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Marx en el Antropoceno

Con las grietas del capitalismo dando paso a los populismos de extrema derecha y con una crisis ambiental que nos aboca a una catástrofe irreversible, parece inevitable repensar una política diferente -y diferencial- de cara al futuro. Paradójicamente, quizá la clave de lo que está por venir la proporcionen algunos postulados del pasado. En este sentido, las ideas del pensador Karl Marx están volviendo a ser objeto de atención en los últimos años. ¿Por qué Marx? ¿Por qué ahora? En los siguientes párrafos, extraídos del cuarto capítulo de «El capital en la era del Antropoceno» (Ediciones B, colección Sine Qua Non), un ensayo superventas que imagina una sociedad más justa a través del ideario ecológico del autor alemán, el filosofo y economista Kohei Saito responde a estas preguntas al tiempo que propone una perspectiva actualizada del pensamiento de Marx en esta era de crisis ambiental llamada Antropoceno.

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Parad\u00f3jicamente, quiz\u00e1 la clave de lo que est\u00e1 por venir la proporcionen algunos postulados del pasado. En este sentido, las ideas del pensador Karl Marx est\u00e1n volviendo a ser objeto de atenci\u00f3n en los \u00faltimos a\u00f1os. \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 Marx? \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 ahora? En los siguientes p\u00e1rrafos, extra\u00eddos del cuarto cap\u00edtulo de \u00abEl capital en la era del Antropoceno\u00bb (Ediciones B, colecci\u00f3n Sine Qua Non), un ensayo superventas que imagina una sociedad m\u00e1s justa a trav\u00e9s del ideario ecol\u00f3gico del autor alem\u00e1n, el filosofo y economista Kohei Saito responde a estas preguntas al tiempo que propone una perspectiva actualizada del pensamiento de Marx en esta era de crisis ambiental llamada Antropoceno.<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"4ez8qv2\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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a\u00f1o 2017. Grafiti del artista urbano Marycula en el que se aprecia a Karl Marx rebuscando en la basura. La camiseta del fil\u00f3sofo dice lo siguiente: \u00abOs dije c\u00f3mo cambiar el mundo\u00bb. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"xikj51j\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Berl\u00edn, a\u00f1o 2017. Grafiti del artista urbano Marycula en el que se aprecia a Karl Marx rebuscando en la basura. La camiseta del fil\u00f3sofo dice lo siguiente: \u00abOs dije c\u00f3mo cambiar el mundo\u00bb. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><b>La rehabilitaci\u00f3n de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/950-karl-marx\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Marx<\/a><\/span><o:p><\/o:p><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/el-cambio-climatico-en-cuatro-preguntas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La emergencia clim\u00e1tica<\/a><\/span>\u00a0del Antropoceno reclama una cr\u00edtica del capitalismo y una propuesta de futuro poscapitalista. Pero \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 Marx a estas alturas?<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">En general, el marxismo est\u00e1 fuertemente asociado a la imagen de la dictadura del partido \u00fanico de los comunistas de la URSS o de China y a la nacionalizaci\u00f3n de todos los medios de producci\u00f3n. Por eso, al o\u00edr hablar de Marx, no pocos lectores sentir\u00e1n que es algo trasnochado e incluso peligroso.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">En efecto, el marxismo en Jap\u00f3n est\u00e1 en horas bajas como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/victoria-belim-mi-ucrania-urss-euromaidan-rusia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">consecuencia del colapso de la URSS<\/a><\/span>. En la actualidad, son muy pocos los que, aun siendo de izquierdas, defienden abiertamente a Marx y tratan de aprovechar su sabidur\u00eda.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Sin embargo, en los \u00faltimos a\u00f1os fuera de Jap\u00f3n, las ideas de Marx est\u00e1n volviendo a ser objeto de atenci\u00f3n. A medida que las contradicciones del capitalismo se hacen m\u00e1s profundas, el sentido com\u00fan que dictaba que el capitalismo es la \u00fanica opci\u00f3n est\u00e1 empezando a ser cuestionado. Existen datos de sondeos de opini\u00f3n que indican que entre los j\u00f3venes de Estados Unidos, una mayor\u00eda siente predilecci\u00f3n por el socialismo en detrimento del capitalismo.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">A partir de aqu\u00ed, tratar\u00e9 de aclarar c\u00f3mo Marx analizar\u00eda la crisis ambiental del Antropoceno e ir\u00e9 sugiriendo algunas pistas para alcanzar soluciones diferentes al <em>keynesianismo<\/em> medioambiental.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Por supuesto, no voy a redundar en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/34334-libro-manifiesto-comunista-9788466347617\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">una interpretaci\u00f3n apolillada de Marx<\/a><\/span>. Propondr\u00e9 una nueva perspectiva del pensamiento de Marx en el Antropoceno, recurriendo tambi\u00e9n a documentos 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><b>Una tercera v\u00eda llamada lo \u00abcom\u00fan\u00bb<o:p><\/o:p><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Uno de los conceptos clave para\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/economia-politica-y-actualidad\/26043-ebook-llamando-a-las-puertas-de-la-revolucion-9788491053712\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la reinterpretaci\u00f3n de Marx<\/a><\/span> en los \u00faltimos a\u00f1os es el concepto de lo \u00abcom\u00fan\u00bb, o del \u00abbien com\u00fan\u00bb. Lo com\u00fan hace referencia a los bienes que deben ser socialmente compartidos y administrados. Se trata de un concepto propuesto por dos marxistas en las postrimer\u00edas del siglo XX, Antonio Negri y Michael Hardt, en su obra Imperio, que alcanz\u00f3 notoriedad.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Se puede afirmar que lo com\u00fan es la llave que abre una tercera v\u00eda entre los dos polos opuestos del liberalismo norteamericano y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/las-rosas-de-orwell-rebecca-solnit-stalin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el colectivismo sovi\u00e9tico<\/a><\/span>. Es decir, ni se trata de mercantilizarlo todo, como ocurre bajo el fundamentalismo de mercado, ni de nacionalizarlo todo, como sucede en el socialismo de corte sovi\u00e9tico. Lo com\u00fan, como tercera v\u00eda, consiste en tomar como bienes compartidos el agua, la electricidad, la vivienda, la sanidad o la educaci\u00f3n y gestionarlos democr\u00e1ticamente entre la gente.<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Se puede trazar un paralelismo con el concepto, m\u00e1s popular en Jap\u00f3n, de \u00abcapital com\u00fan social\u00bb, de Hirofumi Uzawa. El razonamiento de Uzawa fue el siguiente: para que la gente pueda vivir en una sociedad rica y prosperar, es necesario satisfacer una serie de requisitos: el medio ambiente natural, como el agua o el suelo; las infraestructuras sociales, como la electricidad o los medios de transporte; y los sistemas sociales, como la educaci\u00f3n o la sanidad. Considerar todo ello como bienes compartidos, o comunes, de toda la sociedad, y administrarlos y operar con ellos socialmente sin recurrir a normas estatales o criterios de mercado. Esta es tambi\u00e9n, en esencia, la idea de lo com\u00fan.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Pero a diferencia del capital social com\u00fan, en lo com\u00fan se concede m\u00e1s peso a la participaci\u00f3n ciudadana en la cogesti\u00f3n democr\u00e1tica y horizontal, sin delegar su manejo en manos de expertos. Y se distingue definitivamente del capital social com\u00fan en que su fin \u00faltimo es\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/capitalismo-jeannette-von-wolfersdorff\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la superaci\u00f3n del capitalismo<\/a><\/span> a trav\u00e9s de la ampliaci\u00f3n progresiva de los l\u00edmites de lo 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class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><b>Gestionar la Tierra como lo com\u00fan<o:p><\/o:p><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">En realidad, el comunismo no era para Marx la dictadura de partido \u00fanico o la nacionalizaci\u00f3n de la producci\u00f3n, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/igort-cuadernos-ucranianos-y-rusos-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">como ocurri\u00f3 en la URSS<\/a><\/span>. Para \u00e9l, el comunismo hac\u00eda referencia a una sociedad en la que los productores coadministran y cooperan los medios de producci\u00f3n bajo la consideraci\u00f3n de estos como \u00abbienes comunes\u00bb.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Es m\u00e1s, describ\u00eda como comunismo una sociedad en la que la gente gestionara no solo los medios de producci\u00f3n, sino la Tierra como parte de lo com\u00fan.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">De hecho, en un famoso pasaje en la \u00faltima parte del primer volumen de El capital, conocido como la \u00abnegaci\u00f3n de la negaci\u00f3n\u00bb \u2014donde ilustra la llegada del comunismo a trav\u00e9s del \u00absaqueo del saqueador\u00bb\u2014, Marx afirma lo siguiente:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"6dcmmno\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><i>Es la negaci\u00f3n de la negaci\u00f3n. Esta restaura la propiedad individual, pero sobre el fundamento de la conquista alcanzada por la era capitalista: la cooperaci\u00f3n de trabajadores libres y su propiedad colectiva sobre la tierra y sobre los medios de producci\u00f3n producidos por el trabajo mismo [poseerlos como lo com\u00fan].<\/i><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"25\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"25\",\"left\":\"25\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"gacgqgg\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Voy a explicar brevemente qu\u00e9 significa \u00abnegaci\u00f3n de la negaci\u00f3n\u00bb. La primera \u00abnegaci\u00f3n\u00bb hace referencia al trabajo de los productores a las \u00f3rdenes del capitalista, desgajado de los medios de producci\u00f3n considerados lo com\u00fan; pero en la segunda \u00abnegaci\u00f3n\u00bb (\u00abnegaci\u00f3n de la negaci\u00f3n\u00bb) los trabajadores desmontan el monopolio del capitalista \u00a1y recuperan la Tierra y los medios de producci\u00f3n como lo com\u00fan!<\/p><p>Sin duda, este es a\u00fan un esquema muy abstracto. Sin embargo, la propuesta de Marx es clara: derrocar al capitalismo que arruina la Tierra en su b\u00fasqueda infinita de la multiplicaci\u00f3n del valor de cambio con comunismo; despu\u00e9s, cogestionar la Tierra entre todos como lo com\u00fan.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"2py82on\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><b>El comunismo reconstruye lo com\u00fan<o:p><\/o:p><\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Este posicionamiento, que concede gran importancia a la propuesta b\u00e1sica de Marx acerca de lo com\u00fan, ha sido ampliamente compartido, m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de Negri y Hardt. Por ejemplo, \u017di\u017eek tambi\u00e9n afirma la necesidad del comunismo haciendo referencia a la idea de lo com\u00fan.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Seg\u00fan \u017di\u017eek, bajo el capitalismo global se est\u00e1 produciendo un acoso a los cuatro bienes comunes o <em>commons<\/em> \u2014cultura, naturaleza exterior, naturaleza interior y seres humanos\u2014 de un modo hostil a las personas. En esta coyuntura, \u00abla legitimaci\u00f3n de la resurrecci\u00f3n del concepto \\\"comunismo\\\" [...] se deber\u00eda basar en los <em>commons\u00bb<\/em>, dice \u017di\u017eek.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Para \u017di\u017eek, el comunismo no es sino el intento de reconstrucci\u00f3n consciente de lo com\u00fan \u2014el conocimiento, la naturaleza, los derechos humanos, la sociedad, etc.\u2014 <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/muro-berlin-1989-gorbachov-taubman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">desguazado por el capitalismo<\/a><\/span>.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Aunque no es algo muy conocido, Marx se refer\u00eda como \u00abasociaci\u00f3n\u00bb a las sociedades en las que se hubiera reestablecido lo com\u00fan. En sus esbozos de la sociedad futura, Marx apenas utiliz\u00f3 t\u00e9rminos como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/despedidas\/muerte-gorbachov-william-taubman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00abcomunismo\u00bb o \u00absocialismo\u00bb<\/a><\/span>. En cambio, empleaba la expresi\u00f3n \u00abasociaci\u00f3n\u00bb. Es la ayuda mutua voluntaria (asociaci\u00f3n) de los trabajadores la que har\u00e1 realidad lo com\u00fan.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ealb92s\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><b>Las asociaciones son el origen de la seguridad social<\/b><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Lo com\u00fan, en este sentido, no es una exigencia nueva que haya surgido en el siglo XXI. Los servicios que comprende la seguridad social, a cargo de los Estados en la actualidad, tienen su origen en lo com\u00fan que la gente fue conformando a trav\u00e9s de la asociaci\u00f3n.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Es decir, el origen de los beneficios de la seguridad social se remonta a los diversos intentos de autogesti\u00f3n de todo aquello necesario para la vida cotidiana, sin delegarlo al mercado. Por lo tanto, la seguridad social no es sino la sistematizaci\u00f3n de aquellos intentos bajo el estado del bienestar del siglo XX.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Sobre este punto, David Graeber, antrop\u00f3logo cultural de la London School of Economics, afirma lo siguiente:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bwueqc7\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><em>En Europa, pr\u00e1cticamente todos los sistemas principales que constituyen los estados del bienestar posteriores \u2014seguridad social, pensi\u00f3n, bibliotecas p\u00fablicas, sanidad p\u00fablica, etc.\u2014 tienen su origen no en otros Gobiernos estatales, sino en sindicatos, asociaciones de vecinos, cooperativas, partidos de clase obrera y en todo tipo de organizaciones, muchas de ellas participantes en proyectos conscientes y revolucionarios para la \u00abconstrucci\u00f3n de una sociedad nueva dentro de una piel vieja\u00bb; es decir, implicadas en proyectos de conformaci\u00f3n gradual, y desde abajo, de sistemas de tipo socialista.<\/em><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"25\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"25\",\"left\":\"25\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"iqeri9q\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>De acuerdo con Graeber, el estado del bienestar fue una de las formas de sistematizaci\u00f3n, bajo el capitalismo, de lo com\u00fan, producto de la asociaci\u00f3n. Sin embargo, a partir de la d\u00e9cada de 1980, las pol\u00edticas de austeridad propiciadas por el neoliberalismo desintegraron o debilitaron seriamente las asociaciones, como los sindicatos o la sanidad p\u00fablica, y lo com\u00fan fue engullido por el mercado.<\/p><p>En esta situaci\u00f3n, tratar simplemente de restaurar el estado del bienestar ser\u00eda <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/harari-sandel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">una medida insuficiente contra el neoliberalismo<\/a><\/span>. La v\u00eda del estado del bienestar, cuyas premisas son unos elevados niveles de crecimiento econ\u00f3mico o el mantenimiento de las diferencias Norte-Sur, es ya ineficaz en esta era de crisis ecol\u00f3gica, y est\u00e1 condenada a terminar degenerando en un <em>keynesianismo<\/em> medioambiental nacionalista. El peligro de la deriva al fascismo clim\u00e1tico va de la mano.<\/p><p>Adem\u00e1s, el marco del Estado-naci\u00f3n es insuficiente para afrontar la actual emergencia ambiental global. La gesti\u00f3n jer\u00e1rquica, o vertical, caracter\u00edstica de los estados del bienestar, es incompatible con la horizontalidad de lo com\u00fan.<\/p><p>Es decir, no se trata simplemente de colmar de riquezas la vida de la gente, sino de tantear nuevos caminos a trav\u00e9s de los que recuperar, de las garras de la mercantilizaci\u00f3n del capitalismo, la Tierra como lo com\u00fan sostenible.<\/p><p>Para ello, se requiere una perspectiva amplia e integradora. Precisamente por eso se necesita <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/business\/309174-libro-el-capital-en-la-era-del-antropoceno-9788466671668\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">una nueva interpretaci\u00f3n de Marx en esta era de crisis ambiental llamada Antropoceno<\/a><\/span>.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"vbwhhsq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/el-cambio-climatico-en-cuatro-preguntas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El cambio clim\u00e1tico en cuatro preguntas<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/yuval-noah-harari-futuro-daniel-kahneman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">El futuro seg\u00fan Yuval Noah Harari: las personas no ser\u00e1n necesarias<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/capitalismo-jeannette-von-wolfersdorff\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La neuroqu\u00edmica del capitalismo: narcisismo, dopamina y testosterona<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/walter-isaacson-el-codigo-de-la-vida\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Walter Isaacson: gen\u00e9tica, covid y el futuro de la humanidad<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/victoria-belim-mi-ucrania-urss-euromaidan-rusia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">De la URSS al Euromaid\u00e1n: Ucrania en el abismo generacional<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1t2dkrq\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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10 minutos
Berlín, año 2017. Grafiti del artista urbano Marycula en el que se aprecia a Karl Marx rebuscando en la basura. La camiseta del filósofo dice lo siguiente: «Os dije cómo cambiar el mundo». Crédito: Getty Images.

Berlín, año 2017. Grafiti del artista urbano Marycula en el que se aprecia a Karl Marx rebuscando en la basura. La camiseta del filósofo dice lo siguiente: «Os dije cómo cambiar el mundo». Crédito: Getty Images.

La rehabilitación de Marx

La emergencia climática del Antropoceno reclama una crítica del capitalismo y una propuesta de futuro poscapitalista. Pero ¿por qué Marx a estas alturas?

En general, el marxismo está fuertemente asociado a la imagen de la dictadura del partido único de los comunistas de la URSS o de China y a la nacionalización de todos los medios de producción. Por eso, al oír hablar de Marx, no pocos lectores sentirán que es algo trasnochado e incluso peligroso.

En efecto, el marxismo en Japón está en horas bajas como consecuencia del colapso de la URSS. En la actualidad, son muy pocos los que, aun siendo de izquierdas, defienden abiertamente a Marx y tratan de aprovechar su sabiduría.

Sin embargo, en los últimos años fuera de Japón, las ideas de Marx están volviendo a ser objeto de atención. A medida que las contradicciones del capitalismo se hacen más profundas, el sentido común que dictaba que el capitalismo es la única opción está empezando a ser cuestionado. Existen datos de sondeos de opinión que indican que entre los jóvenes de Estados Unidos, una mayoría siente predilección por el socialismo en detrimento del capitalismo.

A partir de aquí, trataré de aclarar cómo Marx analizaría la crisis ambiental del Antropoceno e iré sugiriendo algunas pistas para alcanzar soluciones diferentes al keynesianismo medioambiental.

Por supuesto, no voy a redundar en una interpretación apolillada de Marx. Propondré una nueva perspectiva del pensamiento de Marx en el Antropoceno, recurriendo también a documentos nuevos.

Una tercera vía llamada lo «común»

Uno de los conceptos clave para la reinterpretación de Marx en los últimos años es el concepto de lo «común», o del «bien común». Lo común hace referencia a los bienes que deben ser socialmente compartidos y administrados. Se trata de un concepto propuesto por dos marxistas en las postrimerías del siglo XX, Antonio Negri y Michael Hardt, en su obra Imperio, que alcanzó notoriedad.

Se puede afirmar que lo común es la llave que abre una tercera vía entre los dos polos opuestos del liberalismo norteamericano y el colectivismo soviético. Es decir, ni se trata de mercantilizarlo todo, como ocurre bajo el fundamentalismo de mercado, ni de nacionalizarlo todo, como sucede en el socialismo de corte soviético. Lo común, como tercera vía, consiste en tomar como bienes compartidos el agua, la electricidad, la vivienda, la sanidad o la educación y gestionarlos democráticamente entre la gente.

Se puede trazar un paralelismo con el concepto, más popular en Japón, de «capital común social», de Hirofumi Uzawa. El razonamiento de Uzawa fue el siguiente: para que la gente pueda vivir en una sociedad rica y prosperar, es necesario satisfacer una serie de requisitos: el medio ambiente natural, como el agua o el suelo; las infraestructuras sociales, como la electricidad o los medios de transporte; y los sistemas sociales, como la educación o la sanidad. Considerar todo ello como bienes compartidos, o comunes, de toda la sociedad, y administrarlos y operar con ellos socialmente sin recurrir a normas estatales o criterios de mercado. Esta es también, en esencia, la idea de lo común.

Pero a diferencia del capital social común, en lo común se concede más peso a la participación ciudadana en la cogestión democrática y horizontal, sin delegar su manejo en manos de expertos. Y se distingue definitivamente del capital social común en que su fin último es la superación del capitalismo a través de la ampliación progresiva de los límites de lo común.

Kohei Saito. Crédito: Kazuhiro Igarashi.

Kohei Saito. Crédito: Kazuhiro Igarashi.

Gestionar la Tierra como lo común

En realidad, el comunismo no era para Marx la dictadura de partido único o la nacionalización de la producción, como ocurrió en la URSS. Para él, el comunismo hacía referencia a una sociedad en la que los productores coadministran y cooperan los medios de producción bajo la consideración de estos como «bienes comunes».

Es más, describía como comunismo una sociedad en la que la gente gestionara no solo los medios de producción, sino la Tierra como parte de lo común.

De hecho, en un famoso pasaje en la última parte del primer volumen de El capital, conocido como la «negación de la negación» —donde ilustra la llegada del comunismo a través del «saqueo del saqueador»—, Marx afirma lo siguiente:

Es la negación de la negación. Esta restaura la propiedad individual, pero sobre el fundamento de la conquista alcanzada por la era capitalista: la cooperación de trabajadores libres y su propiedad colectiva sobre la tierra y sobre los medios de producción producidos por el trabajo mismo [poseerlos como lo común].

Voy a explicar brevemente qué significa «negación de la negación». La primera «negación» hace referencia al trabajo de los productores a las órdenes del capitalista, desgajado de los medios de producción considerados lo común; pero en la segunda «negación» («negación de la negación») los trabajadores desmontan el monopolio del capitalista ¡y recuperan la Tierra y los medios de producción como lo común!

Sin duda, este es aún un esquema muy abstracto. Sin embargo, la propuesta de Marx es clara: derrocar al capitalismo que arruina la Tierra en su búsqueda infinita de la multiplicación del valor de cambio con comunismo; después, cogestionar la Tierra entre todos como lo común.

El comunismo reconstruye lo común

Este posicionamiento, que concede gran importancia a la propuesta básica de Marx acerca de lo común, ha sido ampliamente compartido, más allá de Negri y Hardt. Por ejemplo, Žižek también afirma la necesidad del comunismo haciendo referencia a la idea de lo común.

Según Žižek, bajo el capitalismo global se está produciendo un acoso a los cuatro bienes comunes o commons —cultura, naturaleza exterior, naturaleza interior y seres humanos— de un modo hostil a las personas. En esta coyuntura, «la legitimación de la resurrección del concepto "comunismo" [...] se debería basar en los commons», dice Žižek.

Para Žižek, el comunismo no es sino el intento de reconstrucción consciente de lo común —el conocimiento, la naturaleza, los derechos humanos, la sociedad, etc.— desguazado por el capitalismo.

Aunque no es algo muy conocido, Marx se refería como «asociación» a las sociedades en las que se hubiera reestablecido lo común. En sus esbozos de la sociedad futura, Marx apenas utilizó términos como «comunismo» o «socialismo». En cambio, empleaba la expresión «asociación». Es la ayuda mutua voluntaria (asociación) de los trabajadores la que hará realidad lo común.

Las asociaciones son el origen de la seguridad social

Lo común, en este sentido, no es una exigencia nueva que haya surgido en el siglo XXI. Los servicios que comprende la seguridad social, a cargo de los Estados en la actualidad, tienen su origen en lo común que la gente fue conformando a través de la asociación.

Es decir, el origen de los beneficios de la seguridad social se remonta a los diversos intentos de autogestión de todo aquello necesario para la vida cotidiana, sin delegarlo al mercado. Por lo tanto, la seguridad social no es sino la sistematización de aquellos intentos bajo el estado del bienestar del siglo XX.

Sobre este punto, David Graeber, antropólogo cultural de la London School of Economics, afirma lo siguiente:

En Europa, prácticamente todos los sistemas principales que constituyen los estados del bienestar posteriores —seguridad social, pensión, bibliotecas públicas, sanidad pública, etc.— tienen su origen no en otros Gobiernos estatales, sino en sindicatos, asociaciones de vecinos, cooperativas, partidos de clase obrera y en todo tipo de organizaciones, muchas de ellas participantes en proyectos conscientes y revolucionarios para la «construcción de una sociedad nueva dentro de una piel vieja»; es decir, implicadas en proyectos de conformación gradual, y desde abajo, de sistemas de tipo socialista.

De acuerdo con Graeber, el estado del bienestar fue una de las formas de sistematización, bajo el capitalismo, de lo común, producto de la asociación. Sin embargo, a partir de la década de 1980, las políticas de austeridad propiciadas por el neoliberalismo desintegraron o debilitaron seriamente las asociaciones, como los sindicatos o la sanidad pública, y lo común fue engullido por el mercado.

En esta situación, tratar simplemente de restaurar el estado del bienestar sería una medida insuficiente contra el neoliberalismo. La vía del estado del bienestar, cuyas premisas son unos elevados niveles de crecimiento económico o el mantenimiento de las diferencias Norte-Sur, es ya ineficaz en esta era de crisis ecológica, y está condenada a terminar degenerando en un keynesianismo medioambiental nacionalista. El peligro de la deriva al fascismo climático va de la mano.

Además, el marco del Estado-nación es insuficiente para afrontar la actual emergencia ambiental global. La gestión jerárquica, o vertical, característica de los estados del bienestar, es incompatible con la horizontalidad de lo común.

Es decir, no se trata simplemente de colmar de riquezas la vida de la gente, sino de tantear nuevos caminos a través de los que recuperar, de las garras de la mercantilización del capitalismo, la Tierra como lo común sostenible.

Para ello, se requiere una perspectiva amplia e integradora. Precisamente por eso se necesita una nueva interpretación de Marx en esta era de crisis ambiental llamada Antropoceno.

Economía, política y sociedad

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