Despedidas

Para entender a Gorbachov

Con su muerte, a los 91 años, en medio de una guerra que empantana a Rusia en Ucrania y la enfrenta a Occidente, la figura de Gorbachov vuelve a ser visible y quizá sea una oportunidad para revisar el lugar que ha tenido en la Historia, desde sus inicios como alumno de la educación soviética, ascendiendo durante 30 años en el Partido hasta convertirse en el gran reformista que fundó la democracia y guio de manera excepcional el desmantelamiento de un imperio sin derramamiento de sangre. En las páginas de su biografía «Gorbachov. Vida y época» (Debate, 2018), William Taubman ofrece una lucidísima mirada sobre esta figura que hoy parece idealista a los ojos de los «realistas occidentales» pero cuyos principios podrían habernos regalado un presente mucho mejor.

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Vida y \u00e9poca\u00bb (Debate, 2018), William Taubman ofrece una lucid\u00edsima mirada sobre esta figura que hoy parece idealista a los ojos de los \u00abrealistas occidentales\u00bb pero cuyos principios podr\u00edan habernos regalado un presente mucho 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">7 de noviembre de 1984. Gorbachov celebra el aniversario de la Revoluci\u00f3n de Octubre en Mosc\u00fa. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/11748-libro-gorbachov-9788499928036\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Gorbachov fue un visionario que cambi\u00f3 su pa\u00eds y al mundo<\/a><\/span>, aunque no tanto como \u00e9l hubiera deseado. Pocos l\u00edderes pol\u00edticos, si alguno, tienen no solo una visi\u00f3n de las cosas, sino, adem\u00e1s, la voluntad y habilidad para convertirla en realidad. Quedarse corto en eso, como le ocurri\u00f3 a Gorbachov, no equivale a un fracaso.\u00a0<\/p><p>Tuvo \u00e9xito en eliminar <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/muro-berlin-1989-gorbachov-taubman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la herencia del totalitarismo en la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica<\/a><\/span>, y le ofreci\u00f3 libertad de expresi\u00f3n, de reuni\u00f3n y de pensamiento a un pueblo que jam\u00e1s la hab\u00eda conocido, excepto quiz\u00e1 durante unos pocos meses ca\u00f3ticos en 1917. Al introducir las elecciones libres y crear instituciones parlamentarias, sent\u00f3 las bases para la democracia. Es m\u00e1s un defecto de la materia prima con que hubo de trabajar que de sus propias limitaciones y yerros, que la democracia rusa vaya a requerir a\u00fan de mucho m\u00e1s tiempo para consolidarse que el previsto por \u00e9l. Despu\u00e9s de todo, la Revoluci\u00f3n norteamericana tuvo \u00e9xito al precio de conservar la esclavitud, la cual necesit\u00f3 de una sangrienta guerra civil para ser finalmente abolida.<\/p><p>En los temas de pol\u00edtica exterior, al igual que en los internos, tuvo grandes logros que son claro m\u00e9rito suyo. Redujo el peligro de un holocausto nuclear. Permiti\u00f3 que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/igort-cuadernos-ucranianos-y-rusos-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">los pa\u00edses de Europa del Este<\/a><\/span> se hicieran due\u00f1os de su destino. Desmantel\u00f3 un imperio (o accedi\u00f3 a su desmembramiento) sin la org\u00eda de sangre y violencia que ha acompa\u00f1ado a la desintegraci\u00f3n de tantos otros, incluidos el Imperio brit\u00e1nico, en la India, Kenia, Malasia y otros sitios.<\/p><p>Gorbachov fue un genio de la pol\u00edtica cuando se trat\u00f3 de consolidar su poder y transformar el sistema de la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica y concluir la Guerra Fr\u00eda. Pero las mismas fuerzas que \u00e9l contribuy\u00f3 a activar y liberarse tanto en la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica como en el extranjero terminaron al final 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convirti\u00f3 en \u00abGorbachov\u00bb con la ayuda de sus propios dones naturales: un optimismo y autoconfianza innatos, su intelecto tan sustancial, una fiera determinaci\u00f3n de ponerse a prueba y su habilidad de maniobrar para conseguir lo que anhelaba, encantando al pueblo en el proceso. Pero su propio ambiente fue tambi\u00e9n lo que lo model\u00f3, una parte de lo cual era un sello generacional. Muchos de quienes conformaban su cohorte democr\u00e1tica, muchachos campesinos crecidos en la era de urbanizaci\u00f3n vertiginosa y educaci\u00f3n en masa de la segunda posguerra mundial, ten\u00edan no solo una cosmovisi\u00f3n optimista sino, como el historiador Vladislav Z\u00fabok lo ha descrito, \u00abuna fe ingenua\u00bb en el \u00abdiscurso instruido y la ideolog\u00eda, en comparaci\u00f3n con los sectores urbanos m\u00e1s sofisticados, c\u00ednicos y afectos al doble discurso\u00bb.<\/p><p>A\u00fan m\u00e1s relevantes fueron las influencias personales de Gorbachov: sus padres (especialmente su padre) y abuelos (sobre todo su abuelo materno), que lo amaban y alentaron en lugar de intentar subyugarlo; los colegios rurales a los que asisti\u00f3, donde destacaron sus talentos singulares; la Universidad Estatal de Mosc\u00fa, que ampli\u00f3 no solo sus horizontes intelectuales, sino tambi\u00e9n los sociales y pol\u00edticos. Todo esto contribuy\u00f3 a reforzar su extraordinaria autoestima y la confianza en s\u00ed mismo, sin las cuales no hubiera osado intentar cambiar el mundo.<\/p><p>Gorbachov lleg\u00f3 a la cima dando la impresi\u00f3n de ser el subproducto ideal del sistema sovi\u00e9tico. Figuras poderosas como Andr\u00f3pov, Kulakov, S\u00faslov, Kosiguin y hasta Br\u00e9zhnev (en la medida en la que estuvo en su sano juicio), conscientes del cinismo y la corrupci\u00f3n ampliamente extendidos a su alrededor, quedaron emocionados de descubrir a un l\u00edder idealista y joven del partido, en\u00e9rgico e instruido, que a\u00fan cre\u00eda con total sinceridad en el comunismo. Lo que Gorbachov encubr\u00eda era que el comunismo en que \u00e9l cre\u00eda no era el cad\u00e1ver del estalinismo sobre el cual ellos reg\u00edan. \u00c9l quer\u00eda hacer lo que su amigo Zdenek Mlyn\u00e1r, de la Universidad de Mosc\u00fa, hab\u00eda buscado hacer en la Primavera de Praga: dar al comunismo un rostro 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/anne-applebaum-rusia-ucrania-miguel-aguilar\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00bfC\u00f3mo fue que las ideas de Gorbachov sobrevivieron en las casi tres d\u00e9cadas que pas\u00f3 escalando pelda\u00f1os dentro del partido?<\/a><\/span>\u00a0Lo que surg\u00eda de ese periodo de prueba era la mezcla excepcional de rasgos descritos por el editor y cr\u00edtico Y\u00e9gor Vinogr\u00e1dov: \u00abla disposici\u00f3n, pese a largos a\u00f1os de estar desempe\u00f1ando un papel en la pol\u00edtica, de comportarse con sinceridad y hasta cr\u00e9dulamente\u00bb; la dificultad que exhib\u00eda de \u00abmentir alevosamente y hacer a un lado a los [que parec\u00edan] leales a \u00e9l\u00bb; \u00abla fe intensa en el poder de persuasi\u00f3n, que lo hac\u00eda siempre tan locuaz\u00bb. Todas esas cualidades eran fortalezas suyas, pero a la vez debilidades, especialmente a los ojos de los rusos, para quienes una \u00abmano de hierro\u00bb es siempre el sello del liderazgo fuerte.<\/p><p>Gorbachov les dijo a menudo a Alex\u00e1nder Yakovlev y Anatoli Cherni\u00e1iev que estaba dispuesto a \u00abir muy lejos\u00bb, y al final dej\u00f3 atr\u00e1s tambi\u00e9n al comunismo. Pero, dada su incertidumbre inicial, su prometido compromiso con el gradualismo y su miedo a alarmar a sus colegas del Politbur\u00f3, se aboc\u00f3 primeramente a tibias reformas econ\u00f3micas, m\u00e1s una dosis fuerte de gl\u00e1snost. Solo cuando las reformas se estancaron y la gl\u00e1snost comenz\u00f3 a generar oposici\u00f3n conservadora, se resolvi\u00f3 con determinaci\u00f3n a emprender la plena democratizaci\u00f3n. Al hacerlo, logr\u00f3 modificar de hecho las se\u00f1ales que enviaban sus partidarios iniciales dentro del Kremlin, a quienes manej\u00f3 entonces con algo m\u00e1s que una peque\u00f1a ayudita de la disciplina de partido comunista, hasta llevarlos a una tolerancia renuente a su programa m\u00e1s radical. Intent\u00f3 asimismo conducir a los liberales, hasta que su radicalismo lo sobrepas\u00f3 y ellos lo abandonaron.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"w7svr6o\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Fue sin duda un t\u00e1ctico brillante. Lograr que el Partido Comunista votara en contra de su monopolio del poder fue una proeza conseguida sin el recurso a la fuerza. Su formaci\u00f3n y experiencia en el aparato del partido lo prepararon para lograr esa haza\u00f1a, pero Bor\u00eds Yeltsin, al que Gorbachov consideraba un esp\u00edritu inferior, una bala perdida, result\u00f3 mejor que \u00e9l en el nuevo juego pol\u00edtico de signo populista.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kf2chou\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En 1985, cuando se convirti\u00f3 en l\u00edder de un Estado postotalitario, Gorbachov disfrutaba de un tipo de poder con que los l\u00edderes occidentales solo pueden so\u00f1ar. Pero, con ese poder, vino la responsabilidad asociada a un abanico de problemas internos e internacionales mucho m\u00e1s vasto que el que afrontaban los occidentales. Jeremi Suri, el historiador de la presidencia norteamericana, ha escrito: \u00abHabida cuenta de la amplitud de sus responsabilidades y la din\u00e1mica cada vez m\u00e1s vertiginosa en los procesos internacionales, un presidente contempor\u00e1neo opera en una perpetua crisis, corriendo todo el tiempo para estar a la altura de los acontecimientos\u00bb, de resultas de lo cual \u00abese presidente no tiene simplemente el poder, en casa o el extranjero, de cumplir con las expectativas ajenas\u00bb. Con todo, a las infinitas responsabilidades que ven\u00edan con su cargo, Gorbachov a\u00f1adi\u00f3 el desaf\u00edo de transformar el sistema sovi\u00e9tico y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/capitalismo-jeannette-von-wolfersdorff\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">reformular la pol\u00edtica mundial<\/a><\/span>. No es de extra\u00f1ar que no pudiera, al final, cumplir sus propias expectativas.<\/p><p>Hasta el final, sigui\u00f3 reiterando su fe en el socialismo, insistiendo en que este no ser\u00eda digno de tal nombre mientras no fuera aut\u00e9nticamente democr\u00e1tico. Pero la consecuencia de intentar democratizar el experimento sovi\u00e9tico de socialismo fue la de desintegrarlo. En este sentido, contribuy\u00f3 a enterrar el sistema sovi\u00e9tico intentando que \u00e9l fuera digno de alabanzas, buscando que estuviera finalmente a la altura de sus ideales 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">\u00a0 1 de noviembre de 1985. Gorbachov en la cumbre de Ginebra de 1985, evento durante el cual pact\u00f3 con Reagan poner fin a la Guerra Fr\u00eda. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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sent\u00eda cierto desd\u00e9n por los planes o proyectos detallados, porque los asociaba al esquema implacable que los bolcheviques hab\u00edan impuesto al pueblo ruso. Pero su formaci\u00f3n comunista lo habitu\u00f3 a la idea de que era posible transformar de manera dr\u00e1stica la sociedad casi de la noche a la ma\u00f1ana. Siendo enemigo jurado del estilo de ingenier\u00eda social bolchevique, intent\u00f3 hacer su propia ingenier\u00eda de una revoluci\u00f3n antibolchevique por medios pac\u00edficos y graduales. Confiaba en que el pueblo abrazar\u00eda el autogobierno y en que sus representantes elegidos moldear\u00edan las nuevas instituciones democr\u00e1ticas, hasta que result\u00f3 que el pueblo no sab\u00eda c\u00f3mo hacerlo y ya no confiaba en \u00e9l.<\/p><p>Fue sin duda un t\u00e1ctico brillante. Estaba convencido desde el principio de que el principal riesgo al que se enfrentaba era el tipo de rebeli\u00f3n de los sectores duros que termin\u00f3 desalojando a Jrushchov en 1964. As\u00ed que se apart\u00f3, no pocas veces, de su l\u00ednea para mantener bajo control a los duros del Kremlin, un poco demasiado, dec\u00edan sus cr\u00edticos liberales. El hecho de lograr que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/revolucion-cuba-patricio-fernandez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el Partido Comunista<\/a><\/span> votara en contra de su monopolio del poder fue una proeza conseguida sin el recurso a la fuerza. Su formaci\u00f3n y experiencia en el aparato del partido lo prepararon para lograr esa haza\u00f1a, pero Bor\u00eds Yeltsin, al que Gorbachov consideraba un esp\u00edritu inferior, una bala perdida, result\u00f3 mejor que \u00e9l en el nuevo juego pol\u00edtico de signo populista. En una iron\u00eda adicional, el \u00e9xito electoral de Yeltsin se deb\u00eda en gran medida no solo a su talante populista (del que Gorbachov se burlaba), sino a que evocaba en los electores rusos a un zar hosco, r\u00edgido y autoritario, en agudo contraste con el Gorbachov bastante m\u00e1s templado que buscaba persuadir y lograr consensos.<\/p><p>Los pol\u00edticos inflexibles e insensibles presumen, a menudo, de que la moral y la pol\u00edtica no coinciden. Pero la decencia innata de Gorbachov inspiraba de manera consistente su liderazgo pol\u00edtico. \u00bfLo convierte eso en un idealista ut\u00f3pico? S\u00ed y no. Renunci\u00f3 al imperio moscovita en Europa del Este y permiti\u00f3 una Alemania reunificada en el seno de la OTAN, todas heridas autoinfligidas al inter\u00e9s nacional de Rusia, seg\u00fan sus cr\u00edticos rusos, pero \u00e9l entend\u00eda de manera distinta el inter\u00e9s nacional: conceb\u00eda una \u00abcasa com\u00fan europea\u00bb para liberar a los pueblos de Europa, y un nuevo orden mundial basado, tanto como fuera posible, en la renuncia al uso de la fuerza. Considerado en retrospectiva, esto les parece imposible a los \u00abrealistas\u00bb\u00a0 occidentales tanto como a sus detractores de Rusia, pero es posible que el mundo anduviera bastante mejor de haberse plegado a su gu\u00eda.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/las-rosas-de-orwell-rebecca-solnit-stalin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Vlad\u00edmir Putin<\/a><\/span> ha responsabilizado a Occidente de expandir la OTAN hasta las fronteras de Rusia y se ha valido de eso para<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">justificar agresiones en Georgia y Ucrania<\/a><\/span>. \u00bfQu\u00e9 hubiera pasado si, en lugar de rechazar la visi\u00f3n de Gorbachov, Occidente se le hubiera unido en la creaci\u00f3n de una nueva estructura de seguridad paneuropea? Es posible, ciertamente, que Putin o alg\u00fan otro l\u00edder ruso hubieran encontrado razones adicionales para sentirse agraviados y justificar la agresi\u00f3n como respuesta, sin importar lo que hiciera Occidente. Pero bien puede ser que lo que les pareci\u00f3 \u2014y a\u00fan les parece\u2014 ut\u00f3pico a los \u00abrealistas\u00bb fuese una \u00faltima oportunidad ya perdida.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"8zvaqdx\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Renunci\u00f3 al imperio moscovita en Europa del Este y permiti\u00f3 una Alemania reunificada en el seno de la OTAN. Conceb\u00eda una \u00abcasa com\u00fan europea\u00bb para liberar a los pueblos de Europa, y un nuevo orden mundial basado, tanto como fuera posible, en la renuncia al uso de la fuerza. Considerado en retrospectiva, esto les parece imposible a los \u00abrealistas\u00bb occidentales tanto como a sus detractores de Rusia, pero es posible que el mundo anduviera bastante mejor de haberse plegado a su gu\u00eda.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"a0i18aq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En lo que hace a atenuar dr\u00e1sticamente el empleo de la fuerza en las relaciones internacionales, \u00bfsuena tambi\u00e9n tan imposible? La guerra emprendida por\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/lawrence-wright-la-torre-elevada\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">George W. Bush en Irak<\/a><\/span> es hoy vista por muchos como innecesaria e infinitamente sangrienta en sus consecuencias. Como contrapartida, la guerra del Golfo, librada por su progenitor para desalojar a Sadam Huse\u00edn de Kuwait, que Gorbachov se esforz\u00f3 en evitar, ha sido elogiada como necesaria, r\u00e1pida y limitada, aun cuando con seguridad no fue experimentada de ese modo por los miles de soldados y civiles iraqu\u00edes incinerados por el poder\u00edo militar norteamericano. Y Gorbachov tampoco estaba tan solo en su postura de mejor \u00fanicamente amenazar a Irak para que saliera de Kuwait. Muchos l\u00edderes estadounidenses muy inflexibles eran tambi\u00e9n partidarios de ello.<\/p><p>El car\u00e1cter de Gorbachov sirve para explicar a la vez sus \u00e9xitos y fracasos. Su excesiva confianza en s\u00ed mismo y en su causa le dio el coraje necesario para llegar tan alto que fue al fin demasiado para \u00e9l, y despu\u00e9s nubl\u00f3 su juicio, cuando lo que estaba queriendo edificar comenz\u00f3 a derrumbarse. Cuando los frutos chocaron con su idealizada autoimagen de gran estadista, reaccion\u00f3 a menudo negando la realidad o haci\u00e9ndola a un lado con racionalizaciones varias, ya fueran su fracaso en lograr que Europa del Este adoptara una versi\u00f3n propia de la perestroika \u00abgorbachovista\u00bb, el inicio por\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/muro-berlin-1989-gorbachov-taubman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la Alemania unificada<\/a><\/span> del proceso de expansi\u00f3n de la OTAN o el desplome de su autoridad a escala interna. Dados sus logros hist\u00f3ricos, podr\u00eda muy bien haber descansado en sus laureles, aun cuando ellos no hubiesen recibido en Rusia el reconocimiento que merec\u00edan. En lugar de ello, estaba tan decidido a consolidar su causa y su prestigio incluso despu\u00e9s de su ca\u00edda del poder que insisti\u00f3 en emprender una campa\u00f1a desesperanzada a la presidencia en 1996. Incluso cuando su amada esposa era apenas capaz de llevarle el tranco, \u00e9l sigui\u00f3 ignorando sus ruegos de que abandonara la pol\u00edtica y se retiraran a una caba\u00f1ita de los dos, fuera o no junto al mar.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"y6ylu95\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">\u00a01 de diciembre de 1991. Gorbachov posa delante del primer McDonald's inaugurado en la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica, concretamente en Mosc\u00fa. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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ser que la empresa de Gorbachov estuviese condenada desde un principio, pero \u00bfqu\u00e9 alternativas hab\u00eda? Si la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica se hubiera empe\u00f1ado en salir del paso sin los cambios requeridos habr\u00eda quiz\u00e1 sobrevivido otros diez o veinte a\u00f1os, pero entonces \u00bfqu\u00e9? \u00bfHubiera en ese caso\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/igort-cuadernos-ucranianos-y-rusos-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">una guerra fratricida entre Rusia y Ucrania<\/a><\/span> (al estilo del conflicto en Yugoslavia, desempe\u00f1ando cada una los papeles sangrientos de Serbia y Croacia, respectivamente) hecho palidecer el conflicto posterior, de alcances muy limitados, entre Mosc\u00fa y Kiev? \u00bfHubieran los comunistas y anticomunistas batido marcas en un ba\u00f1o generalizado de sangre? \u00bfHubiesen sido los amos del Kremlin asesinados como el \u00faltimo zar y su familia, o como el l\u00edder comunista de Ruman\u00eda Nicolae Ceaucescu y su esposa? En teor\u00eda, hab\u00eda otra alternativa: reformas econ\u00f3micas m\u00e1s aceleradas sin democratizaci\u00f3n pol\u00edtica, con una privatizaci\u00f3n gradual por el Kremlin de la propiedad y el soborno de hecho a los <em>apparatchiki<\/em> comunistas alent\u00e1ndolos a que se convirtieran en oligarcas. Suena parecido a lo de China. Pero, como Gorbachov lo entendi\u00f3 correctamente, la Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica no era China, rusos y chinos difieren radicalmente en su respectiva historia pol\u00edtica y sus tradiciones sociales.<\/p><p>Otro l\u00edder sovi\u00e9tico podr\u00eda haberse negado a hacer las concesiones que Gorbachov hizo a Reagan y Bush, pero si ello hubiese ocurrido, la Guerra Fr\u00eda hubiera continuado y con seguridad empeorado,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/anne-applebaum-el-ocaso-de-la-democracia\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">no el tipo de \u00abGuerra Fr\u00eda\u00bb que volvi\u00f3 a emerger veintitr\u00e9s a\u00f1os<\/a><\/span> despu\u00e9s de que Gorbachov dejara el cargo, por perversa que ella haya sido, sino la cosa real, con arsenales nucleares masivos a\u00fan dispuestos a dispararse a la menor se\u00f1al de alerta. Otro l\u00edder sovi\u00e9tico podr\u00eda haber presionado a los l\u00edderes recalcitrantes de Europa oriental a dejar el cargo, o alentado a los reformadores de la zona a hacerse con el poder. Pero \u00bfhubiese cualquiera de esas estrategias evitado el colapso eventual del comunismo? Probablemente no, dados los sentimientos anticomunistas y antirrusos incubados durante tantos a\u00f1os en los pa\u00edses de Europa del Este y en la generaci\u00f3n posterior a la Primavera de Praga, ya no \u00e1vida tan solo de un \u00absocialismo con rostro humano\u00bb, sino de la plena occidentalizaci\u00f3n. \u00bfQu\u00e9 habr\u00eda pasado si Gorbachov hubiese utilizado la fuerza para conservar el imperio sovi\u00e9tico? Eso bien podr\u00eda haber provocado otra guerra total en Europa.<\/p><p>La Uni\u00f3n Sovi\u00e9tica se desintegr\u00f3 cuando Gorbachov debilit\u00f3 al Estado en un intento de fortalecer al individuo. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/las-rosas-de-orwell-rebecca-solnit-stalin\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Putin fortaleci\u00f3 al Estado ruso por la v\u00eda de recortar las libertades individuales<\/a><\/span>. La floreciente clase media rusa, estimada en un 20 por ciento de la poblaci\u00f3n, debe agradecerle a Gorbachov por haberle abierto la puerta conducente a una vida mejor, aun cuando sus miembros han sido lentos en reconocerlo como su benefactor. Demasiados rusos compensaron la sensaci\u00f3n de menoscabo que trajo consigo la p\u00e9rdida del imperio con el consumo suntuario y la glorificaci\u00f3n del Estado. \u00bfSentir\u00e1n lo mismo ellos o sus hijos, y sus nietos, respecto a Gorbachov al cabo de cincuenta a\u00f1os a partir de ahora? \u00bfO llegar\u00e1n finalmente a apreciarlo? A pesar de sus errores y su fracaso en lograr todos sus nobles prop\u00f3sitos, fue, en efecto, a fin de cuentas, un h\u00e9roe dentro de una tragedia, y solo por eso merece nuestra comprensi\u00f3n y admiraci\u00f3n.<br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><br \/><br \/><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\/sofi-oksanen-putin-stalin-rusia-finlandia-el-parque-de-los-perros\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">De Stalin a Putin: Finlandia y la sonrisa del tirano<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/muro-berlin-1989-gorbachov-taubman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cuando las puertas se abrieron: a 32 a\u00f1os de la ca\u00edda del muro de Berl\u00edn<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/chernobil-svetlana-alexievich-carmen-de-la-cueva\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La casa muerta: regreso a Chern\u00f3bil<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"iu60re5\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos

7 de noviembre de 1984. Gorbachov celebra el aniversario de la Revolución de Octubre en Moscú. Crédito: Getty Images.

Gorbachov fue un visionario que cambió su país y al mundo, aunque no tanto como él hubiera deseado. Pocos líderes políticos, si alguno, tienen no solo una visión de las cosas, sino, además, la voluntad y habilidad para convertirla en realidad. Quedarse corto en eso, como le ocurrió a Gorbachov, no equivale a un fracaso. 

Tuvo éxito en eliminar la herencia del totalitarismo en la Unión Soviética, y le ofreció libertad de expresión, de reunión y de pensamiento a un pueblo que jamás la había conocido, excepto quizá durante unos pocos meses caóticos en 1917. Al introducir las elecciones libres y crear instituciones parlamentarias, sentó las bases para la democracia. Es más un defecto de la materia prima con que hubo de trabajar que de sus propias limitaciones y yerros, que la democracia rusa vaya a requerir aún de mucho más tiempo para consolidarse que el previsto por él. Después de todo, la Revolución norteamericana tuvo éxito al precio de conservar la esclavitud, la cual necesitó de una sangrienta guerra civil para ser finalmente abolida.

En los temas de política exterior, al igual que en los internos, tuvo grandes logros que son claro mérito suyo. Redujo el peligro de un holocausto nuclear. Permitió que los países de Europa del Este se hicieran dueños de su destino. Desmanteló un imperio (o accedió a su desmembramiento) sin la orgía de sangre y violencia que ha acompañado a la desintegración de tantos otros, incluidos el Imperio británico, en la India, Kenia, Malasia y otros sitios.

Gorbachov fue un genio de la política cuando se trató de consolidar su poder y transformar el sistema de la Unión Soviética y concluir la Guerra Fría. Pero las mismas fuerzas que él contribuyó a activar y liberarse tanto en la Unión Soviética como en el extranjero terminaron al final sobrepasándolo.

Se convirtió en «Gorbachov» con la ayuda de sus propios dones naturales: un optimismo y autoconfianza innatos, su intelecto tan sustancial, una fiera determinación de ponerse a prueba y su habilidad de maniobrar para conseguir lo que anhelaba, encantando al pueblo en el proceso. Pero su propio ambiente fue también lo que lo modeló, una parte de lo cual era un sello generacional. Muchos de quienes conformaban su cohorte democrática, muchachos campesinos crecidos en la era de urbanización vertiginosa y educación en masa de la segunda posguerra mundial, tenían no solo una cosmovisión optimista sino, como el historiador Vladislav Zúbok lo ha descrito, «una fe ingenua» en el «discurso instruido y la ideología, en comparación con los sectores urbanos más sofisticados, cínicos y afectos al doble discurso».

Aún más relevantes fueron las influencias personales de Gorbachov: sus padres (especialmente su padre) y abuelos (sobre todo su abuelo materno), que lo amaban y alentaron en lugar de intentar subyugarlo; los colegios rurales a los que asistió, donde destacaron sus talentos singulares; la Universidad Estatal de Moscú, que amplió no solo sus horizontes intelectuales, sino también los sociales y políticos. Todo esto contribuyó a reforzar su extraordinaria autoestima y la confianza en sí mismo, sin las cuales no hubiera osado intentar cambiar el mundo.

Gorbachov llegó a la cima dando la impresión de ser el subproducto ideal del sistema soviético. Figuras poderosas como Andrópov, Kulakov, Súslov, Kosiguin y hasta Brézhnev (en la medida en la que estuvo en su sano juicio), conscientes del cinismo y la corrupción ampliamente extendidos a su alrededor, quedaron emocionados de descubrir a un líder idealista y joven del partido, enérgico e instruido, que aún creía con total sinceridad en el comunismo. Lo que Gorbachov encubría era que el comunismo en que él creía no era el cadáver del estalinismo sobre el cual ellos regían. Él quería hacer lo que su amigo Zdenek Mlynár, de la Universidad de Moscú, había buscado hacer en la Primavera de Praga: dar al comunismo un rostro humano.

¿Cómo fue que las ideas de Gorbachov sobrevivieron en las casi tres décadas que pasó escalando peldaños dentro del partido? Lo que surgía de ese periodo de prueba era la mezcla excepcional de rasgos descritos por el editor y crítico Yégor Vinográdov: «la disposición, pese a largos años de estar desempeñando un papel en la política, de comportarse con sinceridad y hasta crédulamente»; la dificultad que exhibía de «mentir alevosamente y hacer a un lado a los [que parecían] leales a él»; «la fe intensa en el poder de persuasión, que lo hacía siempre tan locuaz». Todas esas cualidades eran fortalezas suyas, pero a la vez debilidades, especialmente a los ojos de los rusos, para quienes una «mano de hierro» es siempre el sello del liderazgo fuerte.

Gorbachov les dijo a menudo a Alexánder Yakovlev y Anatoli Cherniáiev que estaba dispuesto a «ir muy lejos», y al final dejó atrás también al comunismo. Pero, dada su incertidumbre inicial, su prometido compromiso con el gradualismo y su miedo a alarmar a sus colegas del Politburó, se abocó primeramente a tibias reformas económicas, más una dosis fuerte de glásnost. Solo cuando las reformas se estancaron y la glásnost comenzó a generar oposición conservadora, se resolvió con determinación a emprender la plena democratización. Al hacerlo, logró modificar de hecho las señales que enviaban sus partidarios iniciales dentro del Kremlin, a quienes manejó entonces con algo más que una pequeña ayudita de la disciplina de partido comunista, hasta llevarlos a una tolerancia renuente a su programa más radical. Intentó asimismo conducir a los liberales, hasta que su radicalismo lo sobrepasó y ellos lo abandonaron.

Fue sin duda un táctico brillante. Lograr que el Partido Comunista votara en contra de su monopolio del poder fue una proeza conseguida sin el recurso a la fuerza. Su formación y experiencia en el aparato del partido lo prepararon para lograr esa hazaña, pero Borís Yeltsin, al que Gorbachov consideraba un espíritu inferior, una bala perdida, resultó mejor que él en el nuevo juego político de signo populista.

En 1985, cuando se convirtió en líder de un Estado postotalitario, Gorbachov disfrutaba de un tipo de poder con que los líderes occidentales solo pueden soñar. Pero, con ese poder, vino la responsabilidad asociada a un abanico de problemas internos e internacionales mucho más vasto que el que afrontaban los occidentales. Jeremi Suri, el historiador de la presidencia norteamericana, ha escrito: «Habida cuenta de la amplitud de sus responsabilidades y la dinámica cada vez más vertiginosa en los procesos internacionales, un presidente contemporáneo opera en una perpetua crisis, corriendo todo el tiempo para estar a la altura de los acontecimientos», de resultas de lo cual «ese presidente no tiene simplemente el poder, en casa o el extranjero, de cumplir con las expectativas ajenas». Con todo, a las infinitas responsabilidades que venían con su cargo, Gorbachov añadió el desafío de transformar el sistema soviético y reformular la política mundial. No es de extrañar que no pudiera, al final, cumplir sus propias expectativas.

Hasta el final, siguió reiterando su fe en el socialismo, insistiendo en que este no sería digno de tal nombre mientras no fuera auténticamente democrático. Pero la consecuencia de intentar democratizar el experimento soviético de socialismo fue la de desintegrarlo. En este sentido, contribuyó a enterrar el sistema soviético intentando que él fuera digno de alabanzas, buscando que estuviera finalmente a la altura de sus ideales originarios.

  1 de noviembre de 1985. Gorbachov en la cumbre de Ginebra de 1985, evento durante el cual pactó con Reagan poner fin a la Guerra Fría. Crédito: Getty Images.

Gorbachov sentía cierto desdén por los planes o proyectos detallados, porque los asociaba al esquema implacable que los bolcheviques habían impuesto al pueblo ruso. Pero su formación comunista lo habituó a la idea de que era posible transformar de manera drástica la sociedad casi de la noche a la mañana. Siendo enemigo jurado del estilo de ingeniería social bolchevique, intentó hacer su propia ingeniería de una revolución antibolchevique por medios pacíficos y graduales. Confiaba en que el pueblo abrazaría el autogobierno y en que sus representantes elegidos moldearían las nuevas instituciones democráticas, hasta que resultó que el pueblo no sabía cómo hacerlo y ya no confiaba en él.

Fue sin duda un táctico brillante. Estaba convencido desde el principio de que el principal riesgo al que se enfrentaba era el tipo de rebelión de los sectores duros que terminó desalojando a Jrushchov en 1964. Así que se apartó, no pocas veces, de su línea para mantener bajo control a los duros del Kremlin, un poco demasiado, decían sus críticos liberales. El hecho de lograr que el Partido Comunista votara en contra de su monopolio del poder fue una proeza conseguida sin el recurso a la fuerza. Su formación y experiencia en el aparato del partido lo prepararon para lograr esa hazaña, pero Borís Yeltsin, al que Gorbachov consideraba un espíritu inferior, una bala perdida, resultó mejor que él en el nuevo juego político de signo populista. En una ironía adicional, el éxito electoral de Yeltsin se debía en gran medida no solo a su talante populista (del que Gorbachov se burlaba), sino a que evocaba en los electores rusos a un zar hosco, rígido y autoritario, en agudo contraste con el Gorbachov bastante más templado que buscaba persuadir y lograr consensos.

Los políticos inflexibles e insensibles presumen, a menudo, de que la moral y la política no coinciden. Pero la decencia innata de Gorbachov inspiraba de manera consistente su liderazgo político. ¿Lo convierte eso en un idealista utópico? Sí y no. Renunció al imperio moscovita en Europa del Este y permitió una Alemania reunificada en el seno de la OTAN, todas heridas autoinfligidas al interés nacional de Rusia, según sus críticos rusos, pero él entendía de manera distinta el interés nacional: concebía una «casa común europea» para liberar a los pueblos de Europa, y un nuevo orden mundial basado, tanto como fuera posible, en la renuncia al uso de la fuerza. Considerado en retrospectiva, esto les parece imposible a los «realistas»  occidentales tanto como a sus detractores de Rusia, pero es posible que el mundo anduviera bastante mejor de haberse plegado a su guía. Vladímir Putin ha responsabilizado a Occidente de expandir la OTAN hasta las fronteras de Rusia y se ha valido de eso para justificar agresiones en Georgia y Ucrania. ¿Qué hubiera pasado si, en lugar de rechazar la visión de Gorbachov, Occidente se le hubiera unido en la creación de una nueva estructura de seguridad paneuropea? Es posible, ciertamente, que Putin o algún otro líder ruso hubieran encontrado razones adicionales para sentirse agraviados y justificar la agresión como respuesta, sin importar lo que hiciera Occidente. Pero bien puede ser que lo que les pareció —y aún les parece— utópico a los «realistas» fuese una última oportunidad ya perdida.

Renunció al imperio moscovita en Europa del Este y permitió una Alemania reunificada en el seno de la OTAN. Concebía una «casa común europea» para liberar a los pueblos de Europa, y un nuevo orden mundial basado, tanto como fuera posible, en la renuncia al uso de la fuerza. Considerado en retrospectiva, esto les parece imposible a los «realistas» occidentales tanto como a sus detractores de Rusia, pero es posible que el mundo anduviera bastante mejor de haberse plegado a su guía.

En lo que hace a atenuar drásticamente el empleo de la fuerza en las relaciones internacionales, ¿suena también tan imposible? La guerra emprendida por George W. Bush en Irak es hoy vista por muchos como innecesaria e infinitamente sangrienta en sus consecuencias. Como contrapartida, la guerra del Golfo, librada por su progenitor para desalojar a Sadam Huseín de Kuwait, que Gorbachov se esforzó en evitar, ha sido elogiada como necesaria, rápida y limitada, aun cuando con seguridad no fue experimentada de ese modo por los miles de soldados y civiles iraquíes incinerados por el poderío militar norteamericano. Y Gorbachov tampoco estaba tan solo en su postura de mejor únicamente amenazar a Irak para que saliera de Kuwait. Muchos líderes estadounidenses muy inflexibles eran también partidarios de ello.

El carácter de Gorbachov sirve para explicar a la vez sus éxitos y fracasos. Su excesiva confianza en sí mismo y en su causa le dio el coraje necesario para llegar tan alto que fue al fin demasiado para él, y después nubló su juicio, cuando lo que estaba queriendo edificar comenzó a derrumbarse. Cuando los frutos chocaron con su idealizada autoimagen de gran estadista, reaccionó a menudo negando la realidad o haciéndola a un lado con racionalizaciones varias, ya fueran su fracaso en lograr que Europa del Este adoptara una versión propia de la perestroika «gorbachovista», el inicio por la Alemania unificada del proceso de expansión de la OTAN o el desplome de su autoridad a escala interna. Dados sus logros históricos, podría muy bien haber descansado en sus laureles, aun cuando ellos no hubiesen recibido en Rusia el reconocimiento que merecían. En lugar de ello, estaba tan decidido a consolidar su causa y su prestigio incluso después de su caída del poder que insistió en emprender una campaña desesperanzada a la presidencia en 1996. Incluso cuando su amada esposa era apenas capaz de llevarle el tranco, él siguió ignorando sus ruegos de que abandonara la política y se retiraran a una cabañita de los dos, fuera o no junto al mar.

 1 de diciembre de 1991. Gorbachov posa delante del primer McDonald's inaugurado en la Unión Soviética, concretamente en Moscú. Crédito: Getty Images.

Puede ser que la empresa de Gorbachov estuviese condenada desde un principio, pero ¿qué alternativas había? Si la Unión Soviética se hubiera empeñado en salir del paso sin los cambios requeridos habría quizá sobrevivido otros diez o veinte años, pero entonces ¿qué? ¿Hubiera en ese caso una guerra fratricida entre Rusia y Ucrania (al estilo del conflicto en Yugoslavia, desempeñando cada una los papeles sangrientos de Serbia y Croacia, respectivamente) hecho palidecer el conflicto posterior, de alcances muy limitados, entre Moscú y Kiev? ¿Hubieran los comunistas y anticomunistas batido marcas en un baño generalizado de sangre? ¿Hubiesen sido los amos del Kremlin asesinados como el último zar y su familia, o como el líder comunista de Rumanía Nicolae Ceaucescu y su esposa? En teoría, había otra alternativa: reformas económicas más aceleradas sin democratización política, con una privatización gradual por el Kremlin de la propiedad y el soborno de hecho a los apparatchiki comunistas alentándolos a que se convirtieran en oligarcas. Suena parecido a lo de China. Pero, como Gorbachov lo entendió correctamente, la Unión Soviética no era China, rusos y chinos difieren radicalmente en su respectiva historia política y sus tradiciones sociales.

Otro líder soviético podría haberse negado a hacer las concesiones que Gorbachov hizo a Reagan y Bush, pero si ello hubiese ocurrido, la Guerra Fría hubiera continuado y con seguridad empeorado, no el tipo de «Guerra Fría» que volvió a emerger veintitrés años después de que Gorbachov dejara el cargo, por perversa que ella haya sido, sino la cosa real, con arsenales nucleares masivos aún dispuestos a dispararse a la menor señal de alerta. Otro líder soviético podría haber presionado a los líderes recalcitrantes de Europa oriental a dejar el cargo, o alentado a los reformadores de la zona a hacerse con el poder. Pero ¿hubiese cualquiera de esas estrategias evitado el colapso eventual del comunismo? Probablemente no, dados los sentimientos anticomunistas y antirrusos incubados durante tantos años en los países de Europa del Este y en la generación posterior a la Primavera de Praga, ya no ávida tan solo de un «socialismo con rostro humano», sino de la plena occidentalización. ¿Qué habría pasado si Gorbachov hubiese utilizado la fuerza para conservar el imperio soviético? Eso bien podría haber provocado otra guerra total en Europa.

La Unión Soviética se desintegró cuando Gorbachov debilitó al Estado en un intento de fortalecer al individuo. Putin fortaleció al Estado ruso por la vía de recortar las libertades individuales. La floreciente clase media rusa, estimada en un 20 por ciento de la población, debe agradecerle a Gorbachov por haberle abierto la puerta conducente a una vida mejor, aun cuando sus miembros han sido lentos en reconocerlo como su benefactor. Demasiados rusos compensaron la sensación de menoscabo que trajo consigo la pérdida del imperio con el consumo suntuario y la glorificación del Estado. ¿Sentirán lo mismo ellos o sus hijos, y sus nietos, respecto a Gorbachov al cabo de cincuenta años a partir de ahora? ¿O llegarán finalmente a apreciarlo? A pesar de sus errores y su fracaso en lograr todos sus nobles propósitos, fue, en efecto, a fin de cuentas, un héroe dentro de una tragedia, y solo por eso merece nuestra comprensión y admiración.


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