Literatura

¿Quién ha leído a Elena Garro?

«El hecho de que Garro no haya ingresado del todo a las listas de lecturas obligatorias hace que menos lectoras y lectores conozcan sus libros, pero la mayoría de quienes sí la leen lo hacen porque se les pega la gana, no porque algún señor profesor se los ordene», escribe Jazmina Barrera en el prólogo de «Novelas breves» (Alfaguara), una colección de textos de Elena Garro recopilados ahora con el objetivo de (volver a) poner en valor a la escritora mexicana. Barrera, en las líneas introductorias del libro, líneas que reproducimos íntegras a continuación, exige reivindicar a Elena Garro como la autora excepcional que siempre ha sido, lo cual queda patente en las siete novelas breves que componen la colección (que son mucho más que un apéndice de la obra de Garro): «La casa junto al río», «Y Matarazo no llamó...», «Inés», «Un corazón en un bote de basura», «Busca mi esquela», «Primer amor» y «Un traje rojo para un duelo». Porque más allá de ser «un descubrimiento, un secreto oscuro y poderoso», Garro ha de ser «cada vez menos un culto y más un gusto extendido».

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Barrera, en las l\u00edneas introductorias del libro, l\u00edneas que reproducimos \u00edntegras a continuaci\u00f3n, exige reivindicar a Elena Garro como la autora excepcional que siempre ha sido, lo cual queda patente en las siete novelas breves que componen la colecci\u00f3n (que son mucho m\u00e1s que un ap\u00e9ndice de la obra de Garro): \u00abLa casa junto al r\u00edo\u00bb, \u00abY Matarazo no llam\u00f3...\u00bb, \u00abIn\u00e9s\u00bb, \u00abUn coraz\u00f3n en un bote de basura\u00bb, \u00abBusca mi esquela\u00bb, \u00abPrimer amor\u00bb y \u00abUn traje rojo para un duelo\u00bb. 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Cr\u00e9dito: EFE 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Hice una peque\u00f1a encuesta entre 40 personas dedicadas a la literatura y algunas otras lectoras frecuentes. Les pregunt\u00e9 si hab\u00edan le\u00eddo a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/920-elena-garro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Elena Garro<\/a><\/span>, cu\u00e1ndo la leyeron por primera vez y cu\u00e1l fue el primer libro que leyeron. El 17% no la hab\u00eda le\u00eddo, el 20% la ley\u00f3 en la preparatoria, el 6% en la universidad y el 39% la ley\u00f3 por su cuenta. Qui\u00e9n sabe qu\u00e9 habr\u00eda pasado si les hubiera preguntado, por ejemplo, por Rulfo, con quien Garro ha sido comparada varias veces, o por Octavio Paz, el premio Nobel que fuera esposo de Garro por veinte a\u00f1os. Sospecho que casi todos los encuestados los habr\u00e1n le\u00eddo en la secundaria o en la preparatoria, porque estos contempor\u00e1neos de Garro son lecturas obligadas en la educaci\u00f3n b\u00e1sica de M\u00e9xico, a m\u00ed, por lo menos, me los metieron hasta en la sopa.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">A pesar de que el 83% de las personas a quienes pregunt\u00e9 s\u00ed la hab\u00edan le\u00eddo, varias de ellas dec\u00edan tener la sensaci\u00f3n de que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/elena-garro-cuento-inedito-el-gato\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Elena Garro es todav\u00eda una escritora, por as\u00ed decirlo, de culto<\/a><\/span>. No creo que mi pobre encuesta d\u00e9 para sacar muchas conclusiones, pero s\u00ed pienso que esa sensaci\u00f3n puede deberse a que la mayor\u00eda de esas personas se encontraron con Garro lejos de las instituciones. Mi generaci\u00f3n, y otras anteriores, le\u00eda a Garro como un descubrimiento, un secreto oscuro y poderoso. El hecho de que Garro no haya ingresado del todo a las listas de lecturas obligatorias hace que menos lectoras y lectores conozcan sus libros, pero la mayor\u00eda de quienes s\u00ed la leen lo hacen porque se les pega la gana, no porque alg\u00fan se\u00f1or profesor se los ordene. Muchos nos adentramos en su obra sin prejuicios, sin saber nada de su vida, de su estilo o sus referencias, completamente abiertos al misterio y el hechizo de sus palabras, as\u00ed sentimos sus libros como un tesoro escondido, \u00edntimo y propio. El cr\u00edtico Emmanuel Carballo dijo que Garro: \u00abEs como una escritora clandestina, hay que hablar en voz baja de ella para que nadie lo sepa porque nos puede pasar algo, como si fuera una conspiradora, una dinamitera. La imagen m\u00e1s bella que tengo de Elena Garro es la del escritor en contra de la sociedad. Aunque merezca todos los homenajes, yo la prefiero como una escritora maldita y m\u00edtica, autora de una obra perdurable, original y 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">A Elena Garro no la le\u00ed en la secundaria, ni en preparatoria ni tampoco en la licenciatura. Cuando estudiaba la maestr\u00eda, en un pa\u00eds extranjero, una admirada profesora chilena me recomend\u00f3 que la leyera. La mitad de las personas extranjeras a las que pregunt\u00e9 en mi sondeo me respondieron que nunca hab\u00edan le\u00eddo a Garro, pero esa profesora era, por suerte, de aquella otra mitad. Garro fue contempor\u00e1nea de los se\u00f1ores del as\u00ed llamado boom latinoamericano, aquel zambombazo que fue casi por completo masculino y dej\u00f3 fuera a muchas de las grandes escritoras de su tiempo. A Garro no la subieron a esa ola que lanz\u00f3 a\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">escritores como Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez<\/a><\/span> por todo el mundo, y eso que Garro escribi\u00f3 libros con sucesos maravillosos, hasta con enjambres de mariposas amarillas, antes que M\u00e1rquez y antes de que existiera ese t\u00e9rmino, <i>realismo m\u00e1gico, <\/i>que a ella tanto le desagradaba. Adem\u00e1s de la clara desventaja que en su \u00e9poca significaba su sexo, su historia pol\u00edtica y personal (su enmara\u00f1ado matrimonio con Paz, su activismo agrario, sus declaraciones en contra de los intelectuales y del movimiento estudiantil de 1968, su exilio, entre muchas otras cosas) la hac\u00edan una escritora inc\u00f3moda para muchos. No la ayudaba tampoco su personalidad impulsiva y rebelde, peleonera y valiente, que por un lado la hizo destacar y por el otro la meti\u00f3 en tantos embrollos. <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">De unos a\u00f1os para ac\u00e1,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">las escritoras y acad\u00e9micas feministas en todo el mundo<\/a><\/span> han hecho un enorme esfuerzo por reescribir la historia literaria, por reeditar o editar por primera vez las obras de esas tantas escritoras que no llegaron a los anaqueles, a las bibliotecas, a las secundarias y preparatorias ni a las manos de las lectoras. De unos a\u00f1os para ac\u00e1, esos esfuerzos empiezan a tener un alcance masivo en M\u00e9xico. Esas personas que leyeron por su cuenta a Garro la est\u00e1n ahora ense\u00f1ando en las escuelas, sus obras completas se han ido reeditando: se la lee y se la escribe, est\u00e1, poco a poco, siendo cada vez menos un culto y m\u00e1s un gusto extendido y para algunos hasta una 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dos a\u00f1os leyendo todo lo que me encuentro sobre Elena Garro y he visto que, con ese af\u00e1n jer\u00e1rquico que los reviste de autoridad, la mayor\u00eda de los prologuistas y estudiosos ponen las novelas cortas de este libro por debajo de las indiscutibles obras maestras que son Los recuerdos del porvenir y La semana de colores. El 68 fue un gran cisma en la vida de Garro y su producci\u00f3n anterior a esa cat\u00e1strofe sigue siendo la mejor conocida y m\u00e1s apreciada. A estas novelas las meten a todas en el mismo saco: dicen que el tratamiento es pobre, que son repetitivas, vanidosas, vengativas, ensimismadas. Dicen que parte del problema es que Garro viv\u00eda en el exilio mientras escrib\u00eda estas novelas, \u2014aunque esto no es as\u00ed, su publicaci\u00f3n fue posterior al 68 pero en muchos casos empez\u00f3 a escribirlas antes de irse de M\u00e9xico\u2014. Dicen que estaba delirante, era pobre, no ten\u00eda lentes y hab\u00eda empe\u00f1ado su m\u00e1quina de escribir, que por eso escrib\u00eda tan mal y publicaba s\u00f3lo por dinero. Eso \u00faltimo lo dijo varias veces la misma Garro, a la que le daba por una modestia quiz\u00e1s falsa o quiz\u00e1s 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fue contempor\u00e1nea de los se\u00f1ores del as\u00ed llamado boom latinoamericano, aquel zambombazo que fue casi por completo masculino y dej\u00f3 fuera a muchas de las grandes escritoras de su tiempo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"59exu93\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El estilo de estas novelas es sin duda distinto de sus primeras publicaciones: m\u00e1s contenido, menos adornado, m\u00e1s centrado en la trama, menos ret\u00f3rico, para bien y para mal, seg\u00fan el gusto de cada qui\u00e9n. La valoraci\u00f3n de los cr\u00edticos, su mala fama, su propio car\u00e1cter tan enrevesado y las complicaciones de los testamentos hicieron que estas novelas salieran de circulaci\u00f3n por mucho tiempo. Por ejemplo; de esas 40 personas a las que pregunt\u00e9, 15 llegaron a leer a Garro por\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/7091-libro-los-recuerdos-del-porvenir-mapa-de-las-lenguas-9788420438153\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Los recuerdos del porvenir<\/a><\/em><\/span> y 11 por <em>La semana de colores<\/em>, s\u00f3lo 2 personas llegaron por alguna de estas novelas.\u00a0<\/p><p>Ya sabemos lo que dijeron los cr\u00edticos, pero ahora lleg\u00f3 el momento de que sean las y los lectores quienes opinen sobre estas obras.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/313320-ebook-novelas-breves-9786073823371\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Con esta publicaci\u00f3n (y otras que sin duda no tardan en ver la luz)<\/a><\/span> se completa y se ampl\u00eda el panorama de la obra de Garro, que se abre al misterio, al humor y otras muchas vertientes distantes de sus primeros libros. Por mi parte, me limito a ofrecer un inventario de adjetivos para estas novelas cortas, geniales, osadas, tristes, l\u00facidas, perturbadoras y hermosas.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"tnjr73t\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Cr\u00e9dito: Archivo 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la luz y la sombra<\/strong><\/p><p>Al hablar de la realidad y la invenci\u00f3n, Garro sol\u00eda contradecirse. Por ejemplo, cuando Jos\u00e9 Bianco le envi\u00f3 <em>La p\u00e9rdida del reino<\/em>, una novela basada en el periodo en que coincidi\u00f3 con ella en Par\u00eds, Garro le escribi\u00f3: \u00abDime, \u00bfas\u00ed era la vida o as\u00ed la ve\u00edas t\u00fa? Mi pregunta es idiota. Las novelas nunca son la vida. Son novelas\u00bb. En esa pregunta est\u00e1 la necesidad de buscar en las novelas respuestas sobre la vida, o al menos la percepci\u00f3n de la vida, y en la afirmaci\u00f3n con que ella misma se contesta est\u00e1 la imposibilidad de encontrarlas.<\/p><p>Garro tuvo varias veces que aclarar que sus novelas no eran autobiogr\u00e1ficas. O s\u00ed, pero no del todo, no siempre, hasta cierto punto. Se enojaba con las lecturas autobiogr\u00e1ficas simplistas. Dijo, por ejemplo, alguna vez: \u00abHay un empe\u00f1o en confundir mi literatura con mi vida personal y sobre todo con mi vida conyugal. \u00a1Cosa que me harta! Todo y todos son O.P. Ya basta de joder\u00bb. Dijo tambi\u00e9n acerca de su novela <em>Testimonios sobre Mariana:<\/em>\u00a0\u00abSi piensas que en Mariana aparecen personajes vivos te equivocas. Aunque es verdad que tom\u00e9 rasgos de algunas personas vivas y difuntas para crear a un solo personaje. Acu\u00e9rdate de Ortega y Gasset: \\\"lo que no es vivencia es academia\\\". Recuerda tambi\u00e9n a Dostoyevski y a Balzac: \\\"la novela es vida\\\". Eso no quiere decir que lo que cuento en Mariana sea una simple calca de mi vida al papel. Creo que todas las novelas son <em>roman \u00e0 clef<\/em> o no son novelas\u00bb.<\/p><p>Sobre esa misma novela, por otro lado, dice en una carta: \u00abTe advierto que cada frase, cada situaci\u00f3n y personaje, son aut\u00e9nticos. Lo que me resulta dif\u00edcil es ordenar, ELIMINAR situaciones, pues si pongo todo resulta inveros\u00edmil\u00bb.<\/p><p>En esta negociaci\u00f3n entre lo veros\u00edmil y lo inveros\u00edmil, lo aut\u00e9ntico y lo artificial, la memoria y la fantas\u00eda, la fidelidad y la traici\u00f3n es que existe buena parte de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la literatura en general<\/a><\/span> y de la obra de Garro en particular.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"4znwyvh\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Esas personas que leyeron por su cuenta a Garro la est\u00e1n ahora ense\u00f1ando en las escuelas, sus obras completas se han ido reeditando: se la lee y se la escribe, est\u00e1, poco a poco, siendo cada vez menos un culto y m\u00e1s un gusto extendido y para algunos hasta una religi\u00f3n.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"4oan3z3\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En estas novelas cortas podemos adivinar varias referencias autobiogr\u00e1ficas y aqu\u00ed ennumero algunas de ellas, principalmente por curiosidad \u2014curiosidad a la que nunca habr\u00eda que menospreciar, ni siquiera cuando es amor al chisme, porque el chisme es la sal de la vida\u2014. Pero tambi\u00e9n porque leer la obra a la luz y a la sombra de su historia ampl\u00eda a mi parecer las posibilidades de lectura y de interpretaci\u00f3n de sus textos.<\/p><p><em>Busca mi esquela<\/em> es una novela de enredos, tr\u00e1gica y c\u00f3mica, que se resuelve en un casi chiste sobre el matrimonio. Despu\u00e9s de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/38725-libro-octavio-paz-9788430616862\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">su desdichada vida conyugal con Paz<\/a><\/span>, Garro reflexion\u00f3 mucho en sus libros y entrevistas sobre la presi\u00f3n social de su \u00e9poca (quiz\u00e1s todav\u00eda de la nuestra) para que las mujeres se casaran. \u00abLe humillaba la idea de que el \u00fanico futuro para las mujeres fuera el matrimonio. Hablar del matrimonio como de una soluci\u00f3n la dejaba reducida a una mercanc\u00eda a la que hab\u00eda que dar salida a cualquier precio\u00bb, se dice en <em>Los recuerdos del porvenir.<\/em> El matrimonio aparece en su obra equiparado a una c\u00e1rcel, a una maldici\u00f3n y en esta novela, a la muerte. No le faltaron ocasiones, pero despu\u00e9s de su divorcio Garro nunca se volvi\u00f3 a casar.<\/p><p>Irene, la condenada de <em>Busca mi esquela,<\/em> se llama igual que un personaje de <em>In\u00e9s,<\/em> una m\u00e1s de las mujeres oprimidas y violentadas que retratan estas novelas. Esta otra Irene es una chica que llega a hospedarse en casa de su padre, donde \u00e9ste, sus amigos y sus amantes celebran ceremonias orgi\u00e1sticas con drogas y rituales extra\u00f1os. La golpiza y el maltrato que recibe Irene de su padre resuenan con lo que Garro cuenta en una carta sobre su hija y Octavio Paz: \u00abA la Chatita en dos meses que vivi\u00f3 con \u00e9l en la Embajada le hizo tales cosas (por ejemplo no abrirle la puerta cuando volv\u00eda de las fiestas y dejarla en la calle toda la noche, golpearla, calumniarla, etc.) que se me puso muy enferma. Se cubri\u00f3 de eczema y estuvo al borde de una depresi\u00f3n nerviosa\u00bb.<\/p><p>El nombre de Irene viene del griego y significa \u00abpaz\u00bb, esa paz que su hija llevaba en el apellido y que est\u00e1 ausente en la vida turbulenta de estas Irenes. Garro describ\u00eda <em>In\u00e9s<\/em> como una refutaci\u00f3n a Sade y tiene varios elementos tambi\u00e9n de la novela g\u00f3tica, con la mansi\u00f3n casi embrujada, guardiana de secretos oscuros, y la joven v\u00edctima, In\u00e9s, que pierde en esa casa paterna la inocencia y la cordura. La protagonista, dice Garro, est\u00e1 inspirada en un personaje real, una mujer que conoci\u00f3 en los a\u00f1os sesenta, que viv\u00eda con unos conocidos suyos, adeptos a ese tipo de rituales. Garro dice haber visto c\u00f3mo In\u00e9s se enloqueci\u00f3 o la enloquecieron, y despu\u00e9s desapareci\u00f3. Dice que trat\u00f3 de encontrarla, trat\u00f3 de ayudarla, pero fracas\u00f3, entre otras cosas por miedo. Aunque conoci\u00f3 al personaje que la inspir\u00f3 en los a\u00f1os sesenta, la novela est\u00e1 ubicada en los setenta. Aparece ah\u00ed la curandera Mar\u00eda Sabina, que seg\u00fan Garro \u00abestaba muy de moda\u00bb. Aqu\u00ed Garro \u2014que profes\u00f3 siempre un cristianismo y un conservadurismo hasta mon\u00e1rquico, y contradictorios con mucho de lo que hizo, escribi\u00f3 y represent\u00f3 en su vida\u2014 demoniza, hiperboliza, critica y se burla de las ideas y costumbres que ella llamar\u00eda libertinas de varios intelectuales en su \u00e9poca. Garro sab\u00eda que la literatura pod\u00eda ser una forma de conjurar odios, miedos y rencores. Sobre el poema de Octavio Paz, <em>Piedra de sol,<\/em> por ejemplo, dijo: \u00abAntes, en los a\u00f1os cincuenta, Paz escribi\u00f3 su gran poema. <em>Piedra de sol.<\/em> Lo le\u00edmos y rele\u00edmos juntos. \\\"\u00bfNo te ofendes?\\\", me pregunt\u00f3 Paz. \\\"No, tienes derecho de decir lo que te parezca\\\", le dije. Y lo que le pareci\u00f3 fue llamarme \\\"pellejo viejo, bolsa de huesos\\\", o algo as\u00ed. [\u2026] El poeta mitifica y Paz quiso exorcizarme diaboliz\u00e1ndome. Lo han hecho todos los poetas. Para eso sirve la creaci\u00f3n po\u00e9tica\u00bb.<\/p><p>El mismo ogro que es y no es Octavio Paz en<em> In\u00e9s<\/em> se reconoce tambi\u00e9n en el padre de <em>Un traje rojo para un duelo.<\/em> Esta obra de teatro, que luego se convirti\u00f3 en novela, cuenta la historia de una ni\u00f1a que est\u00e1 en casa de su terrible padre y de su demoniaca abuela, mientras su abuelo materno agoniza. \u00abYo creo que se me hizo el trauma cuando muri\u00f3 mi pap\u00e1 y yo no ten\u00eda con qu\u00e9 enterrarlo. Y cuando me mand\u00f3 lanzar, estando mi pap\u00e1 moribundo. Bueno, ya lo le\u00edste en el <em>Traje rojo para un duelo\u00bb,<\/em> dijo Garro en una carta. La novela exuda tensi\u00f3n, angustia y paranoia: tres comunes denominadores en estas siete novelas cortas.<\/p><p>En <em>Un coraz\u00f3n en un bote de basura,<\/em> como en <em>Busca mi esquela,<\/em> las mentiras y las bromas se confunden y contribuyen a la paranoia de una mujer que abandon\u00f3 a su esposo y se involucra con un grupo de comunistas.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ixbscns\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Garro tuvo varias veces que aclarar que sus novelas no eran autobiogr\u00e1ficas. O s\u00ed, pero no del todo, no siempre, hasta cierto punto. Se enojaba con las lecturas autobiogr\u00e1ficas simplistas. Dijo, por ejemplo, alguna vez: \u00abHay un empe\u00f1o en confundir mi literatura con mi vida personal y sobre todo con mi vida conyugal. \u00a1Cosa que me harta!\u00a0Todo y todos son O.P. Ya basta de joder\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"01ofl27\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><em>La casa junto al r\u00edo<\/em> hace eco de la llegada de Garro a Espa\u00f1a en 1974. Despu\u00e9s de la matanza de Tlatelolco de 1968 (tras haber sido acusada de ser parte del movimiento estudiantil, declarar que no lo era y denunciar a un mont\u00f3n de intelectuales que tuvieron que esconderse o salir huyendo), Garro abandona M\u00e9xico. Se va tambi\u00e9n tras la sospechosa muerte \u2014que Garro juraba asesinato\u2014 de su amigo y c\u00f3mplice Carlos Madrazo, y despu\u00e9s de varias amenazas reales y documentadas en contra de ella y de su hija. La desaforada y a la vez justificada paranoia de Garro se desata a partir de ese momento y en el caso de esta novela se plasma en la historia de Consuelo. Esta protagonista busca refugiarse con sus familiares espa\u00f1oles y se encuentra con la cruda realidad de la Espa\u00f1a de la posguerra y con el complot de un conjunto de asesinos, que pretenden quedarse con su herencia.<\/p><p><em>Primer amor<\/em> es la reelaboraci\u00f3n de un episodio de su vida en Europa, en los a\u00f1os cuarenta. En sus diarios cuenta c\u00f3mo se fue de vacaciones con su hija a Bidart, en Francia, y se hizo amiga de un grupo de soldados alemanes, sometidos a realizar trabajos forzosos despu\u00e9s de la <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/art-spiegelman-liniers\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Segunda Guerra Mundial<\/a><\/span>. Garro siente compasi\u00f3n por estos hombres, les regala unos cigarros y se encari\u00f1a con ellos, a pesar de que los habitantes del pueblo se lo reprochan. Un d\u00eda en que su hija estaba dormida en una zona peligrosa e inaccesible de la playa, los alemanes ponen su vida en riesgo para ayudar a rescatarla. En la novela, tanto B\u00e1rbara como su hija (tambi\u00e9n B\u00e1rbara) se enamoran de Siegfried, uno de los alemanes. Las rodean historias de presos asesinados y mujeres rapadas por cometer el sacrilegio de enamorarse de ellos, pero siguen frecuent\u00e1ndolos. Tras la muerte de Siegfried, en el tren de regreso, la ni\u00f1a B\u00e1rbara le pregunta a su madre si est\u00e1 triste y ella le responde: \u00ab\u00bfYo triste?\u2026 Estoy enojada\u00bb.<\/p><p>Alguna vez dijo Garro que de sus novelas su favorita era <em>Y Matarazo no llam\u00f3.<\/em> Esta novela, que tiene algo de policiaca sin serlo, es de este conjunto la que mejor despliega el humor, uno de los recursos que m\u00e1s brillan en la obra y la personalidad de Garro. Humor negro, en este caso, porque esta es la historia de un oficinista, un hombre sencillo que sin saber en lo que se est\u00e1 metiendo termina implicado en el movimiento obrero de 1958. En esos a\u00f1os Garro se involucr\u00f3 en una huelga que comandaban Demetrio Vallejo y Valent\u00edn Campa, y se hizo amiga de dos estudiantes que militaban en el Partido Comunista: Pedro S\u00e1enz y Tito Urbina (a este \u00faltimo lo habr\u00e1 querido tanto que as\u00ed le puso a uno de sus gatos). La novela est\u00e1 firmada en 1960, pero fue en 1968, poco antes de la matanza de Tlatelolco, cuando dejaron afuera de su casa a un herido, Ra\u00fal Palacios, al que ella y su hija cuidaron y protegieron hasta que se mejor\u00f3, y al que apodaron \u00abla pi\u00f1ata\u00bb.<\/p><p><em>Matarazo<\/em> es una de las pocas novelas de Garro que no protagoniza una mujer. Pero de todas formas permite <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/fernanda-melchor-y-su-viaje-al-paradais-escribir-de-lo-que-a-una-le-interesa-es-suficientemente-feminista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">una lectura feminista<\/a><\/span>, porque exalta la rareza y vulnerabilidad de un hombre que llora, que cuida, que no encaja en los estereotipos masculinos de su \u00e9poca y se vuelve presa f\u00e1cil de los hombres en el poder. Garro dijo muchas veces no considerarse feminista, pero su obra est\u00e1 llena de retratos crudos, denuncias y cr\u00edticas a la violencia machista que da\u00f1a y limita a todas las personas del mundo, sin importar su g\u00e9nero.<\/p><p><em>Matarazo<\/em> es tambi\u00e9n, quiz\u00e1s, de estas novelas, en la que vuelve con m\u00e1s fuerza la obsesi\u00f3n que Garro tuvo siempre con la memoria y el espacio-tiempo, con ese brillante p\u00e1rrafo inicial que cuenta de una casa n\u00f3mada, relojes invisibles y p\u00e1jaros mis\u00e1ntropos.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kasey5d\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Garro dijo muchas veces no considerarse feminista, pero su obra est\u00e1 llena de retratos crudos, denuncias y cr\u00edticas a la violencia machista que da\u00f1a y limita a todas las personas del mundo, sin importar su g\u00e9nero.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"9gc31m2\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Si de unos a\u00f1os para ac\u00e1 estamos releyendo la historia literaria con nuevos ojos, habr\u00eda que releer\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/313320-ebook-novelas-breves-9786073823371\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">estas novelas<\/a><\/span> con esos mismos, para darles su justo lugar en la obra de Garro y en la literatura de su tiempo, lejos de los prejuicios que las circundan, para darlas a conocer y ponerlas al alcance de las personas que las buscan y de las que no las buscan, pero ser\u00edan felices de encontr\u00e1rselas. Si Garro est\u00e1 llegando a las manos de m\u00e1s y m\u00e1s personas, quiz\u00e1s estas novelas por fin dejen de ser un ap\u00e9ndice de su obra y pasen a ser disfrutadas y apreciadas por lectoras y lectores frecuentes y espor\u00e1dicos, por gusto propio y por asignatura, en M\u00e9xico entero y en el mundo.<\/p><p>Jazmina Barrera, 2022.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ug3ua7o\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/elena-garro-cuento-inedito-el-gato\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Lecturas breves: \u00abEl gato\u00bb, un cuento in\u00e9dito de Elena Garro<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/despedidas\/la-muerte-de-pizarnik\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La muerte de Pizarnik por la propia Pizarnik: \u00abEscribir es darle sentido al sufrimiento\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/cartas-gabriela-mistral-doris-dan-maria-moreno\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Las cartas de Gabriela Mistral: un cl\u00f3set de cristal<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"6bh835p\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos

Elena Garro. Crédito: EFE Visuals.

Hice una pequeña encuesta entre 40 personas dedicadas a la literatura y algunas otras lectoras frecuentes. Les pregunté si habían leído a Elena Garro, cuándo la leyeron por primera vez y cuál fue el primer libro que leyeron. El 17% no la había leído, el 20% la leyó en la preparatoria, el 6% en la universidad y el 39% la leyó por su cuenta. Quién sabe qué habría pasado si les hubiera preguntado, por ejemplo, por Rulfo, con quien Garro ha sido comparada varias veces, o por Octavio Paz, el premio Nobel que fuera esposo de Garro por veinte años. Sospecho que casi todos los encuestados los habrán leído en la secundaria o en la preparatoria, porque estos contemporáneos de Garro son lecturas obligadas en la educación básica de México, a mí, por lo menos, me los metieron hasta en la sopa.

A pesar de que el 83% de las personas a quienes pregunté sí la habían leído, varias de ellas decían tener la sensación de que Elena Garro es todavía una escritora, por así decirlo, de culto. No creo que mi pobre encuesta dé para sacar muchas conclusiones, pero sí pienso que esa sensación puede deberse a que la mayoría de esas personas se encontraron con Garro lejos de las instituciones. Mi generación, y otras anteriores, leía a Garro como un descubrimiento, un secreto oscuro y poderoso. El hecho de que Garro no haya ingresado del todo a las listas de lecturas obligatorias hace que menos lectoras y lectores conozcan sus libros, pero la mayoría de quienes sí la leen lo hacen porque se les pega la gana, no porque algún señor profesor se los ordene. Muchos nos adentramos en su obra sin prejuicios, sin saber nada de su vida, de su estilo o sus referencias, completamente abiertos al misterio y el hechizo de sus palabras, así sentimos sus libros como un tesoro escondido, íntimo y propio. El crítico Emmanuel Carballo dijo que Garro: «Es como una escritora clandestina, hay que hablar en voz baja de ella para que nadie lo sepa porque nos puede pasar algo, como si fuera una conspiradora, una dinamitera. La imagen más bella que tengo de Elena Garro es la del escritor en contra de la sociedad. Aunque merezca todos los homenajes, yo la prefiero como una escritora maldita y mítica, autora de una obra perdurable, original y distinta».

A Elena Garro no la leí en la secundaria, ni en preparatoria ni tampoco en la licenciatura. Cuando estudiaba la maestría, en un país extranjero, una admirada profesora chilena me recomendó que la leyera. La mitad de las personas extranjeras a las que pregunté en mi sondeo me respondieron que nunca habían leído a Garro, pero esa profesora era, por suerte, de aquella otra mitad. Garro fue contemporánea de los señores del así llamado boom latinoamericano, aquel zambombazo que fue casi por completo masculino y dejó fuera a muchas de las grandes escritoras de su tiempo. A Garro no la subieron a esa ola que lanzó a escritores como García Márquez por todo el mundo, y eso que Garro escribió libros con sucesos maravillosos, hasta con enjambres de mariposas amarillas, antes que Márquez y antes de que existiera ese término, realismo mágico, que a ella tanto le desagradaba. Además de la clara desventaja que en su época significaba su sexo, su historia política y personal (su enmarañado matrimonio con Paz, su activismo agrario, sus declaraciones en contra de los intelectuales y del movimiento estudiantil de 1968, su exilio, entre muchas otras cosas) la hacían una escritora incómoda para muchos. No la ayudaba tampoco su personalidad impulsiva y rebelde, peleonera y valiente, que por un lado la hizo destacar y por el otro la metió en tantos embrollos.

De unos años para acá, las escritoras y académicas feministas en todo el mundo han hecho un enorme esfuerzo por reescribir la historia literaria, por reeditar o editar por primera vez las obras de esas tantas escritoras que no llegaron a los anaqueles, a las bibliotecas, a las secundarias y preparatorias ni a las manos de las lectoras. De unos años para acá, esos esfuerzos empiezan a tener un alcance masivo en México. Esas personas que leyeron por su cuenta a Garro la están ahora enseñando en las escuelas, sus obras completas se han ido reeditando: se la lee y se la escribe, está, poco a poco, siendo cada vez menos un culto y más un gusto extendido y para algunos hasta una religión.

Llevo dos años leyendo todo lo que me encuentro sobre Elena Garro y he visto que, con ese afán jerárquico que los reviste de autoridad, la mayoría de los prologuistas y estudiosos ponen las novelas cortas de este libro por debajo de las indiscutibles obras maestras que son Los recuerdos del porvenir y La semana de colores. El 68 fue un gran cisma en la vida de Garro y su producción anterior a esa catástrofe sigue siendo la mejor conocida y más apreciada. A estas novelas las meten a todas en el mismo saco: dicen que el tratamiento es pobre, que son repetitivas, vanidosas, vengativas, ensimismadas. Dicen que parte del problema es que Garro vivía en el exilio mientras escribía estas novelas, —aunque esto no es así, su publicación fue posterior al 68 pero en muchos casos empezó a escribirlas antes de irse de México—. Dicen que estaba delirante, era pobre, no tenía lentes y había empeñado su máquina de escribir, que por eso escribía tan mal y publicaba sólo por dinero. Eso último lo dijo varias veces la misma Garro, a la que le daba por una modestia quizás falsa o quizás verdadera.

Garro fue contemporánea de los señores del así llamado boom latinoamericano, aquel zambombazo que fue casi por completo masculino y dejó fuera a muchas de las grandes escritoras de su tiempo.

El estilo de estas novelas es sin duda distinto de sus primeras publicaciones: más contenido, menos adornado, más centrado en la trama, menos retórico, para bien y para mal, según el gusto de cada quién. La valoración de los críticos, su mala fama, su propio carácter tan enrevesado y las complicaciones de los testamentos hicieron que estas novelas salieran de circulación por mucho tiempo. Por ejemplo; de esas 40 personas a las que pregunté, 15 llegaron a leer a Garro por Los recuerdos del porvenir y 11 por La semana de colores, sólo 2 personas llegaron por alguna de estas novelas. 

Ya sabemos lo que dijeron los críticos, pero ahora llegó el momento de que sean las y los lectores quienes opinen sobre estas obras. Con esta publicación (y otras que sin duda no tardan en ver la luz) se completa y se amplía el panorama de la obra de Garro, que se abre al misterio, al humor y otras muchas vertientes distantes de sus primeros libros. Por mi parte, me limito a ofrecer un inventario de adjetivos para estas novelas cortas, geniales, osadas, tristes, lúcidas, perturbadoras y hermosas.

Foto inédita de Elena Garro en el Bois de Boulogne de París. Crédito: Archivo familiar.

A la luz y la sombra

Al hablar de la realidad y la invención, Garro solía contradecirse. Por ejemplo, cuando José Bianco le envió La pérdida del reino, una novela basada en el periodo en que coincidió con ella en París, Garro le escribió: «Dime, ¿así era la vida o así la veías tú? Mi pregunta es idiota. Las novelas nunca son la vida. Son novelas». En esa pregunta está la necesidad de buscar en las novelas respuestas sobre la vida, o al menos la percepción de la vida, y en la afirmación con que ella misma se contesta está la imposibilidad de encontrarlas.

Garro tuvo varias veces que aclarar que sus novelas no eran autobiográficas. O sí, pero no del todo, no siempre, hasta cierto punto. Se enojaba con las lecturas autobiográficas simplistas. Dijo, por ejemplo, alguna vez: «Hay un empeño en confundir mi literatura con mi vida personal y sobre todo con mi vida conyugal. ¡Cosa que me harta! Todo y todos son O.P. Ya basta de joder». Dijo también acerca de su novela Testimonios sobre Mariana: «Si piensas que en Mariana aparecen personajes vivos te equivocas. Aunque es verdad que tomé rasgos de algunas personas vivas y difuntas para crear a un solo personaje. Acuérdate de Ortega y Gasset: "lo que no es vivencia es academia". Recuerda también a Dostoyevski y a Balzac: "la novela es vida". Eso no quiere decir que lo que cuento en Mariana sea una simple calca de mi vida al papel. Creo que todas las novelas son roman à clef o no son novelas».

Sobre esa misma novela, por otro lado, dice en una carta: «Te advierto que cada frase, cada situación y personaje, son auténticos. Lo que me resulta difícil es ordenar, ELIMINAR situaciones, pues si pongo todo resulta inverosímil».

En esta negociación entre lo verosímil y lo inverosímil, lo auténtico y lo artificial, la memoria y la fantasía, la fidelidad y la traición es que existe buena parte de la literatura en general y de la obra de Garro en particular.

Esas personas que leyeron por su cuenta a Garro la están ahora enseñando en las escuelas, sus obras completas se han ido reeditando: se la lee y se la escribe, está, poco a poco, siendo cada vez menos un culto y más un gusto extendido y para algunos hasta una religión.

En estas novelas cortas podemos adivinar varias referencias autobiográficas y aquí ennumero algunas de ellas, principalmente por curiosidad —curiosidad a la que nunca habría que menospreciar, ni siquiera cuando es amor al chisme, porque el chisme es la sal de la vida—. Pero también porque leer la obra a la luz y a la sombra de su historia amplía a mi parecer las posibilidades de lectura y de interpretación de sus textos.

Busca mi esquela es una novela de enredos, trágica y cómica, que se resuelve en un casi chiste sobre el matrimonio. Después de su desdichada vida conyugal con Paz, Garro reflexionó mucho en sus libros y entrevistas sobre la presión social de su época (quizás todavía de la nuestra) para que las mujeres se casaran. «Le humillaba la idea de que el único futuro para las mujeres fuera el matrimonio. Hablar del matrimonio como de una solución la dejaba reducida a una mercancía a la que había que dar salida a cualquier precio», se dice en Los recuerdos del porvenir. El matrimonio aparece en su obra equiparado a una cárcel, a una maldición y en esta novela, a la muerte. No le faltaron ocasiones, pero después de su divorcio Garro nunca se volvió a casar.

Irene, la condenada de Busca mi esquela, se llama igual que un personaje de Inés, una más de las mujeres oprimidas y violentadas que retratan estas novelas. Esta otra Irene es una chica que llega a hospedarse en casa de su padre, donde éste, sus amigos y sus amantes celebran ceremonias orgiásticas con drogas y rituales extraños. La golpiza y el maltrato que recibe Irene de su padre resuenan con lo que Garro cuenta en una carta sobre su hija y Octavio Paz: «A la Chatita en dos meses que vivió con él en la Embajada le hizo tales cosas (por ejemplo no abrirle la puerta cuando volvía de las fiestas y dejarla en la calle toda la noche, golpearla, calumniarla, etc.) que se me puso muy enferma. Se cubrió de eczema y estuvo al borde de una depresión nerviosa».

El nombre de Irene viene del griego y significa «paz», esa paz que su hija llevaba en el apellido y que está ausente en la vida turbulenta de estas Irenes. Garro describía Inés como una refutación a Sade y tiene varios elementos también de la novela gótica, con la mansión casi embrujada, guardiana de secretos oscuros, y la joven víctima, Inés, que pierde en esa casa paterna la inocencia y la cordura. La protagonista, dice Garro, está inspirada en un personaje real, una mujer que conoció en los años sesenta, que vivía con unos conocidos suyos, adeptos a ese tipo de rituales. Garro dice haber visto cómo Inés se enloqueció o la enloquecieron, y después desapareció. Dice que trató de encontrarla, trató de ayudarla, pero fracasó, entre otras cosas por miedo. Aunque conoció al personaje que la inspiró en los años sesenta, la novela está ubicada en los setenta. Aparece ahí la curandera María Sabina, que según Garro «estaba muy de moda». Aquí Garro —que profesó siempre un cristianismo y un conservadurismo hasta monárquico, y contradictorios con mucho de lo que hizo, escribió y representó en su vida— demoniza, hiperboliza, critica y se burla de las ideas y costumbres que ella llamaría libertinas de varios intelectuales en su época. Garro sabía que la literatura podía ser una forma de conjurar odios, miedos y rencores. Sobre el poema de Octavio Paz, Piedra de sol, por ejemplo, dijo: «Antes, en los años cincuenta, Paz escribió su gran poema. Piedra de sol. Lo leímos y releímos juntos. "¿No te ofendes?", me preguntó Paz. "No, tienes derecho de decir lo que te parezca", le dije. Y lo que le pareció fue llamarme "pellejo viejo, bolsa de huesos", o algo así. […] El poeta mitifica y Paz quiso exorcizarme diabolizándome. Lo han hecho todos los poetas. Para eso sirve la creación poética».

El mismo ogro que es y no es Octavio Paz en Inés se reconoce también en el padre de Un traje rojo para un duelo. Esta obra de teatro, que luego se convirtió en novela, cuenta la historia de una niña que está en casa de su terrible padre y de su demoniaca abuela, mientras su abuelo materno agoniza. «Yo creo que se me hizo el trauma cuando murió mi papá y yo no tenía con qué enterrarlo. Y cuando me mandó lanzar, estando mi papá moribundo. Bueno, ya lo leíste en el Traje rojo para un duelo», dijo Garro en una carta. La novela exuda tensión, angustia y paranoia: tres comunes denominadores en estas siete novelas cortas.

En Un corazón en un bote de basura, como en Busca mi esquela, las mentiras y las bromas se confunden y contribuyen a la paranoia de una mujer que abandonó a su esposo y se involucra con un grupo de comunistas.

Garro tuvo varias veces que aclarar que sus novelas no eran autobiográficas. O sí, pero no del todo, no siempre, hasta cierto punto. Se enojaba con las lecturas autobiográficas simplistas. Dijo, por ejemplo, alguna vez: «Hay un empeño en confundir mi literatura con mi vida personal y sobre todo con mi vida conyugal. ¡Cosa que me harta! Todo y todos son O.P. Ya basta de joder».

La casa junto al río hace eco de la llegada de Garro a España en 1974. Después de la matanza de Tlatelolco de 1968 (tras haber sido acusada de ser parte del movimiento estudiantil, declarar que no lo era y denunciar a un montón de intelectuales que tuvieron que esconderse o salir huyendo), Garro abandona México. Se va también tras la sospechosa muerte —que Garro juraba asesinato— de su amigo y cómplice Carlos Madrazo, y después de varias amenazas reales y documentadas en contra de ella y de su hija. La desaforada y a la vez justificada paranoia de Garro se desata a partir de ese momento y en el caso de esta novela se plasma en la historia de Consuelo. Esta protagonista busca refugiarse con sus familiares españoles y se encuentra con la cruda realidad de la España de la posguerra y con el complot de un conjunto de asesinos, que pretenden quedarse con su herencia.

Primer amor es la reelaboración de un episodio de su vida en Europa, en los años cuarenta. En sus diarios cuenta cómo se fue de vacaciones con su hija a Bidart, en Francia, y se hizo amiga de un grupo de soldados alemanes, sometidos a realizar trabajos forzosos después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Garro siente compasión por estos hombres, les regala unos cigarros y se encariña con ellos, a pesar de que los habitantes del pueblo se lo reprochan. Un día en que su hija estaba dormida en una zona peligrosa e inaccesible de la playa, los alemanes ponen su vida en riesgo para ayudar a rescatarla. En la novela, tanto Bárbara como su hija (también Bárbara) se enamoran de Siegfried, uno de los alemanes. Las rodean historias de presos asesinados y mujeres rapadas por cometer el sacrilegio de enamorarse de ellos, pero siguen frecuentándolos. Tras la muerte de Siegfried, en el tren de regreso, la niña Bárbara le pregunta a su madre si está triste y ella le responde: «¿Yo triste?… Estoy enojada».

Alguna vez dijo Garro que de sus novelas su favorita era Y Matarazo no llamó. Esta novela, que tiene algo de policiaca sin serlo, es de este conjunto la que mejor despliega el humor, uno de los recursos que más brillan en la obra y la personalidad de Garro. Humor negro, en este caso, porque esta es la historia de un oficinista, un hombre sencillo que sin saber en lo que se está metiendo termina implicado en el movimiento obrero de 1958. En esos años Garro se involucró en una huelga que comandaban Demetrio Vallejo y Valentín Campa, y se hizo amiga de dos estudiantes que militaban en el Partido Comunista: Pedro Sáenz y Tito Urbina (a este último lo habrá querido tanto que así le puso a uno de sus gatos). La novela está firmada en 1960, pero fue en 1968, poco antes de la matanza de Tlatelolco, cuando dejaron afuera de su casa a un herido, Raúl Palacios, al que ella y su hija cuidaron y protegieron hasta que se mejoró, y al que apodaron «la piñata».

Matarazo es una de las pocas novelas de Garro que no protagoniza una mujer. Pero de todas formas permite una lectura feminista, porque exalta la rareza y vulnerabilidad de un hombre que llora, que cuida, que no encaja en los estereotipos masculinos de su época y se vuelve presa fácil de los hombres en el poder. Garro dijo muchas veces no considerarse feminista, pero su obra está llena de retratos crudos, denuncias y críticas a la violencia machista que daña y limita a todas las personas del mundo, sin importar su género.

Matarazo es también, quizás, de estas novelas, en la que vuelve con más fuerza la obsesión que Garro tuvo siempre con la memoria y el espacio-tiempo, con ese brillante párrafo inicial que cuenta de una casa nómada, relojes invisibles y pájaros misántropos.

Garro dijo muchas veces no considerarse feminista, pero su obra está llena de retratos crudos, denuncias y críticas a la violencia machista que daña y limita a todas las personas del mundo, sin importar su género.

Si de unos años para acá estamos releyendo la historia literaria con nuevos ojos, habría que releer estas novelas con esos mismos, para darles su justo lugar en la obra de Garro y en la literatura de su tiempo, lejos de los prejuicios que las circundan, para darlas a conocer y ponerlas al alcance de las personas que las buscan y de las que no las buscan, pero serían felices de encontrárselas. Si Garro está llegando a las manos de más y más personas, quizás estas novelas por fin dejen de ser un apéndice de su obra y pasen a ser disfrutadas y apreciadas por lectoras y lectores frecuentes y esporádicos, por gusto propio y por asignatura, en México entero y en el mundo.

Jazmina Barrera, 2022.

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