la perfecci\u00f3n en <em>El \u00e1lbum blanco<\/em>\u2014 \u00abuna l\u00ednea narrativa que une las im\u00e1genes dispares\u00bb. Salvo en los momentos cr\u00edticos del duelo, no era un estado en el que ella acostumbrara a caer. El c\u00f3digo de Didion era el c\u00f3digo. Estaba excepcionalmente alerta a las palabras o las frases hechas que utilizamos para expresar nuestras aspiraciones o creencias claves. Alerta en el sentido de suspicaz. Actualizando de forma radical <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ricardo-piglia-ernest-hemingway-en-nuestro-tiempo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el \u00abdetector de mierda\u00bb de Hemingway<\/a><\/span>, sondeaba el discurso p\u00fablico a fondo para determinar cu\u00e1nto de verdad y cu\u00e1nto de ilusorio conten\u00eda. Y hac\u00eda lo mismo con su propia escritura. Reley\u00e9ndola se descubre un rigor implacable, intacto por el paso del tiempo. Quiz\u00e1 por eso resulte m\u00e1s f\u00e1cil mirar im\u00e1genes de Didion que leerla. La imagen causa impacto, indudablemente, pero la lectura es una disecci\u00f3n: de nuestras aspiraciones y creencias m\u00e1s arraigadas, de todos nuestros c\u00f3digos. O, por decirlo de otro modo, mientras los dem\u00e1s se tragaban lo que les pusieran delante, ella segu\u00eda con su Coca-Cola y sus cigarrillos: <br \/><br \/><em>\u00abComo madre, deber\u00edas convertirte en int\u00e9rprete de los mitos\u00bb, aconsejaba Letty Cottin Pogrebin en el n\u00famero de lanzamiento de la revista Ms. \u00abEs posible rescatar fragmentos de cualquier cuento de hadas o\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/penguinkids\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">cuento infantil<\/a><\/span> durante una sesi\u00f3n cr\u00edtica con tu hijo.\u00bb Otros analistas literarios idearon formas de rescatar otros libros: Isabel Archer en El retrato de una dama ya no necesitaba ser v\u00edctima de su propio idealismo. Pod\u00eda ser, en cambio, la v\u00edctima de una sociedad sexista, una mujer que hab\u00eda \u00abinteriorizado la definici\u00f3n convencional de \\\"esposa\\\"\u00bb. La narradora de <\/em>The Company She Keeps<em> de Mary McCarthy podr\u00eda considerarse \u00abesclavizada, porque persiste en buscar su identidad en un 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Nos enga\u00f1amos a nosotros mismos: la rehacemos a nuestra imagen y semejanza. \u00abEs un derecho de los oprimidos organizarse en torno a su opresi\u00f3n tal como ellos mismos la ven y la definen.\u00bb Aunque, por supuesto, esta afirmaci\u00f3n que la joven Didion consideraba ir\u00f3nica \u2014un intento circular de crear una pol\u00edtica a partir de la emoci\u00f3n pura, muy alejado de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/sally-rooney-donde-estas-mundo-bello-gente-normal\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">los ideales marxistas de un feminismo pr\u00e1ctico<\/a><\/span>\u2014 ahora no se leer\u00eda s\u00f3lo desde la sinceridad, sino con la ley en la mano.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"8f7wj34\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abNos contamos historias a nosotros mismos para poder vivir.\u00bb Una frase que pretend\u00eda ser una acusaci\u00f3n se ha transformado en credo personal. Ocurre lo mismo con el \u00abpensamiento m\u00e1gico\u00bb. El pensamiento m\u00e1gico es un trastorno de la conciencia: ve causalidad donde no la hay, confunde las emociones \u00edntimas con la realidad circundante, impone \u00abuna l\u00ednea narrativa que une las im\u00e1genes dispares\u00bb. No era un estado en el que ella acostumbrara a caer. Didion estaba excepcionalmente alerta a las palabras o las frases hechas que utilizamos para expresar nuestras aspiraciones o creencias. Actualizaba de forma radical <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/ricardo-piglia-ernest-hemingway-en-nuestro-tiempo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el \u00abdetector de mierda\u00bb de Hemingway<\/a><\/span>.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"g5hjluq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Ya escribiera acerca de la invenci\u00f3n de \u00ablas mujeres como \\\"clase\\\"\u00bb, o acerca de Haight-Ashbury, John Wayne, la muerte de su familia o su propio derrumbe emocional, el objetivo de Didion era el \u00absustrato ps\u00edquico\u00bb, que ella situaba justo debajo del mantillo aparentemente racional e ideol\u00f3gico, \u00abdenso de supersticiones y peque\u00f1as falacias, deseos por cumplir, menosprecio hacia uno mismo y fantas\u00edas amargas\u00bb. Que se la considere\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">un referente del ensayo personal<\/a><\/span> es otra de esas iron\u00edas literarias: incluso cuando escrib\u00eda de s\u00ed misma, Didion informaba con desapego, y era tan poco dada a compadecerse de sus sentimientos como de los de Joan Baez, Nancy Reagan o una ni\u00f1a que va de \u00e1cido. Ella era s\u00f3lo un tema m\u00e1s entre tantos, susceptible a las mezquinas ilusiones de cualquier ser humano, pero crucial y genuinamente interesada en ahondar en ese sustrato, sin importar lo que pudiera encontrar all\u00ed abajo. No buscaba aprobaci\u00f3n. No se dejaba intimidar por lo que \u00abtodo el mundo\u00bb dec\u00eda o lo que \u00abtodo el mundo\u00bb pensaba. Aborrec\u00eda el tipo de pensamiento que cancela el pensamiento. En su ensayo de 2003 <em>Opiniones fijas, o la bisagra de la historia,<\/em> descubre la cancelaci\u00f3n en todos los \u00e1mbitos del panorama estadounidense: en la soslayada \u00abrelaci\u00f3n de Estados Unidos con Israel\u00bb; en la condena p\u00fablica de otra mujer tenaz, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/675-susan-sontaghttps:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/675-susan-sontag\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Susan Sontag<\/a><\/span>, por atreverse a considerar<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/monica-bernabe-afganistan\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">las motivaciones de Al Qaeda<\/a><\/span>. \u00abEn otras palabras, indagar la naturaleza del enemigo al que nos enfrentamos se interpretaba como simpat\u00eda por ese enemigo.\u00bb Ese ensayo aborda las repercusiones inmediatas del<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/lawrence-wright-la-torre-elevada\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">11-S<\/a><\/span>, pero para un lector contempor\u00e1neo, asediado por opiniones fijas desde todos los flancos, las siguientes l\u00edneas pueden tener una aplicaci\u00f3n m\u00e1s general: <br \/><br \/><em>La cuesti\u00f3n en s\u00ed [...] ha acabado por verse como [...] implanteable, letal en potencia, el equivalente en una conversaci\u00f3n de la bolsa sospechosa abandonada en un autob\u00fas. Nos ponemos a cubierto. Esperamos a que el asunto se calme, a que quede aislado de forma segura tras deflectores de invectivas y contrainvectivas. Se expresan muchas opiniones. Pocas llegan a desarrollarse. 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Malibu, California, 1976. Quintana Roo Dunne (a la izquierda) con sus padres, los escritores John Gregory Dunne (1932-2003) y Joan Didion (1934-2021). Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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notables excepciones,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/module\/elastico\/elasticosearch\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Didion era una mujer que no acostumbraba tanto a expresar opiniones<\/a><\/span> o sentimientos como a interrogarlos ambos. Si eso a\u00fan llama la atenci\u00f3n por lo inusual, a m\u00ed me pareci\u00f3 algo sin precedentes cuando la le\u00ed por primera vez a finales de los a\u00f1os ochenta. Que fuera <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/rosa-beltran-radicales-libres\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">una mujer importaba, y mucho<\/a><\/span>. Cuando las escritoras de mi generaci\u00f3n hablan con embeleso del \u00abestilo\u00bb de Didion, no creo que piensen en los vestidos de tubo o las gafas de sol, los cigarrillos o las comas, o ni siquiera en esos guiones largos que tanto adoramos, a pesar de que todas esas cosas sean estupendas. Era una cuesti\u00f3n de autoridad. La autoridad del tono. Hay mucho en Didion con lo que se puede discrepar personal, pol\u00edtica, est\u00e9ticamente. Nunca voy a ser una apasionada de los Doors, pero sigo agradeciendo el d\u00eda en que empec\u00e9 a leer <em>Arrastrarse hacia Bel\u00e9n<\/em> y me di cuenta de que una mujer pod\u00eda hablar sin apostar sobre seguro, sin ambages ni titubeos, sin quedar bien, sin lirismo, sin candor ni dulzura, sin deferencia e incluso sin lugar a dudas. A una mujer joven de hoy debe de resultarle dif\u00edcil imaginar el gran espectro de cosas que las mujeres de mi generaci\u00f3n tem\u00edan que las mujeres no pod\u00edan hacer, pero cr\u00e9anme, escribir con autoridad era una de ellas. Quer\u00edas creer. Necesitabas evidencias. Y no evidencias victorianas. Didion \u2014como su contempor\u00e1nea <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/645-toni-morrison\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Toni Morrison<\/a><\/span>\u2014 se convirti\u00f3 en la Prueba N\u00famero 1. Singularmente pod\u00edas llevarla encima, como una navaja autom\u00e1tica, encajada en el bolsillo de atr\u00e1s, de tan finos y port\u00e1tiles que eran sus libros. Te infund\u00eda confianza. Te daba fuerzas. Y no lo hac\u00eda rechazando el presunto reino de la mujer, sino ahondando en sus profundidades: \u00abToda la aprensi\u00f3n de ser mujer, la diferencia irreconciliable que en realidad entra\u00f1a; esa sensaci\u00f3n de vivir la propia vida bajo el agua, ese oscuro v\u00ednculo con la sangre y el nacimiento y la muerte...\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"nm5jnkr\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Abril de 1967. Joan Didion con un grupo de hippies en el Golden Gate Park (San Francisco) durante el proceso de escritura de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/20001-ebook-los-que-suenan-el-sueno-dorado\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abLos que sue\u00f1an el sue\u00f1o dorado\u00bb<\/a><\/span>. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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una vez fortalecida por su autoridad, pod\u00edas reconocer que hab\u00eda poes\u00eda en Didion, tambi\u00e9n, y ficciones exquisitas, esquirlas de novelas, n\u00edtidas como la luz que despunta por encima de los cerros de Sacramento... Aun as\u00ed, no hac\u00eda falta que estuvieras de acuerdo con ella. Como en el caso de tantos escritores, sometida a escrutinio, su l\u00f3gica en apariencia implacable a veces demostraba ser mera ret\u00f3rica deslumbrante, y sujeta precisamente a la influencia de ese tipo de distorsi\u00f3n emocional que ella aseguraba detestar. \u00bfY qu\u00e9? Los ensayos literarios dependen de la capacidad de persuasi\u00f3n, por encima de todo. Cuando Didion dicta sentencia, no queda mucha m\u00e1s opci\u00f3n que rendirse a ella. Y vaya si lo sab\u00eda: <br \/><br \/><em>En muchos sentidos escribir es el acto de decir yo, de imponerse a los dem\u00e1s, de decir esc\u00fachame, ve con mis ojos, cambia de idea. Es un acto agresivo, incluso hostil. Puedes disfrazar esa agresividad cuanto quieras con velos de oraciones subordinadas y modificadores y subjuntivos vacilantes, con elipsis y evasivas \u2014con el sano prop\u00f3sito de insinuar m\u00e1s que de afirmar, de aludir m\u00e1s que de manifestar\u2014 pero no hay modo de sortear el hecho de que poner las palabras sobre el papel es la t\u00e1ctica de un mat\u00f3n encubierto, una invasi\u00f3n, una imposici\u00f3n del juicio de quien escribe sobre el espacio m\u00e1s \u00edntimo de quien lee.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p>La confesi\u00f3n de Didion de ser un \u00abmat\u00f3n encubierto\u00bb, de ser incluso capaz de una invasi\u00f3n mental \u2014otra de las cosas que tem\u00edamos que una mujer no pod\u00eda hacer\u2014, fue radicalmente liberadora. Tanto si ella misma se consideraba parte de un \u00abmovimiento de la mujer\u00bb como si no, esa clase de sentencias suyas desempe\u00f1aron un papel vital en ese movimiento. Nunca pude agradec\u00e9rselo, salvo por imitaci\u00f3n consciente e inconsciente. Aunque la idea sin duda le habr\u00eda parecido sentimental y una generalizaci\u00f3n innecesaria, pertenezco a\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">un gran ej\u00e9rcito de escritoras<\/a><\/span> en deuda con ella.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"2xmtd7t\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>A una mujer joven de hoy debe de resultarle dif\u00edcil imaginar el gran espectro de cosas que las mujeres de mi generaci\u00f3n tem\u00edan que las mujeres no pod\u00edan hacer, pero cr\u00e9anme, escribir con autoridad era una de ellas. Quer\u00edas creer. Necesitabas evidencias. Y Didion \u2014como su contempor\u00e1nea <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/645-toni-morrison\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Toni Morrison<\/a><\/span>\u2014 se convirti\u00f3 en la Prueba N\u00famero 1. Pod\u00edas llevarla como una navaja autom\u00e1tica, encajada en el bolsillo de atr\u00e1s, de tan finos y port\u00e1tiles que eran sus libros. Te infund\u00eda confianza. Te daba fuerzas.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ucizdf6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Cuando yo ten\u00eda veinticuatro a\u00f1os y estaba muy verde, fui a una fiesta del mundillo editorial en el Upper West Side. Era justo la \u00e9poca en que todo el mundo hab\u00eda decidido que fumar en interiores era intolerable, con lo que se traslad\u00f3 una gran presi\u00f3n social y pr\u00e1ctica a los balcones. Era tambi\u00e9n un per\u00edodo de pensamiento m\u00e1gico, en el cual mujeres como yo \u2014aunque fumadoras habituales\u2014 dejamos de comprar tabaco y prefer\u00edamos pasarnos la noche a la caza de almas no tan c\u00e1ndidas a las que gorronear un cigarrillo. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1359-joan-didion\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Y all\u00ed estaba ella: una de las menos ilusas<\/a><\/span>. De pie en un rinc\u00f3n, fumando, dentro. Era muy menuda y muy vieja. Me dio un cigarrillo sin mayores comentarios, y s\u00f3lo cuando llegu\u00e9 al balc\u00f3n un joven y entusiasta escritor americano me explic\u00f3 qui\u00e9n era. En ese punto de mi vida yo sab\u00eda muy poco de<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/5-los-mejores-autores\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">autores, de sus mitolog\u00edas o sus biograf\u00edas<\/a><\/span>, o incluso de su apariencia f\u00edsica. S\u00f3lo los conoc\u00eda a trav\u00e9s de la escritura. Emocionada, me plante\u00e9 entrar de nuevo a toda prisa y deshacerme atropelladamente en elogios con la gran autora norteamericana Joan Didion \u2014de quien tanto hab\u00eda aprendido, que hab\u00eda significado mucho para m\u00ed a nivel personal\u2014, pero, recordando sus sentencias, decid\u00ed no hacerlo.<\/p><p><em><br \/><br \/>Texto publicado originalmente en\u00a0<\/em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.newyorker.com\/culture\/postscript\/joan-didion-and-the-opposite-of-magical-thinking\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">The New Yorker.<\/a><\/span><em> Traducci\u00f3n de Eugenia V\u00e1zquez Nacarino<\/em><\/p><p><em>Las citas de <\/em>El \u00e1lbum blanco<em> y <\/em>Arrastrarse hacia Bel\u00e9n<em> pertenecen a la selecci\u00f3n de art\u00edculos <\/em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/20001-ebook-los-que-suenan-el-sueno-dorado\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Los que sue\u00f1an el sue\u00f1o dorado<\/a><\/span><em>\u00a0que public\u00f3 Literatura Random House en 2012, traducidos por Javier Calvo.<\/em><\/p><p><br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/todo-esta-guardado-en-la-memoria-de-edna-o-brien\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Todo est\u00e1 guardado en la memoria de Edna O'Brien<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/jonathan-franzen-encrucijadas-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Franzen por Franzen: retrato de familia en detalle<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/vanessa-springora-el-consentimiento\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abEl consentimiento\u00bb, de Vanessa Springora: el ogro en la jaula de 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10 minutos

Abril de 1967. Joan Didion con un grupo de hippies en el Golden Gate Park (San Francisco). Crédito: Getty Images.

Una peculiaridad de la obra de Joan Didion es que sus enunciados más irónicos se leen ahora como si fuesen sinceros, mientras que a sus provocaciones más sinceras se les quita mucho hierro. Tal vez, cuando el tema que tratas es el delirio, acabas suscitando ese estado en otros, aunque tu intención sea definirlo y esclarecerlo. ¿Cómo explicar si no las extrañas inversiones que hacemos de sus sentencias? «Nos contamos historias a nosotros mismos para poder vivir». Una frase que pretendía ser una acusación se ha transformado en credo personal. Ocurre lo mismo con el pensamiento mágico. El pensamiento mágico es un trastorno de la conciencia: ve causalidad donde no la hay, confunde las emociones íntimas con la realidad circundante, impone —como Didion describe a la perfección en El álbum blanco— «una línea narrativa que une las imágenes dispares». Salvo en los momentos críticos del duelo, no era un estado en el que ella acostumbrara a caer. El código de Didion era el código. Estaba excepcionalmente alerta a las palabras o las frases hechas que utilizamos para expresar nuestras aspiraciones o creencias claves. Alerta en el sentido de suspicaz. Actualizando de forma radical el «detector de mierda» de Hemingway, sondeaba el discurso público a fondo para determinar cuánto de verdad y cuánto de ilusorio contenía. Y hacía lo mismo con su propia escritura. Releyéndola se descubre un rigor implacable, intacto por el paso del tiempo. Quizá por eso resulte más fácil mirar imágenes de Didion que leerla. La imagen causa impacto, indudablemente, pero la lectura es una disección: de nuestras aspiraciones y creencias más arraigadas, de todos nuestros códigos. O, por decirlo de otro modo, mientras los demás se tragaban lo que les pusieran delante, ella seguía con su Coca-Cola y sus cigarrillos:

«Como madre, deberías convertirte en intérprete de los mitos», aconsejaba Letty Cottin Pogrebin en el número de lanzamiento de la revista Ms. «Es posible rescatar fragmentos de cualquier cuento de hadas o cuento infantil durante una sesión crítica con tu hijo.» Otros analistas literarios idearon formas de rescatar otros libros: Isabel Archer en El retrato de una dama ya no necesitaba ser víctima de su propio idealismo. Podía ser, en cambio, la víctima de una sociedad sexista, una mujer que había «interiorizado la definición convencional de "esposa"». La narradora de The Company She Keeps de Mary McCarthy podría considerarse «esclavizada, porque persiste en buscar su identidad en un hombre».

Éste es un pasaje de su divertidísimo e irreverente ensayo de 1972 The Women’s Movement (El movimiento de las mujeres). ¡Qué estimulante verla ensartar una serie de tópicos ideológicos y estéticos que sólo se han endurecido en los cincuenta años que han pasado! Sin embargo, ahora que esos modos de leer no le parecen absurdos a nadie, ahora que de hecho están integrados no sólo en las universidades y en las editoriales sino también en nuestra mentalidad, se hace muy difícil oír el tono ácido en las formulaciones originales de Didion: «A quienes nos comprometimos por encima de todo con la exploración de las distinciones y las ambigüedades morales, el análisis feminista se nos podría antojar un determinismo particularmente estrecho y lleno de fisuras.» ¿Qué le sucede a Didion cuando un determinismo particularmente estrecho y lleno de fisuras se traga no sólo el movimiento de la mujer sino el mundo entero? Nos engañamos a nosotros mismos: la rehacemos a nuestra imagen y semejanza. «Es un derecho de los oprimidos organizarse en torno a su opresión tal como ellos mismos la ven y la definen.» Aunque, por supuesto, esta afirmación que la joven Didion consideraba irónica —un intento circular de crear una política a partir de la emoción pura, muy alejado de los ideales marxistas de un feminismo práctico— ahora no se leería sólo desde la sinceridad, sino con la ley en la mano.

«Nos contamos historias a nosotros mismos para poder vivir.» Una frase que pretendía ser una acusación se ha transformado en credo personal. Ocurre lo mismo con el «pensamiento mágico». El pensamiento mágico es un trastorno de la conciencia: ve causalidad donde no la hay, confunde las emociones íntimas con la realidad circundante, impone «una línea narrativa que une las imágenes dispares». No era un estado en el que ella acostumbrara a caer. Didion estaba excepcionalmente alerta a las palabras o las frases hechas que utilizamos para expresar nuestras aspiraciones o creencias. Actualizaba de forma radical el «detector de mierda» de Hemingway.

Ya escribiera acerca de la invención de «las mujeres como "clase"», o acerca de Haight-Ashbury, John Wayne, la muerte de su familia o su propio derrumbe emocional, el objetivo de Didion era el «sustrato psíquico», que ella situaba justo debajo del mantillo aparentemente racional e ideológico, «denso de supersticiones y pequeñas falacias, deseos por cumplir, menosprecio hacia uno mismo y fantasías amargas». Que se la considere un referente del ensayo personal es otra de esas ironías literarias: incluso cuando escribía de sí misma, Didion informaba con desapego, y era tan poco dada a compadecerse de sus sentimientos como de los de Joan Baez, Nancy Reagan o una niña que va de ácido. Ella era sólo un tema más entre tantos, susceptible a las mezquinas ilusiones de cualquier ser humano, pero crucial y genuinamente interesada en ahondar en ese sustrato, sin importar lo que pudiera encontrar allí abajo. No buscaba aprobación. No se dejaba intimidar por lo que «todo el mundo» decía o lo que «todo el mundo» pensaba. Aborrecía el tipo de pensamiento que cancela el pensamiento. En su ensayo de 2003 Opiniones fijas, o la bisagra de la historia, descubre la cancelación en todos los ámbitos del panorama estadounidense: en la soslayada «relación de Estados Unidos con Israel»; en la condena pública de otra mujer tenaz, Susan Sontag, por atreverse a considerar las motivaciones de Al Qaeda. «En otras palabras, indagar la naturaleza del enemigo al que nos enfrentamos se interpretaba como simpatía por ese enemigo.» Ese ensayo aborda las repercusiones inmediatas del 11-S, pero para un lector contemporáneo, asediado por opiniones fijas desde todos los flancos, las siguientes líneas pueden tener una aplicación más general:

La cuestión en sí [...] ha acabado por verse como [...] implanteable, letal en potencia, el equivalente en una conversación de la bolsa sospechosa abandonada en un autobús. Nos ponemos a cubierto. Esperamos a que el asunto se calme, a que quede aislado de forma segura tras deflectores de invectivas y contrainvectivas. Se expresan muchas opiniones. Pocas llegan a desarrollarse. Menos son aún las que cambian.

Malibu, California, 1976. Quintana Roo Dunne (a la izquierda) con sus padres, los escritores John Gregory Dunne (1932-2003) y Joan Didion (1934-2021). Crédito: Getty Images.

Con notables excepciones, Didion era una mujer que no acostumbraba tanto a expresar opiniones o sentimientos como a interrogarlos ambos. Si eso aún llama la atención por lo inusual, a mí me pareció algo sin precedentes cuando la leí por primera vez a finales de los años ochenta. Que fuera una mujer importaba, y mucho. Cuando las escritoras de mi generación hablan con embeleso del «estilo» de Didion, no creo que piensen en los vestidos de tubo o las gafas de sol, los cigarrillos o las comas, o ni siquiera en esos guiones largos que tanto adoramos, a pesar de que todas esas cosas sean estupendas. Era una cuestión de autoridad. La autoridad del tono. Hay mucho en Didion con lo que se puede discrepar personal, política, estéticamente. Nunca voy a ser una apasionada de los Doors, pero sigo agradeciendo el día en que empecé a leer Arrastrarse hacia Belén y me di cuenta de que una mujer podía hablar sin apostar sobre seguro, sin ambages ni titubeos, sin quedar bien, sin lirismo, sin candor ni dulzura, sin deferencia e incluso sin lugar a dudas. A una mujer joven de hoy debe de resultarle difícil imaginar el gran espectro de cosas que las mujeres de mi generación temían que las mujeres no podían hacer, pero créanme, escribir con autoridad era una de ellas. Querías creer. Necesitabas evidencias. Y no evidencias victorianas. Didion —como su contemporánea Toni Morrison— se convirtió en la Prueba Número 1. Singularmente podías llevarla encima, como una navaja automática, encajada en el bolsillo de atrás, de tan finos y portátiles que eran sus libros. Te infundía confianza. Te daba fuerzas. Y no lo hacía rechazando el presunto reino de la mujer, sino ahondando en sus profundidades: «Toda la aprensión de ser mujer, la diferencia irreconciliable que en realidad entraña; esa sensación de vivir la propia vida bajo el agua, ese oscuro vínculo con la sangre y el nacimiento y la muerte...».

Abril de 1967. Joan Didion con un grupo de hippies en el Golden Gate Park (San Francisco) durante el proceso de escritura de «Los que sueñan el sueño dorado». Crédito: Getty Images.

Sí, una vez fortalecida por su autoridad, podías reconocer que había poesía en Didion, también, y ficciones exquisitas, esquirlas de novelas, nítidas como la luz que despunta por encima de los cerros de Sacramento... Aun así, no hacía falta que estuvieras de acuerdo con ella. Como en el caso de tantos escritores, sometida a escrutinio, su lógica en apariencia implacable a veces demostraba ser mera retórica deslumbrante, y sujeta precisamente a la influencia de ese tipo de distorsión emocional que ella aseguraba detestar. ¿Y qué? Los ensayos literarios dependen de la capacidad de persuasión, por encima de todo. Cuando Didion dicta sentencia, no queda mucha más opción que rendirse a ella. Y vaya si lo sabía:

En muchos sentidos escribir es el acto de decir yo, de imponerse a los demás, de decir escúchame, ve con mis ojos, cambia de idea. Es un acto agresivo, incluso hostil. Puedes disfrazar esa agresividad cuanto quieras con velos de oraciones subordinadas y modificadores y subjuntivos vacilantes, con elipsis y evasivas —con el sano propósito de insinuar más que de afirmar, de aludir más que de manifestar— pero no hay modo de sortear el hecho de que poner las palabras sobre el papel es la táctica de un matón encubierto, una invasión, una imposición del juicio de quien escribe sobre el espacio más íntimo de quien lee. 

La confesión de Didion de ser un «matón encubierto», de ser incluso capaz de una invasión mental —otra de las cosas que temíamos que una mujer no podía hacer—, fue radicalmente liberadora. Tanto si ella misma se consideraba parte de un «movimiento de la mujer» como si no, esa clase de sentencias suyas desempeñaron un papel vital en ese movimiento. Nunca pude agradecérselo, salvo por imitación consciente e inconsciente. Aunque la idea sin duda le habría parecido sentimental y una generalización innecesaria, pertenezco a un gran ejército de escritoras en deuda con ella.

A una mujer joven de hoy debe de resultarle difícil imaginar el gran espectro de cosas que las mujeres de mi generación temían que las mujeres no podían hacer, pero créanme, escribir con autoridad era una de ellas. Querías creer. Necesitabas evidencias. Y Didion —como su contemporánea Toni Morrison— se convirtió en la Prueba Número 1. Podías llevarla como una navaja automática, encajada en el bolsillo de atrás, de tan finos y portátiles que eran sus libros. Te infundía confianza. Te daba fuerzas.

Cuando yo tenía veinticuatro años y estaba muy verde, fui a una fiesta del mundillo editorial en el Upper West Side. Era justo la época en que todo el mundo había decidido que fumar en interiores era intolerable, con lo que se trasladó una gran presión social y práctica a los balcones. Era también un período de pensamiento mágico, en el cual mujeres como yo —aunque fumadoras habituales— dejamos de comprar tabaco y preferíamos pasarnos la noche a la caza de almas no tan cándidas a las que gorronear un cigarrillo. Y allí estaba ella: una de las menos ilusas. De pie en un rincón, fumando, dentro. Era muy menuda y muy vieja. Me dio un cigarrillo sin mayores comentarios, y sólo cuando llegué al balcón un joven y entusiasta escritor americano me explicó quién era. En ese punto de mi vida yo sabía muy poco de autores, de sus mitologías o sus biografías, o incluso de su apariencia física. Sólo los conocía a través de la escritura. Emocionada, me planteé entrar de nuevo a toda prisa y deshacerme atropelladamente en elogios con la gran autora norteamericana Joan Didion —de quien tanto había aprendido, que había significado mucho para mí a nivel personal—, pero, recordando sus sentencias, decidí no hacerlo.



Texto publicado originalmente en 
The New Yorker. Traducción de Eugenia Vázquez Nacarino

Las citas de El álbum blanco y Arrastrarse hacia Belén pertenecen a la selección de artículos Los que sueñan el sueño dorado que publicó Literatura Random House en 2012, traducidos por Javier Calvo.




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