Entrevistas

Beatrice Salvioni: literatura contra el fascismo

«La malnacida» (Lumen), el debut de Beatrice Salvioni, es una novela situada en los años treinta del siglo XX en una ciudad de Lombardía que funciona como un mapa a escala de la Italia fascista. Se centra en la relación entre dos chicas de diferente posición social y en cómo su amistad ayuda a la protagonista a darse cuenta del lugar que ocupa en el mundo. Hablamos con ella sobre este primer gran asalto.

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Salvioni. Cr\u00e9dito: Daniel Alea.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"k0cq1cb\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Beatrice Salvioni. Cr\u00e9dito: <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/danielalea.com\/\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Daniel Alea<\/a><\/span>.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"2\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"10\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"dlfisla\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/316477-libro-la-malnacida-9788426418128\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La malnacida<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0(Lumen, 2023, traducci\u00f3n de Ana Ciurans Ferrandiz) es la primera novela de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/211189-beatrice-salvioni\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Beatrice Salvioni<\/a><\/span> (Monza, 1995). Es un <em>coming-on-age<\/em> oscuro situado en los a\u00f1os inmediatamente previos al comienzo de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, en una ciudad peque\u00f1a de Lombard\u00eda, lo que le da una carga pol\u00edtica y de an\u00e1lisis social que eleva la historia de las dos amigas, Francesca y Maddalena, por encima de las aventuras del paso de la infancia a la edad adulta. \u00abEst\u00e1 ambientada en los a\u00f1os 30 porque era el mejor momento para que resonara incluso m\u00e1s lo que significa crecer, especialmente cuando eres mujer, en un mundo sexista, machista, racista en el que las \u00fanicas voces que se ten\u00edan en cuenta eran las de los hombres del r\u00e9gimen de Mussolini. Permite ver las inquietantes similitudes con respecto al mundo de hoy, cosas que pens\u00e1bamos que era imposible que volvieran a suceder, como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la guerra<\/a><\/span>\u00bb. Beatrice Salvioni, menuda, t\u00edmida, pero segura de cada palabra que pronuncia, explica que la realidad ha hecho que resuenen m\u00e1s ecos de los que ella hab\u00eda previsto: la termin\u00f3 en 2021.<\/p><p>Al hablar de la novela de Beatrice Salvioni surge de manera casi inevitable el nombre de\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/elena-ferrante-dos-amigas-cronicas-del-desamor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Elena Ferrante<\/a><\/span> y la saga de <em>La amiga estupenda.<\/em> A Salvioni le honra la menci\u00f3n, admira a Ferrante, aunque cuando ella se lanz\u00f3 a escribir esta novela solo hab\u00eda le\u00eddo las dos primeras entregas de la saga de Ferrante. Aunque comparten elementos como las dos amigas y su diferencia social, digamos, lo que parecen perseguir es bastante diferente: Ferrante hace un fresco en el tiempo, Salvioni va a lo esencial de la historia; Ferrante cuenta la historia de Italia en el siglo XX, Salvioni se centra en un momento muy concreto de ese siglo, una \u00e9poca de la que encuentra ecos 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Aun as\u00ed, la novela no es un <em>thriller:<\/em> el peso no est\u00e1 en descubrir qui\u00e9n es el muerto (por qu\u00e9 lo han matado se sabe desde el comienzo: defensa propia, estaba tratando de violar a Francesca), a pesar de esa primer escena que funciona como un <em>flashforward.<\/em> Aunque Salvioni sab\u00eda que esa escena abrir\u00eda el libro \u2013\u00abCuando empiezo a proyectar una historia tengo que saber exactamente d\u00f3nde est\u00e1 yendo y por lo tanto tengo un esquema muy bien detallado y muy bien definido\u00bb\u2013, la primera que escribi\u00f3 no fue la del impactante inicio: \u00abEs dif\u00edcil quitarse de encima el cuerpo de un muerto. Los descubr\u00ed a los doce a\u00f1os, con la nariz y la boca ensangrentadas y las bragas enredadas en un tobillo. Los guijarros del margen del Lambro se me clavaban en la nuca y en el trasero desnudo, duros como u\u00f1as, la espalda hundida en el barro. El cuerpo de \u00e9l, anguloso y todav\u00eda caliente, me pesaba\u00bb. La primera que escribi\u00f3 fue la del puente sobre el r\u00edo Lambro: Francesca observa a Maddalena, la malnacida, que est\u00e1 con dos muchachos a los que ella conoce solo de o\u00eddas. \u00abEl momento en el que Francesca se asoma al puente y ve que Maddalena le devuelve la mirada: el primer intercambio de mirada es el que establece el principio de su amistad\u00bb. Salvioni explica, a prop\u00f3sito de la estructura de la novela y los planes, que tiende \u00aba seguir fielmente el esquema aunque es bonito que a veces los personajes te puedan sorprender y tomar decisiones que a lo mejor no te esperabas y es el momento de seguirles, porque significa que est\u00e1n de verdad adquiriendo una personalidad definida y son ellos los que te imponen sus elecciones\u00bb. 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descubrimiento sobre el propio cuerpo comienza con lo f\u00edsico; de una manera sutil, lleva a Francesca a tomar conciencia del lugar que ocupa y del mundo en el que est\u00e1: Francesca se da cuenta de que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/Antonio-Scurati-Pablo-Simon-Mussolini-Fascismo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">vive en un sistema fascista<\/a><\/span>. Para la escritora italiana, est\u00e1 todo relacionado: \u00abFrancesca descubre la libertad de ser ella misma y al mismo tiempo choca con las reglas, las imposiciones de r\u00e9gimen y asume esa conciencia de que este r\u00e9gimen ya no le gusta y que este mundo no le permitir\u00eda ser realmente ella misma\u00bb. En <em>La malnacida<\/em> hay un uso consciente de las canciones: a veces suenan en la radio, a trav\u00e9s de donde llegan los discursos de los hombres del r\u00e9gimen; otras las canta alg\u00fan personaje. \u00abLas canciones son un elemento importante para entrar en la historia y en la \u00e9poca. La que m\u00e1s se repite en la novela es <em>Parlami de amore, Mariu,<\/em> que es una canci\u00f3n de amor,\u00a0 de cortejo, alegre, y est\u00e1 en una escena de violencia. Hay otras canciones del periodo que sirven para caracterizar a los personajes, como la madre de Francesca que canta una canci\u00f3n en napolitano\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"j9hnugm\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abMe gustan mucho las atm\u00f3sferas del realismo m\u00e1gico, donde hay alguna chispa de magia que no consigues explicarte racionalmente. Cuando empec\u00e9 con esta historia, me rondaba la cabeza la idea de hacer que todo empezara desde un elemento m\u00e1gico: la voz de Maddalena\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"nfs9mnl\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Hay varios elementos que hacen que esta novela est\u00e9 viva, como la introducci\u00f3n de elementos m\u00e1gicos o inexplicables en una historia que tiene algo del cine neorrealista italiano.\u00a0Y aunque es un retrato realista de una \u00e9poca hist\u00f3rica concreta, hay ciertos elementos que llevan la novela hacia otros lugares, como el peso de la superstici\u00f3n. \u00abMe gustan mucho las atm\u00f3sferas del <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">realismo m\u00e1gico<\/a><\/span>, donde hay alguna chispa de magia que no consigues explicarte racionalmente \u2013explica Salvioni\u2013. Cuando empec\u00e9 con esta historia, me rondaba la cabeza la idea de hacer que todo empezara desde un elemento m\u00e1gico: la voz de Maddalena. Ten\u00eda que ser un poder aut\u00e9ntico, real, que luego se transforma solo en un superstici\u00f3n desde el punto de vista de la gente y en un autodefensa para Maddalena, como si as\u00ed intentara explicar las tragedias que pasaban a su alrededor y que claramente no pod\u00edan tener una raz\u00f3n, una explicaci\u00f3n\u00bb.<\/p><p>De Maddalena, a la que llaman la malnacida, se dice que est\u00e1 maldita, que trae la desgracia: \u00abPronunciar su nombre tra\u00eda mala suerte. Era una bruja, de esas que le pegaban a una el aliento de la muerte. Ten\u00eda el demonio dentro y no deb\u00eda hablar con ella\u00bb. En la novela, explica Salvioni, hay una cierta ambig\u00fcedad con respecto a los poderes de Maddalena: \u00abHay escenas en las que est\u00e1 convencida de poder utilizar su voz para hacer el mal y efectivamente algo malo pasa. Me gusta dejar un poco esta ambig\u00fcedad. Realmente el poder de Maddalena\u00a0es solo superstici\u00f3n, pero ella cree que lo tiene de verdad\u00bb. Es un equilibrio muy complejo el que logra Salvioni en\u00a0<em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/316477-libro-la-malnacida-9788426418128\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La malnacida<\/a><\/span><\/em> con respecto a esto y a la convivencia de unos elementos puramente realistas con esos otros momentos donde la leyenda popular aparece, aunque detr\u00e1s de ella haya una explicaci\u00f3n racional. Para que la superstici\u00f3n funcionara, dice Salvioni, \u00abnecesitaba una ciudad peque\u00f1a, una provincia, donde fuera f\u00e1cil ambientar esta superstici\u00f3n, esto de hablar de alguien, porque en el pueblo m\u00e1s o menos se conocen todos. Por lo tanto, necesitaba una ciudad peque\u00f1a como Monza, que es adem\u00e1s la ciudad en la que nac\u00ed\u00bb. Transcurre en Monza, Lombard\u00eda, pero puede interpretarse a escala de lo que pasaba en Italia: \u00abLo que sucede en lo peque\u00f1o puede ser v\u00e1lido para cualquier situaci\u00f3n a nivel nacional\u00bb. Incluso permite ver el funcionamiento corrupto y autoritario del r\u00e9gimen de manera m\u00e1s 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Salvioni dice que, durante el r\u00e9gimen fascista, \u00abla distinci\u00f3n entre las clases sociales era evidente hasta en las peque\u00f1as cosas, como en la ropa, aunque todos en el fondo est\u00e1n sujetos al poder, a la idea de estar encerrados en una norma\u00bb. La relaci\u00f3n entre Matteo y Filipo es un buen ejemplo de eso, como se\u00f1ala la escritora: \u00abIncluso perteneciendo a clases sociales distintas y opuestas \u2013Filipo pertenece a una familia fascista ligada al r\u00e9gimen, mientras que Matteo es hijo de comunista\u2013, ambos est\u00e1n convencidos de que la \u00fanica forma de ser hombre, la \u00fanica forma de crecer, es ser capaces de matar y acostumbrarse a la violencia\u00bb.<\/p><p>La manera en que se abordan este y otros asuntos pol\u00edticos y sociales en el libro es a trav\u00e9s de la repercusiones que tienen en la vida privada de las personas. Se cuenta c\u00f3mo las grandes decisiones o la historia afecta en las vidas \u00edntimas. \u00abEra un asunto que me preocupaba \u2013explica Salvioni\u2013. Quer\u00eda subrayar\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/sobre-la-mentira-fascista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la obsesi\u00f3n del r\u00e9gimen por entrar en la vida de las personas<\/a><\/span> y de controlar cada momento \u00edntimo pero sustancial para definir la vida de todos. Era ver un poco c\u00f3mo la Historia con may\u00fasculas tiene consecuencias en la vida com\u00fan diaria. Quer\u00eda contar todo esto, dejar de fondo la historia y contar la vida de las personas comunes. Y al mismo tiempo hacer que se percibiera claramente c\u00f3mo la Historia entra de forma forzosa en la vida de estas personas y las obliga a defenderse o aceptar las consecuencias\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"r2755hn\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abQuer\u00eda subrayar la obsesi\u00f3n del r\u00e9gimen por entrar en la vida de las personas y de controlar cada momento \u00edntimo pero sustancial para definir la vida de todos. Era ver un poco c\u00f3mo la Historia con may\u00fasculas tiene consecuencias en la vida com\u00fan diaria\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"jn4no8x\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Sucede algo parecido con la lectura feminista del libro: no es un panfleto te\u00f3rico \u2013\u00abno es un panfleto porque cualquier historia que intente tratar de convencerte se convierte en algo que te ahoga, una historia que no es sincera y que puede provocar rechazo\u00bb\u2013, sino que se muestran las consecuencias reales que tienen la vida de las mujeres todo ese machismo de la sociedad y del r\u00e9gimen que afecta adem\u00e1s a todas las mujeres de la novela: \u00abFrancesca y Maddalena,\u00a0incluso siendo tan diferentes a nivel familiar, ambas est\u00e1n condenadas a asumir el papel que quiere el r\u00e9gimen: est\u00e1n condenadas a ser mujeres capaces de dar a luz hijos varones que puedan luchar para la dictadura. Las mujeres adultas tambi\u00e9n est\u00e1n obligadas a seguir unas reglas y a portarse de una forma que es la que impone el\u00a0gobierno y, adem\u00e1s, ser\u00e1n juzgadas en caso de que vayan contra esas reglas. Es lo que le pasa a Donatella, una de los personajes, que una vez que se queda embarazada se la considera una chica f\u00e1cil. La culpabilidad siempre recae en la mujer, nunca se considera responsable al hombre. Al mismo tiempo, la madre de Francesca es v\u00edctima de estas reglas, de una feminidad impuesta que a su vez transmite a la hija (la obsesi\u00f3n con la respetabilidad, por ejemplo), aunque a escondidas la primera en desobedecer estas reglas es ella. La madre de Francesca intenta huir de una vida en la que se siente atrapada y parece escapar de su vida con la relaci\u00f3n con un hombre que es s\u00edmbolo del poder. El marido ha perdido ese poder: ella esperaba que hubiera podido darle una vida mejor\u00a0 y hacer realidad su sue\u00f1o de convertirse en una actriz; pero, de repente, debido a la crisis econ\u00f3mica, ese hombre pierde\u00a0su poder, ese papel de var\u00f3n en el que ella confiaba, y por lo tanto elige a otro hombre que pueda reemplazarle. De forma diferente, todas las mujeres de la novela son v\u00edctimas\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"aza1smr\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>M\u00c1S CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/deepti-kappor-la-edad-del-vicio-alfaguara\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Corrupci\u00f3n en la India: Deepti Kappor y los vicios de un pa\u00eds envenenado<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/leticia-sala-y-la-literatura-de-lo-invisible\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Leticia Sala y la literatura de lo invisible<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/deborah-levy-por-nuria-labari-la-escritora-que-rompio-el-tiempo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Deborah Levy por Nuria Labari: la escritora que rompi\u00f3 el tiempo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/sara-torres-perder-es-vivir-lo-que-hay\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Sara Torres: perder es vivir<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/cristina-rivera-garza-nayeli-garcia-sanchez-la-castaneda\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cristina Rivera Garza vuelve a \u00abLa Casta\u00f1eda\u00bb: po\u00e9tica documental en medio del caos<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"8smof8i\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos
Beatrice Salvioni. Crédito: Daniel Alea.

Beatrice Salvioni. Crédito: Daniel Alea.

La malnacida (Lumen, 2023, traducción de Ana Ciurans Ferrandiz) es la primera novela de Beatrice Salvioni (Monza, 1995). Es un coming-on-age oscuro situado en los años inmediatamente previos al comienzo de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, en una ciudad pequeña de Lombardía, lo que le da una carga política y de análisis social que eleva la historia de las dos amigas, Francesca y Maddalena, por encima de las aventuras del paso de la infancia a la edad adulta. «Está ambientada en los años 30 porque era el mejor momento para que resonara incluso más lo que significa crecer, especialmente cuando eres mujer, en un mundo sexista, machista, racista en el que las únicas voces que se tenían en cuenta eran las de los hombres del régimen de Mussolini. Permite ver las inquietantes similitudes con respecto al mundo de hoy, cosas que pensábamos que era imposible que volvieran a suceder, como la guerra». Beatrice Salvioni, menuda, tímida, pero segura de cada palabra que pronuncia, explica que la realidad ha hecho que resuenen más ecos de los que ella había previsto: la terminó en 2021.

Al hablar de la novela de Beatrice Salvioni surge de manera casi inevitable el nombre de Elena Ferrante y la saga de La amiga estupenda. A Salvioni le honra la mención, admira a Ferrante, aunque cuando ella se lanzó a escribir esta novela solo había leído las dos primeras entregas de la saga de Ferrante. Aunque comparten elementos como las dos amigas y su diferencia social, digamos, lo que parecen perseguir es bastante diferente: Ferrante hace un fresco en el tiempo, Salvioni va a lo esencial de la historia; Ferrante cuenta la historia de Italia en el siglo XX, Salvioni se centra en un momento muy concreto de ese siglo, una época de la que encuentra ecos hoy.

La novela se abre con dos chicas deshaciéndose de un cadáver, cuya identidad no se descubre hasta el final. Aun así, la novela no es un thriller: el peso no está en descubrir quién es el muerto (por qué lo han matado se sabe desde el comienzo: defensa propia, estaba tratando de violar a Francesca), a pesar de esa primer escena que funciona como un flashforward. Aunque Salvioni sabía que esa escena abriría el libro –«Cuando empiezo a proyectar una historia tengo que saber exactamente dónde está yendo y por lo tanto tengo un esquema muy bien detallado y muy bien definido»–, la primera que escribió no fue la del impactante inicio: «Es difícil quitarse de encima el cuerpo de un muerto. Los descubrí a los doce años, con la nariz y la boca ensangrentadas y las bragas enredadas en un tobillo. Los guijarros del margen del Lambro se me clavaban en la nuca y en el trasero desnudo, duros como uñas, la espalda hundida en el barro. El cuerpo de él, anguloso y todavía caliente, me pesaba». La primera que escribió fue la del puente sobre el río Lambro: Francesca observa a Maddalena, la malnacida, que está con dos muchachos a los que ella conoce solo de oídas. «El momento en el que Francesca se asoma al puente y ve que Maddalena le devuelve la mirada: el primer intercambio de mirada es el que establece el principio de su amistad». Salvioni explica, a propósito de la estructura de la novela y los planes, que tiende «a seguir fielmente el esquema aunque es bonito que a veces los personajes te puedan sorprender y tomar decisiones que a lo mejor no te esperabas y es el momento de seguirles, porque significa que están de verdad adquiriendo una personalidad definida y son ellos los que te imponen sus elecciones». Por ejemplo, en el caso concreto de La malnacida, no estaba previsto que en la escena del robo de las mandarinas apareciera Noè, el hijo del frutero, pero se coló: «Es un poco como en la historia: entró cuando no hubiera tenido que entrar».

«Está ambientada en los años 30 porque era el mejor momento para que resonara incluso más lo que significa crecer, especialmente cuando eres mujer, en un mundo sexista, machista, racista en el que las únicas voces que se tenían en cuenta eran las de los hombres del régimen de Mussolini».

La novela cuenta el despertar de la protagonista, Francesca, tanto al mundo como a su propia biología: «Maddalena es la que le permite a Francesca descubrir su propio cuerpo como una herramienta para jugar y para moverse en el mundo, mientras que a ella se le ha enseñado a cubrirse, a tener vergüenza y a tener miedo de los demás. Maddalena ayuda a Francesca a descubrir una nueva forma de ser mujer, desde un punto de vista físico». Pero al mismo tiempo, las enseñanzas de Maddalena están relacionadas no solo con el cuerpo, también con la palabra, con la voz. «Maddalena le hace reflexionar a Francesca sobre la importancia de la palabra también con pequeños gestos. Por ejemplo, después de que Francesca haya estado leyendo fragmentos del Decalogo della piccola italiana, Maddalena le señala que lo que ha pronunciado lo ha hecho sin pensar como si fuera una tarea, solo por el orgullo de estar en un escenario hablando delante de mucha gente y gente importante. Solo con preguntarle si ha entendido lo que ha dicho, si se cree de verdad en la verdad de las palabras que ha pronunciado, solo con esa pregunta que puede ser aparentemente sencilla, impulsa a Francesca a empezar a preguntarse qué significa utilizar su propia voz de forma consciente».

Para Salvioni, «quizás esta sea la enseñanza más importante que le da Maddalena a Francesca: la conciencia de utilizar tu voz solo para decir las palabras que realmente desea y en las que cree, y no las palabras que los demás te enseñan a decir». De esa conciencia surge el cuestionamiento, la posibilidad de no obedecer ciegamente, de hacerse preguntas y de no acatar.

Beatrice Salvioni. Crédito: Daniel Alea.

Beatrice Salvioni. Crédito: Daniel Alea.

El descubrimiento sobre el propio cuerpo comienza con lo físico; de una manera sutil, lleva a Francesca a tomar conciencia del lugar que ocupa y del mundo en el que está: Francesca se da cuenta de que vive en un sistema fascista. Para la escritora italiana, está todo relacionado: «Francesca descubre la libertad de ser ella misma y al mismo tiempo choca con las reglas, las imposiciones de régimen y asume esa conciencia de que este régimen ya no le gusta y que este mundo no le permitiría ser realmente ella misma». En La malnacida hay un uso consciente de las canciones: a veces suenan en la radio, a través de donde llegan los discursos de los hombres del régimen; otras las canta algún personaje. «Las canciones son un elemento importante para entrar en la historia y en la época. La que más se repite en la novela es Parlami de amore, Mariu, que es una canción de amor,  de cortejo, alegre, y está en una escena de violencia. Hay otras canciones del periodo que sirven para caracterizar a los personajes, como la madre de Francesca que canta una canción en napolitano».

«Me gustan mucho las atmósferas del realismo mágico, donde hay alguna chispa de magia que no consigues explicarte racionalmente. Cuando empecé con esta historia, me rondaba la cabeza la idea de hacer que todo empezara desde un elemento mágico: la voz de Maddalena».

Hay varios elementos que hacen que esta novela esté viva, como la introducción de elementos mágicos o inexplicables en una historia que tiene algo del cine neorrealista italiano. Y aunque es un retrato realista de una época histórica concreta, hay ciertos elementos que llevan la novela hacia otros lugares, como el peso de la superstición. «Me gustan mucho las atmósferas del realismo mágico, donde hay alguna chispa de magia que no consigues explicarte racionalmente –explica Salvioni–. Cuando empecé con esta historia, me rondaba la cabeza la idea de hacer que todo empezara desde un elemento mágico: la voz de Maddalena. Tenía que ser un poder auténtico, real, que luego se transforma solo en un superstición desde el punto de vista de la gente y en un autodefensa para Maddalena, como si así intentara explicar las tragedias que pasaban a su alrededor y que claramente no podían tener una razón, una explicación».

De Maddalena, a la que llaman la malnacida, se dice que está maldita, que trae la desgracia: «Pronunciar su nombre traía mala suerte. Era una bruja, de esas que le pegaban a una el aliento de la muerte. Tenía el demonio dentro y no debía hablar con ella». En la novela, explica Salvioni, hay una cierta ambigüedad con respecto a los poderes de Maddalena: «Hay escenas en las que está convencida de poder utilizar su voz para hacer el mal y efectivamente algo malo pasa. Me gusta dejar un poco esta ambigüedad. Realmente el poder de Maddalena es solo superstición, pero ella cree que lo tiene de verdad». Es un equilibrio muy complejo el que logra Salvioni en La malnacida con respecto a esto y a la convivencia de unos elementos puramente realistas con esos otros momentos donde la leyenda popular aparece, aunque detrás de ella haya una explicación racional. Para que la superstición funcionara, dice Salvioni, «necesitaba una ciudad pequeña, una provincia, donde fuera fácil ambientar esta superstición, esto de hablar de alguien, porque en el pueblo más o menos se conocen todos. Por lo tanto, necesitaba una ciudad pequeña como Monza, que es además la ciudad en la que nací». Transcurre en Monza, Lombardía, pero puede interpretarse a escala de lo que pasaba en Italia: «Lo que sucede en lo pequeño puede ser válido para cualquier situación a nivel nacional». Incluso permite ver el funcionamiento corrupto y autoritario del régimen de manera más clara.

Beatrice Salvioni. Crédito: Daniel Alea.

Beatrice Salvioni. Crédito: Daniel Alea.

Entre los temas de fondo de la novela destaca el asunto de las clases sociales, los pobres frente a los ricos, los propietarios frente a los trabajadores, y todos sometidos en el fondo al mismo poder: el fascismo, ejercido desde un caciquismo corrupto. Salvioni dice que, durante el régimen fascista, «la distinción entre las clases sociales era evidente hasta en las pequeñas cosas, como en la ropa, aunque todos en el fondo están sujetos al poder, a la idea de estar encerrados en una norma». La relación entre Matteo y Filipo es un buen ejemplo de eso, como señala la escritora: «Incluso perteneciendo a clases sociales distintas y opuestas –Filipo pertenece a una familia fascista ligada al régimen, mientras que Matteo es hijo de comunista–, ambos están convencidos de que la única forma de ser hombre, la única forma de crecer, es ser capaces de matar y acostumbrarse a la violencia».

La manera en que se abordan este y otros asuntos políticos y sociales en el libro es a través de la repercusiones que tienen en la vida privada de las personas. Se cuenta cómo las grandes decisiones o la historia afecta en las vidas íntimas. «Era un asunto que me preocupaba –explica Salvioni–. Quería subrayar la obsesión del régimen por entrar en la vida de las personas y de controlar cada momento íntimo pero sustancial para definir la vida de todos. Era ver un poco cómo la Historia con mayúsculas tiene consecuencias en la vida común diaria. Quería contar todo esto, dejar de fondo la historia y contar la vida de las personas comunes. Y al mismo tiempo hacer que se percibiera claramente cómo la Historia entra de forma forzosa en la vida de estas personas y las obliga a defenderse o aceptar las consecuencias».

«Quería subrayar la obsesión del régimen por entrar en la vida de las personas y de controlar cada momento íntimo pero sustancial para definir la vida de todos. Era ver un poco cómo la Historia con mayúsculas tiene consecuencias en la vida común diaria».

Sucede algo parecido con la lectura feminista del libro: no es un panfleto teórico –«no es un panfleto porque cualquier historia que intente tratar de convencerte se convierte en algo que te ahoga, una historia que no es sincera y que puede provocar rechazo»–, sino que se muestran las consecuencias reales que tienen la vida de las mujeres todo ese machismo de la sociedad y del régimen que afecta además a todas las mujeres de la novela: «Francesca y Maddalena, incluso siendo tan diferentes a nivel familiar, ambas están condenadas a asumir el papel que quiere el régimen: están condenadas a ser mujeres capaces de dar a luz hijos varones que puedan luchar para la dictadura. Las mujeres adultas también están obligadas a seguir unas reglas y a portarse de una forma que es la que impone el gobierno y, además, serán juzgadas en caso de que vayan contra esas reglas. Es lo que le pasa a Donatella, una de los personajes, que una vez que se queda embarazada se la considera una chica fácil. La culpabilidad siempre recae en la mujer, nunca se considera responsable al hombre. Al mismo tiempo, la madre de Francesca es víctima de estas reglas, de una feminidad impuesta que a su vez transmite a la hija (la obsesión con la respetabilidad, por ejemplo), aunque a escondidas la primera en desobedecer estas reglas es ella. La madre de Francesca intenta huir de una vida en la que se siente atrapada y parece escapar de su vida con la relación con un hombre que es símbolo del poder. El marido ha perdido ese poder: ella esperaba que hubiera podido darle una vida mejor  y hacer realidad su sueño de convertirse en una actriz; pero, de repente, debido a la crisis económica, ese hombre pierde su poder, ese papel de varón en el que ella confiaba, y por lo tanto elige a otro hombre que pueda reemplazarle. De forma diferente, todas las mujeres de la novela son víctimas».

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