Literatura

«El tercer paraíso» de Cristian Alarcón: un jardín que desborda

A comienzos de este año, Cristian Alarcón, uno de los referentes de la crónica y el nuevo periodismo latinoamericano, resultó ganador del Premio Alfaguara por su novela «El tercer paraíso», en la que su protagonista se repliega en las afueras de Buenos Aires durante el confinamiento a cultivar a la vez su jardín y su memoria, la de una familia arrancada de Chile apenas comenzada la la dictadura de Pinochet. En este texto, la también periodista y escritora Gabriela Cabezón Cámara, con quien Alarcón comparte su jardín en la vida real, recorre y celebra la voz tan lírica como política del autor, que a la crisis ambiental opone un universo botánico; al ritmo febril del capitalismo tardío, la cadencia de las estaciones, y al desencantamiento con el mundo, un paraíso. 

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final del camino, justo antes del precipicio, el jard\u00edn desborda como una ola inesperada\u00bb: esta es la primera oraci\u00f3n de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/287322-ebook-el-tercer-paraiso-premio-alfaguara-de-novela-2022\\\"><em>El tercer para\u00edso<\/em><\/a><\/span> y arranco as\u00ed porque creo que habla de todo el libro y de todo Cristian. Autor y libro son eso, un jard\u00edn que se desborda como una ola inesperada que nos toman y\u00a0nos arrastran a sus mundos, que tienen, como los de todos, algo de sordidez, algo de crueldad y dolor, pero, y esto de un modo muy singular, se desbordan de amor y belleza. Le\u00ed dos veces <em>El tercer para\u00edso<\/em> con deleite total. Una vez en el jard\u00edn que, casi casi del todo, comparto con Cristian, mientras escuchaba sus carcajadas y su m\u00fasica, creo que era Naty Peluso esa tarde, de fondo. La vez siguiente, en un avi\u00f3n, incomod\u00edsima, en uno de esos asientos que no prev\u00e9n que la gente pueda tener dos piernas. Me abraz\u00f3, el libro, con piernas y todo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Y estuve d\u00edas y d\u00edas empapada de esta ola inesperada pregunt\u00e1ndome: \u00bfc\u00f3mo hace? \u00bfC\u00f3mo hace Cristian para encontrarle la singularidad maravillosa a cada situaci\u00f3n, a cada personaje? \u00bfC\u00f3mo hace para construir este tono mesurado, casi distante, que a la vez se desborda? Como no me resultaba evidente la operaci\u00f3n, es una muy compleja, volv\u00ed a leer el libro con la birome en la mano. Lo anot\u00e9 todo.\u00a0<\/p><p>El autor se pega al narrador, es un libro de autoficci\u00f3n este, aunque pone en tensi\u00f3n esa noci\u00f3n porque es una exploraci\u00f3n de s\u00ed: es lo que dice proponerse desde el primer cap\u00edtulo, \u00abAqu\u00ed estoy para comprender un misterio que ignoro. Aqu\u00ed admiro este jard\u00edn. Aqu\u00ed extra\u00f1o mi propio para\u00edso\u00bb. Que ponga en tensi\u00f3n la noci\u00f3n de autoficci\u00f3n no significa que cada palabra tenga un correlato en la realidad, claro. Pero hay verdad en el camino de este narrador que vuelve a la tierra natal, a la de los abuelos, los padres \u2014no tenemos \u00e1rboles geneal\u00f3gicos muy largos los de or\u00edgenes populares\u2014 para reconocerse, para restablecer lazos, linajes, para extenderlos: por algo el libro est\u00e1 dedicado al hijo, a Pablo.\u00a0 Vuelve para volver a conectar linajes, para conocerlos y extenderlos, dec\u00eda. Y tambi\u00e9n, claro, para elegirlos, para construirlos. Y para ofrec\u00e9rselos, como jard\u00edn que desborda, a su ni\u00f1o. Y esto puede parecer poco pero lean bien: \u00abEl tercer para\u00edso\u00bb dice la tapa. Y lo siguiente que se lee es \u00abPara 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un mundo que se desertifica y se rompe, este padre le ofrece a este hijo este jard\u00edn. Y una mirada de c\u00f3mo todo, hasta la crueldad, hasta el hambre, puede volver a encantarse: una mirada que pone en evidencia el amor que nos liga no solo a los seres humanos, sino tambi\u00e9n a las plantas, al \u00e1rbol ic\u00f3nico del pueblo natal, un \u00e1rbol que necesita de una ronda de varias personas para ser abrazado. Algo de esa ronda hay en esta novela, algo de ese \u00e1rbol milenario, de lo que brota, del sarmiento que gira y gira hasta que se enrosca en otro, en otra cosa, porque as\u00ed es la vida: un milagro que empieza vegetal y que necesita de lo otro para existir. Las plantas, del sol y la tierra y el agua y los insectos y los animales. Todos los dem\u00e1s, salvo el sol y el agua, de las plantas para tener sombra, comida, aire. En un mundo que se desertifica un padre le regala a un hijo un libro que es, a la vez, un jard\u00edn. Y la potencia de vivirlo y hacerlo vivir.\u00a0<\/p><p>El libro se estructura as\u00ed: una l\u00ednea nos cuenta la historia familiar. Otra, la construcci\u00f3n del jard\u00edn del autor. Amanece la historia Alba, la abuela, dedicada a la huerta y el jard\u00edn. Ella, aprendemos, \u00aben su ed\u00e9n es invencible\u00bb. El nieto, que todav\u00eda no es el ni\u00f1o, habla de un parate, de un hiato en su vida que hab\u00eda dedicado a \u00abun sin fin encadenado de acontecimientos evitables que se me antojaban ineludibles, parte de lo que suelen decirnos se cosecha en la adultez antes de declinar hacia la tranquilidad ideal de la madurez\u00bb. Como la abuela, el autor avanza hacia su ed\u00e9n invencible. Despu\u00e9s aparece El\u00edas, el abuelo. Y, con El\u00edas, la capacidad de Cristian de reencantar la vida toda: las an\u00e9cdotas de las sobremesas familiares, por ejemplo; el ni\u00f1o El\u00edas era lustrabotas en el pueblo m\u00edtico, Daglipulli. Un se\u00f1or rico le hace una apuesta: se tira un pedo y le dice que le va a pagar bien si se lo trae de vuelta. \u00abEl peque\u00f1o El\u00edas sali\u00f3 con su sombrero de pa\u00f1o en la mano pegando unos giros locos por el pasto, dio la vuelta a la fuente, subi\u00f3 a su borde, baj\u00f3 de un salto y, agotado, volvi\u00f3 a los pies del alem\u00e1n. Aqu\u00ed lo encontr\u00e9, se\u00f1or, le dijo. Levant\u00f3 el pie y prrrrr, le devolvi\u00f3 su peo. El alem\u00e1n ri\u00f3 con unas carcajadas de ni\u00f1o, le dio su primer billete grande y lo felicit\u00f3\u00bb. Nos enteramos, p\u00e1ginas despu\u00e9s, que al padre de El\u00edas lo mataron en una pelea. Cuenta Cristian: \u00abSu esposa lo esperaba junto a las dos criaturas. El\u00edas ten\u00eda pocos a\u00f1os; el menor era una guagua. Ema estaba embarazada de ocho meses. Esa noche ella despert\u00f3 con el ruido que los caballos hac\u00edan en el establo. Pens\u00f3 que andaba alg\u00fan animal salvaje en el corral. Luego sinti\u00f3 el movimiento de la cama. El catre se movi\u00f3 de un lado a otro del cuarto empujado por una fuerza invisible. En la oscuridad, desguarnecida ante la se\u00f1al, supo que el padre de sus hijos hab\u00eda muerto\u00bb. D\u00e9jenme compartir m\u00e1s, alguna otra an\u00e9cdota familiar que Cristian sabe volver m\u00edticas y universales. Son como peque\u00f1os relatos de seres maravillosos. Son los mismos seres que tambi\u00e9n son capaces de castigar a una ni\u00f1a hasta hacerla volar de una patada. O de pegarle a otra por cualquier cosa. Y, a la vez, hermosos. Los mismos seres que son arrancados como arrancados tambi\u00e9n son los \u00e1rboles. Cristian usa ese mismo verbo, arrancar, para referirse a las dos clases de seres.\u00a0<\/p><p><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xlykx66\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La voz, la perspectiva de\u00a0<em>El tercer para\u00edso<\/em>, adem\u00e1s de hermosa y singular y capaz de generar el encantamiento que generan los mitos cuando son contados con l\u00edrica, es una voz pol\u00edtica.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"n6qamm6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abArcelia ten\u00eda el color, el cuerpo, la voz de una mujer mapuche, con un apellido espa\u00f1ol de Galicia. Las genealog\u00edas de cientos de miles de mapuches se perdieron porque los apellidos fueron cambiados en los registros cuando a comienzos del siglo XX ni\u00f1as como ella eran regaladas a los patrones de fundos, abandonadas en di\u00e1sporas por invasi\u00f3n de tierras, casadas con hombres a los que no amaro. Ella ten\u00eda catorce a\u00f1os cuando \u00e9l la eligi\u00f3 como su mujer y la arranc\u00f3 de su campo\u00bb. \u00abArrancados\u00bb, tambi\u00e9n, los mapuches que son parte del linaje de Alarc\u00f3n Casanova, trenzados con otro, el migrante de ojos azules.<\/p><p>Y sigue trenzando. Arcelia, casada con un hombre bueno pero vago, luchaba contra el hambre propio y de sus guamas cosechando marta, un fruto que serv\u00eda para hacer un licor. Arrancada como un \u00e1rbol Arcelia deviene \u00e1rbol, cuando regresaba de la cosecha, cuenta Cristian, \u00ablas murtas ca\u00edan de Arcelia como si ella misma fuera un arbusto de frutas maduras\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p>Y sigue el tejido: nos habla de un tiempo y un lujo nuevos; el tiempo del jard\u00edn, ese tiempo con el que no hay negociaci\u00f3n posible. Es el tiempo del sol, el de las estaciones, ya no el del v\u00e9rtigo de los acontecimientos encadenados que se le antojaban ineludibles, ya no el de las noches interminables, el de los ritmos incesantes del trabajo y las fiestas. Ac\u00e1, en el jard\u00edn, \u00absi no llegas a tiempo debes esperar un a\u00f1o\u00bb; en alg\u00fan momento deja de resistirse y se entrega \u00abal poder de la luz\u00bb; dice: \u00abacepto sin resistencia el cambio en mi circadiano\u00bb. Y a la novedad del mundo de la jardiner\u00eda: \u00abun sistema de quienes disfrutan del lujo de tener y cuidar\u00bb.<\/p><p>Atravesado, todo, por una superposici\u00f3n de barbaries; los malos tratos de los curas de una misi\u00f3n cat\u00f3lica que generaron una rebeli\u00f3n mapuche huichil. El capit\u00e1n espa\u00f1ol que captur\u00f3 a uno de sus caciques, le cort\u00f3 la cabeza y la exhibi\u00f3 en Valdivia clavada en la plaza p\u00fablica. Los nazis que donan esculturas en las que, mirando con cuidado, se ve la esv\u00e1stica. El capitalismo que avanza deforestando el para\u00edso y llen\u00e1ndolo de \u00e1rboles inflamables, pinos y eucaliptos.<\/p><p>La voz del autor narrador es una voz poderosa y singular. Y, sin embargo, como un r\u00edo, est\u00e1 hecha de muchas otras que la constituyen como corrientes, como mareas, como embates contras las orillas. Se la lee, a la voz singular de este narrador, escuchando el murmullo de las voces familiares, de los gritos en las batallas, de las reyertas a cuchillo, del amor bien consumado, de los arrullos a las guaguas, del viento entre las hojas que titilan de tanto ser verdes de un lado y plateadas del otro. La voz, la perspectiva de\u00a0<em>El tercer para\u00edso<\/em>, adem\u00e1s de hermosa y singular y capaz de generar el encantamiento que generan los mitos cuando son contados con l\u00edrica, es una voz pol\u00edtica. A la desertificaci\u00f3n, opone un jard\u00edn. A la desintegraci\u00f3n, una religaci\u00f3n, esa que est\u00e1 ah\u00ed latente, que hace posible la vida. Al ritmo loco de la producci\u00f3n incesante del capitalismo tard\u00edo, el poder de la luz, de las estaciones, del circadiano. Al desencantamiento del mundo seg\u00fan el criterio de una l\u00f3gica tan fallida que no reconoce que no puede haber desarrollo infinito con un planeta finito, encantamiento. Al fin del mundo, al no futuro, un jard\u00edn. Un para\u00edso dedicado al hijo. Y a todos nosotros. Hagamos jardines, cuidemos bosques, abr\u00e1monos al dolor y al amor de las historias familiares, cont\u00e9monos las historias otra vez, seamos capaces de ver c\u00f3mo brilla tan fugaz como hermosa la singularidad de cada uno y de nosotros juntos, pong\u00e1mosle un parate a la l\u00f3gica idiota de occidente, escuchemos a lo mapuche, lo guaran\u00ed, lo wich\u00ed, a todo lo no occidental que resiste a la tanatopol\u00edtica occidental. Regal\u00e9mosles a nuestros hijos \u2014y no importa si no tenemos hijos, las generaciones que nos siguen son nuestra responsabilidad\u2014 un tercer para\u00edso.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"jbfthec\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><\/p><p><em><br \/><\/em><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><em><br \/><br \/><\/em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/cristian-alarcon-el-tercer-paraiso-premio-alfaguara\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">As\u00ed comienza \u00abEl tercer para\u00edso\u00bb, novela de Cristian Alarc\u00f3n ganadora del XXV Premio Alfaguara<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/la-destruccion-o-el-amor-de-cristina-peri-rossi\\\">\u00abLa destrucci\u00f3n o el amor\u00bb, de Cristina Peri Rossi<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/elena-garro-cuento-inedito-el-gato\\\">Lecturas breves: \u00abEl gato\u00bb, un cuento in\u00e9dito de Elena Garro<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"fqjgf8v\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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10 minutos

Crédito: Alejandra López.

«Al final del camino, justo antes del precipicio, el jardín desborda como una ola inesperada»: esta es la primera oración de El tercer paraíso y arranco así porque creo que habla de todo el libro y de todo Cristian. Autor y libro son eso, un jardín que se desborda como una ola inesperada que nos toman y nos arrastran a sus mundos, que tienen, como los de todos, algo de sordidez, algo de crueldad y dolor, pero, y esto de un modo muy singular, se desbordan de amor y belleza. Leí dos veces El tercer paraíso con deleite total. Una vez en el jardín que, casi casi del todo, comparto con Cristian, mientras escuchaba sus carcajadas y su música, creo que era Naty Peluso esa tarde, de fondo. La vez siguiente, en un avión, incomodísima, en uno de esos asientos que no prevén que la gente pueda tener dos piernas. Me abrazó, el libro, con piernas y todo. 

Y estuve días y días empapada de esta ola inesperada preguntándome: ¿cómo hace? ¿Cómo hace Cristian para encontrarle la singularidad maravillosa a cada situación, a cada personaje? ¿Cómo hace para construir este tono mesurado, casi distante, que a la vez se desborda? Como no me resultaba evidente la operación, es una muy compleja, volví a leer el libro con la birome en la mano. Lo anoté todo. 

El autor se pega al narrador, es un libro de autoficción este, aunque pone en tensión esa noción porque es una exploración de sí: es lo que dice proponerse desde el primer capítulo, «Aquí estoy para comprender un misterio que ignoro. Aquí admiro este jardín. Aquí extraño mi propio paraíso». Que ponga en tensión la noción de autoficción no significa que cada palabra tenga un correlato en la realidad, claro. Pero hay verdad en el camino de este narrador que vuelve a la tierra natal, a la de los abuelos, los padres —no tenemos árboles genealógicos muy largos los de orígenes populares— para reconocerse, para restablecer lazos, linajes, para extenderlos: por algo el libro está dedicado al hijo, a Pablo.  Vuelve para volver a conectar linajes, para conocerlos y extenderlos, decía. Y también, claro, para elegirlos, para construirlos. Y para ofrecérselos, como jardín que desborda, a su niño. Y esto puede parecer poco pero lean bien: «El tercer paraíso» dice la tapa. Y lo siguiente que se lee es «Para Pablo». 

En un mundo que se desertifica y se rompe, este padre le ofrece a este hijo este jardín. Y una mirada de cómo todo, hasta la crueldad, hasta el hambre, puede volver a encantarse: una mirada que pone en evidencia el amor que nos liga no solo a los seres humanos, sino también a las plantas, al árbol icónico del pueblo natal, un árbol que necesita de una ronda de varias personas para ser abrazado. Algo de esa ronda hay en esta novela, algo de ese árbol milenario, de lo que brota, del sarmiento que gira y gira hasta que se enrosca en otro, en otra cosa, porque así es la vida: un milagro que empieza vegetal y que necesita de lo otro para existir. Las plantas, del sol y la tierra y el agua y los insectos y los animales. Todos los demás, salvo el sol y el agua, de las plantas para tener sombra, comida, aire. En un mundo que se desertifica un padre le regala a un hijo un libro que es, a la vez, un jardín. Y la potencia de vivirlo y hacerlo vivir. 

El libro se estructura así: una línea nos cuenta la historia familiar. Otra, la construcción del jardín del autor. Amanece la historia Alba, la abuela, dedicada a la huerta y el jardín. Ella, aprendemos, «en su edén es invencible». El nieto, que todavía no es el niño, habla de un parate, de un hiato en su vida que había dedicado a «un sin fin encadenado de acontecimientos evitables que se me antojaban ineludibles, parte de lo que suelen decirnos se cosecha en la adultez antes de declinar hacia la tranquilidad ideal de la madurez». Como la abuela, el autor avanza hacia su edén invencible. Después aparece Elías, el abuelo. Y, con Elías, la capacidad de Cristian de reencantar la vida toda: las anécdotas de las sobremesas familiares, por ejemplo; el niño Elías era lustrabotas en el pueblo mítico, Daglipulli. Un señor rico le hace una apuesta: se tira un pedo y le dice que le va a pagar bien si se lo trae de vuelta. «El pequeño Elías salió con su sombrero de paño en la mano pegando unos giros locos por el pasto, dio la vuelta a la fuente, subió a su borde, bajó de un salto y, agotado, volvió a los pies del alemán. Aquí lo encontré, señor, le dijo. Levantó el pie y prrrrr, le devolvió su peo. El alemán rió con unas carcajadas de niño, le dio su primer billete grande y lo felicitó». Nos enteramos, páginas después, que al padre de Elías lo mataron en una pelea. Cuenta Cristian: «Su esposa lo esperaba junto a las dos criaturas. Elías tenía pocos años; el menor era una guagua. Ema estaba embarazada de ocho meses. Esa noche ella despertó con el ruido que los caballos hacían en el establo. Pensó que andaba algún animal salvaje en el corral. Luego sintió el movimiento de la cama. El catre se movió de un lado a otro del cuarto empujado por una fuerza invisible. En la oscuridad, desguarnecida ante la señal, supo que el padre de sus hijos había muerto». Déjenme compartir más, alguna otra anécdota familiar que Cristian sabe volver míticas y universales. Son como pequeños relatos de seres maravillosos. Son los mismos seres que también son capaces de castigar a una niña hasta hacerla volar de una patada. O de pegarle a otra por cualquier cosa. Y, a la vez, hermosos. Los mismos seres que son arrancados como arrancados también son los árboles. Cristian usa ese mismo verbo, arrancar, para referirse a las dos clases de seres. 

La voz, la perspectiva de El tercer paraíso, además de hermosa y singular y capaz de generar el encantamiento que generan los mitos cuando son contados con lírica, es una voz política.

«Arcelia tenía el color, el cuerpo, la voz de una mujer mapuche, con un apellido español de Galicia. Las genealogías de cientos de miles de mapuches se perdieron porque los apellidos fueron cambiados en los registros cuando a comienzos del siglo XX niñas como ella eran regaladas a los patrones de fundos, abandonadas en diásporas por invasión de tierras, casadas con hombres a los que no amaro. Ella tenía catorce años cuando él la eligió como su mujer y la arrancó de su campo». «Arrancados», también, los mapuches que son parte del linaje de Alarcón Casanova, trenzados con otro, el migrante de ojos azules.

Y sigue trenzando. Arcelia, casada con un hombre bueno pero vago, luchaba contra el hambre propio y de sus guamas cosechando marta, un fruto que servía para hacer un licor. Arrancada como un árbol Arcelia deviene árbol, cuando regresaba de la cosecha, cuenta Cristian, «las murtas caían de Arcelia como si ella misma fuera un arbusto de frutas maduras». 

Y sigue el tejido: nos habla de un tiempo y un lujo nuevos; el tiempo del jardín, ese tiempo con el que no hay negociación posible. Es el tiempo del sol, el de las estaciones, ya no el del vértigo de los acontecimientos encadenados que se le antojaban ineludibles, ya no el de las noches interminables, el de los ritmos incesantes del trabajo y las fiestas. Acá, en el jardín, «si no llegas a tiempo debes esperar un año»; en algún momento deja de resistirse y se entrega «al poder de la luz»; dice: «acepto sin resistencia el cambio en mi circadiano». Y a la novedad del mundo de la jardinería: «un sistema de quienes disfrutan del lujo de tener y cuidar».

Atravesado, todo, por una superposición de barbaries; los malos tratos de los curas de una misión católica que generaron una rebelión mapuche huichil. El capitán español que capturó a uno de sus caciques, le cortó la cabeza y la exhibió en Valdivia clavada en la plaza pública. Los nazis que donan esculturas en las que, mirando con cuidado, se ve la esvástica. El capitalismo que avanza deforestando el paraíso y llenándolo de árboles inflamables, pinos y eucaliptos.

La voz del autor narrador es una voz poderosa y singular. Y, sin embargo, como un río, está hecha de muchas otras que la constituyen como corrientes, como mareas, como embates contras las orillas. Se la lee, a la voz singular de este narrador, escuchando el murmullo de las voces familiares, de los gritos en las batallas, de las reyertas a cuchillo, del amor bien consumado, de los arrullos a las guaguas, del viento entre las hojas que titilan de tanto ser verdes de un lado y plateadas del otro. La voz, la perspectiva de El tercer paraíso, además de hermosa y singular y capaz de generar el encantamiento que generan los mitos cuando son contados con lírica, es una voz política. A la desertificación, opone un jardín. A la desintegración, una religación, esa que está ahí latente, que hace posible la vida. Al ritmo loco de la producción incesante del capitalismo tardío, el poder de la luz, de las estaciones, del circadiano. Al desencantamiento del mundo según el criterio de una lógica tan fallida que no reconoce que no puede haber desarrollo infinito con un planeta finito, encantamiento. Al fin del mundo, al no futuro, un jardín. Un paraíso dedicado al hijo. Y a todos nosotros. Hagamos jardines, cuidemos bosques, abrámonos al dolor y al amor de las historias familiares, contémonos las historias otra vez, seamos capaces de ver cómo brilla tan fugaz como hermosa la singularidad de cada uno y de nosotros juntos, pongámosle un parate a la lógica idiota de occidente, escuchemos a lo mapuche, lo guaraní, lo wichí, a todo lo no occidental que resiste a la tanatopolítica occidental. Regalémosles a nuestros hijos —y no importa si no tenemos hijos, las generaciones que nos siguen son nuestra responsabilidad— un tercer paraíso.

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