Fenómenos

«Las damas de Grace Adieu», el reino mágico de una escritora enigmáticamente perfecta: Susanna Clarke

De su obra dijo su admirada Ursula K. LeGuin que era «intensa y fascinante», y a la vez, «mágicamente divertida», y no se equivocaba. El mundo entero, el mundo lector, vive aún asombrado ante todo aquello que la imaginación de Susanna Clarke perturba o, mejor, alumbra, desde que publicó «Jonathan Strange y el señor Norrell», una primera novela destinada a convertirse en un clásico instantáneo, y en uno que abría dentro del género fantástico un propio y nuevo género: el de la magia entendida como algo que, eruditamente, podía existir y cambiar, desde los salones y gobiernos, el mundo. La desaparición de la vida pública de Clarke al poco de publicarse aquella, su primera y monumental novela, hizo temer a sus lectores tener que conformarse para siempre con aquella obra única. La publicación, en 2021, de su segunda novela, «Piranesi» y la certeza de que estos días trabaja en algún tipo de secuela de la historia del par de magos engreídamente geniales que reinaron —o pudieron hacerlo— en la Inglaterra del XVIII, descartaron tan temible posibilidad, pero durante mucho tiempo, durante más de una década, lo único que sus lectores tuvieron es la antología que Salamandra acaba de publicar por primera vez en español, un «spin off» en femenino de «Jonathan Strange y el señor Norrell» que, en realidad, fue su punto de partida.

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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/9941-susanna-clarke\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Susanna Clarke<\/a><\/span> es un personaje singular. Podr\u00eda, ella misma, provenir de alg\u00fan tipo de otro mundo en el que la magia intelectualmente documentada existiese como existe en sus novelas. En realidad, en su novela. En la monumental <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-de-fantasia\/238194-ebook-jonathan-strange-y-el-senor-norrell-9788418173523\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Jonathan Strange y el se\u00f1or Norrell<\/a><\/span><\/em>, obra fant\u00e1stica mayor, indiscutible cl\u00e1sico instant\u00e1neo, algo as\u00ed como la m\u00e1s divertida, y adictiva historia jam\u00e1s contada, <em>dickensianamente<\/em>, sobre lo que podr\u00eda pasar, o habr\u00eda pasado, de existir, <em>de verdad<\/em>, la <em>magia.<\/em> Una magia intelectual, y formal, que podr\u00eda echar guantes a los gobiernos cuando los necesitasen, y corregir hasta el m\u00e1s travieso de los desplantes del destino, o el azar. En cierto sentido, <em>Jonathan Strange y el se\u00f1or Norrell<\/em> juega a la ucron\u00eda deseablemente imposible: detener la Historia, con may\u00fasculas, en determinado momento, para insertarle la posibilidad de la existencia de la magia como ciencia, un algo ordenado que pasase de las habladur\u00edas, y los estudios, de los libros de supuestas historias, a la <em>realidad<\/em>. Ese momento es el siglo XIX. En concreto, es 1806. Pero es un momento cualquiera, por supuesto. Porque la magia ha existido, en el mundo seg\u00fan Clarke, siempre. Y regres\u00f3 a la palestra, o se la empez\u00f3 a tener en cuenta otra vez, cuando apareci\u00f3 el se\u00f1or Gilbert Norrell y <em>pr\u00e1ctic\u00f3<\/em> ante una corte de te\u00f3ricos del asunto, un poco de magia. \u00bfQue qu\u00e9 hizo? Hizo <em>hablar<\/em> a las estatuas de la Catedral de York. A continuaci\u00f3n, John Childermass, su sirviente, convenci\u00f3 a un miembro del grupo, John Segundus, para que escribiese un art\u00edculo sobre lo que acababa de ocurrir. Art\u00edculo que acab\u00f3 en los peri\u00f3dicos de Londres, y el resto fue, como suele decirse, 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Strange y el se\u00f1or Norrell<\/em> se public\u00f3 el a\u00f1o 2004. El mismo a\u00f1o en que se public\u00f3 <em>El atlas de las nubes<\/em>, de David Mitchell, y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/14335-ebook-2666-9788420426464\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">2666<\/a><\/span>, de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/roberto-bolano-por-lina-meruane-nunca-mas-volvio-a-verlo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Roberto Bola\u00f1o<\/a><\/span>. El asombro ante el ambicioso brillo de la historia, un g\u00f3tico fant\u00e1stico sin igual, que invoca a la vez a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/641-jane-austen\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Jane Austen<\/a><\/span> y a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/929-charles-dickens\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Charles Dickens<\/a><\/span>, un frondoso <em>bosque<\/em> con aspecto de novela en el que perderse y reencontrarse con todo aquello que hace del artefacto narrativo algo que refleja el mundo desde sus m\u00e1s deseables posibilidades, fue un\u00e1nime. La novela, obra de una entonces, a sus 45 a\u00f1os, debutante, fue finalista del prestigioso <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Premio_Booker\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Premio Booker<\/a><\/span> en 2004, y gan\u00f3 el <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Premios_Hugo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Hugo<\/a><\/span> en 2005, adem\u00e1s de los tambi\u00e9n fant\u00e1sticos <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Premio_Mundial_de_Fantas%C3%ADa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">World Fantasy<\/a><\/span> y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Mythopoeic_Society#:~:text=La%20Mythopoeic%20Society%20('sociedad%20mitopo%C3%A9ica,fantas%C3%ADa%20y%20la%20literatura%20fant%C3%A1stica.\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Mythopoeic<\/a><\/span>. Pero \u00bfqui\u00e9n iba a decirle al mundo que aquella editora de libros de cocina \u2014que antes hab\u00eda sido editora de todo tipo de libros, y luego hab\u00eda pasado dos a\u00f1os lejos de Inglaterra, dando clases de ingl\u00e9s en Tur\u00edn y Bilbao\u2014 iba a cambiar el rumbo, en alg\u00fan sentido, de la narrativa fant\u00e1stica del siglo XXI, inaugurando su propio g\u00e9nero, uno en el que la alta literatura <em>rescata<\/em> el misterio de lo humano y su necesidad de trascendencia? Clarke, nacida en Nottingham en 1952, tard\u00f3 m\u00e1s de diez a\u00f1os en completar aquella, su primera novela, con la que luch\u00f3 cuerpo a cuerpo, como en una batalla en la que nadie antes se hab\u00eda abierto camino. Eso, se dir\u00eda, es lo que ocurre con los cl\u00e1sicos, o al menos, con todo aquello que no tiene un igual. Durante todo ese tiempo, estuvo editando libros de cocina para Simon &amp; Schuster. Tambi\u00e9n, asisti\u00f3 a un taller de escritura de ciencia ficci\u00f3n y fantas\u00eda. El taller ten\u00eda una m\u00ednima duraci\u00f3n de cinco d\u00edas, y lo impart\u00edan un par de escritores, Geoff Ryman y Colin Greenland. \u00c9ste \u00faltimo acabar\u00eda siendo su marido. \u00abLo primero que se me apareci\u00f3 fue un hombre vestido como si acabara de llegar del siglo XVIII. Lo vi en una plaza de lo que me pareci\u00f3 Venecia. Estaba hablando con turistas ingleses, y supe que ten\u00eda algo que ver con la magia, y que hab\u00eda hecho algo horrible\u00bb, cont\u00f3, en alguna entrevista, despu\u00e9s de la aparici\u00f3n del libro. Tambi\u00e9n dijo que por entonces hab\u00eda rele\u00eddo <em>El se\u00f1or de los anillos<\/em>, de J. R. R. Tolkien, y que, de repente, le apetec\u00eda escribir una novela de fantas\u00eda. Pero volvamos al taller de Greenland y Ryman. Porque lo que nos interesa, el libro que acab\u00f3 public\u00e1ndose despu\u00e9s del \u00e9xito de <em>Jonathan Strange y el se\u00f1or Norrell<\/em>, la antolog\u00eda de relatos titulada <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/libros-de-fantasia\/338773-ebook-las-damas-de-grace-adieu-9788419456946\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Las damas de Grace Adieu<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0\u2014que Salamandra ha editado por primera vez en espa\u00f1ol recientemente\u2014, est\u00e1 \u00edntimamente relacionado con aquel taller. Y es, de hecho, el punto de partida de la novela. Lo que se ha tenido, desde el principio, como una especie de <em>spin-off<\/em> de la historia del par de famosos y engre\u00eddos magos, es aquello sin lo que, tal vez, no existir\u00eda.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"gzejn2e\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00bfQui\u00e9n iba a decirle al mundo que aquella editora de libros de cocina \u2014que antes hab\u00eda sido editora de todo tipo de libros, y luego hab\u00eda pasado dos a\u00f1os lejos de Inglaterra, dando clases de ingl\u00e9s en Tur\u00edn y Bilbao\u2014 iba a cambiar el rumbo, en alg\u00fan sentido, de la narrativa fant\u00e1stica del siglo XXI, inaugurando su propio g\u00e9nero, uno en el que la alta literatura<em> rescata<\/em> el misterio de lo humano y su necesidad de trascendencia?<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"o50offh\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00bfQue por qu\u00e9? Veamos. Para asistir al taller de escritura era necesario presentar un relato. Clarke no ten\u00eda un relato en s\u00ed mismo, sino pedazos de aquella novela en marcha. Pero uno de aquellos pedazos pod\u00eda bien considerarse algo parecido a un relato. As\u00ed que lo compuso, le dio un principio y un final y lo present\u00f3. Aquel relato contaba la historia de tres mujeres que practicaban en secreto la magia y que eran sorprendidas por el mism\u00edsimo Jonathan Strange, por entonces ya, en la mente de Clarke, un famoso mago, uno de los dos protagonistas de su novela. Lo llam\u00f3 <em>Las damas de Grace Adieu<\/em>. A Greenland le fascin\u00f3 de tal manera que, sin el permiso de Clarke, se lo mand\u00f3 a su amigo <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4625-neil-gaiman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Neil Gaiman<\/a><\/span>. Lo que Gaiman dijo despu\u00e9s de aquel relato fue: \u00abMe fascin\u00f3 lo portentoso que parec\u00eda. Era un primer relato. Al leerlo me sent\u00ed como si hubiera visto a alguien sentarse ante un piano por primera vez y tocar una sonata\u00bb. Y lo que sigui\u00f3 a aquel taller, y a los a\u00f1os, arduos, de composici\u00f3n de la novela, es historia. Una historia que se cierra con todos los premios antes mencionados, y con <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/film220921.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la adaptaci\u00f3n a televisi\u00f3n<\/a><\/span> que, con \u00e9xito, llev\u00f3 a cabo <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.filmaffinity.com\/es\/name.php?name-id=106793463\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Toby Haynes<\/a><\/span> (<em>Doctor Who, Black Mirror, Sherlock<\/em>) en 2015. Clarke, extra\u00f1amente extenuada tras los primeros encuentros con lectores despu\u00e9s de la publicaci\u00f3n de <em>Jonathan Strange y el se\u00f1or Norrell<\/em>, desapareci\u00f3 del mapa durante un tiempo. Tanto tiempo que, como me cont\u00f3 desde el sal\u00f3n de su casa, con una reproducci\u00f3n de <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/historia-arte.com\/obras\/la-torre-roja\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La Torre Roja<\/a><\/span><\/em>, el c\u00e9lebre cuadro de Giorgio De Chirico a sus espaldas, hab\u00eda llegado a pensar de s\u00ed misma que jam\u00e1s podr\u00eda volver a escribir <em>nada<\/em>. Y he aqu\u00ed la otra raz\u00f3n por la que este volumen, <em>Las damas de Grace Adieu<\/em>, tambi\u00e9n importa. Porque durante demasiado tiempo se crey\u00f3 que ser\u00eda lo \u00fanico que el mundo lector, tan \u00e1vido de cualquier cosa que firmase la s\u00fabitamente esquiva Susanna Clarke, el genio que hab\u00eda aparecido para, un instante despu\u00e9s, como en un truco de magia, <em>desaparecer<\/em>, iba a recibir despu\u00e9s de aquella primera y qui\u00e9n sab\u00eda entonces si \u00fanica novela.<\/p><p>No iba a ser as\u00ed.<\/p><p>Pero durante mucho tiempo, a\u00f1os, se crey\u00f3 que 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center\",\"background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"background_position\":\"\",\"background_attachment\":\"\",\"background_repeat\":\"\",\"background_size\":\"\",\"background_video_link\":\"\",\"background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"border_border\":\"\",\"border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"border_color\":\"\",\"border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"section_typo\":\"\",\"heading_color\":\"\",\"color_text\":\"\",\"color_link\":\"\",\"color_link_hover\":\"\",\"text_align\":\"\",\"section_advanced\":\"\",\"margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"css_classes\":\"\",\"section_responsive\":\"\",\"screen_sm\":\"default\",\"screen_sm_width\":\"100\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"elements\":[{\"id\":\"bnoi38d\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El a\u00f1o de publicaci\u00f3n original de <em>Las damas de Grace Adieu<\/em> es 2006. Es decir, un a\u00f1o despu\u00e9s de que <em>Jonathan Strange y el se\u00f1or Norrell<\/em> ganase el Premio Hugo, y de que Clarke se encerrase en casa, aquejada de fatiga cr\u00f3nica. \u00abDe veras pens\u00e9 que jam\u00e1s podr\u00eda volver a escribir\u00bb, me dijo aquel d\u00eda. Era el a\u00f1o 2021, y por fortuna, ya hab\u00eda vuelto. Aunque no hab\u00eda recuperado su vida social \u2014el encuentro tuvo lugar a trav\u00e9s de una videollamada\u2014, acababa de publicar una nueva novela, breve, extra\u00f1a, fabulosa: <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/256796-ebook-piranesi-9788418363290\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Piranesi<\/a><\/span>. Piranesi<\/em> es la historia de un hombre que vive en una casa en la que est\u00e1 aprisionado un oc\u00e9ano, dedicado a observar, como me dijo, \u00abhechos que \u00e9l considera absolutos, pero finalmente puede que est\u00e9 equivocado\u00bb. Tiene, la novela, la obsesi\u00f3n de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/borges-en-estados-unidos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Jorge Luis Borges<\/a><\/span> por los laberintos \u2014fue, de hecho, la obra del autor argentino lo que la inspir\u00f3\u2014, e invoca el esp\u00edritu de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Giovanni_Battista_Piranesi\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Giovanni Battista Piranesi<\/a><\/span>. Se dice que la obra de Piranesi, arquitecto y grabador \u2014sus m\u00e1s de 2.000 grabados de edificios reales e imaginarios de la \u00e9poca romana\u2014 anticiparon o, mejor, cimentaron el neoclasicismo a finales del siglo XVIII. En cualquier caso, eso ocurrir\u00eda m\u00e1s tarde. Por entonces, a\u00f1o 2006, todo, a Susanna Clarke, le parec\u00eda imposible. Estaba cansada, y le dol\u00eda todo, y no se imaginaba volviendo a escribir, pero ten\u00eda todos aquellos relatos, as\u00ed que \u00bfpor qu\u00e9 no pod\u00eda publicarlos, y permitir a su universo <em>m\u00e1gico<\/em> expandirse? Porque eso es <em>Las damas de Grace Adieu<\/em>. Una ampliaci\u00f3n de su reino m\u00e1gico. El reino m\u00e1gico de una escritora enigm\u00e1ticamente perfecta.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"qtnexxh\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Lo que Neil Gaiman dijo despu\u00e9s de aquel relato [titulado <em>Las damas de Grace Adieu] <\/em>fue: \u00abMe fascin\u00f3 lo portentoso que parec\u00eda. Era un primer relato. Al leerlo me sent\u00ed como si hubiera visto a alguien sentarse ante un piano por primera vez y tocar una sonata\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"mnps7s1\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>La antolog\u00eda la forman ocho relatos, y un pr\u00f3logo introductorio \u2014igualmente m\u00e1gico, en un sentido, tambi\u00e9n literario\u2014 firmado por el inexistente, el jugosamente ficticio profesor James Sutherland, el director de Estudios de <em>Sidhe<\/em> de la Universidad de Aberdeen. Sutherland pretende instruir al lector en el desarrollo de la magia en las Islas Brit\u00e1nicas, y, sobre todo, centrarse en la forma en que \u00e9sta puede afectar a la vida cotidiana del lugar, haciendo especial hincapi\u00e9 en la relaci\u00f3n entre humanos y duendes, o entre los habitantes de ciertas poblaciones de la campi\u00f1a inglesa, y la no del todo oculta, omnipresente, Tierra de Duendes. Porque si algo tienen en com\u00fan los relatos incluidos en <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/audiolibros-ciencia-ficcion-y-fantasia\/339528-audiolibro-las-damas-de-grace-adieu-9788419851185\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Las damas de Grace Adieu<\/a><\/span><\/em>\u00a0es que, en un sentido u otro, est\u00e1n protagonizados por duendes. No siempre son el mismo tipo de duendes. Aunque siempre son duendes poderosos, y en alg\u00fan sentido, temibles. Como lo es el duende que en el relato titulado <em>En el monte Lickerish<\/em> pacta con la protagonista algo que podr\u00eda hacerla <em>desaparecer<\/em> \u2014a cambio de un pu\u00f1ado de madejas de hilo que su madre prometi\u00f3 que ella ser\u00eda capaz de hilar una vez se casase\u2014, o la mal\u00e9fica mujer del tama\u00f1o de un pimentero que mantiene secuestrado al prometido de Venetia en <em>La se\u00f1ora Mabb<\/em>. Hay un relato, <em>El duque de Wellington extrav\u00eda el caballo<\/em>, que se sit\u00faa en el mundo por Neil Gailman y Charles Vess en <em>Stardust<\/em>. Y otro, narrado a trav\u00e9s de un diario que el protagonista comparte con una tal se\u00f1ora Gathercole \u2014madre de cinco damiselas extraordinariamente sol\u00edcitas\u2014, en el que un p\u00e1rroco reci\u00e9n llegado a Derbyshire parece haber asistido el parto de alguien que no existe. \u00bfSu t\u00edtulo? <em>El se\u00f1or Simonelli o el viudo duende<\/em>. Ocurre en ese cuento, y sobre todo en el siguiente, <em>Tom Brightwind o c\u00f3mo se construy\u00f3 el puente m\u00e1gico de Thoresby<\/em>, que el uso de documentos que se tienen por oficiales \u2014cartas, diarios personales, e incluso cuentos basados en la supuesta historia real\u2014 trata de reforzar la posibilidad de la existencia de esa Tierra de Duendes y, en definitiva, de la magia. En este \u00faltimo relato, por cierto, hace uso Clarke de las notas al pie que tan sabiamente utiliza en <em>Jonathan Strange y el se\u00f1or Norrell<\/em>, notas al pie que se convierten en historias paralelas, o en otras historias \u2014cap\u00edtulos paralelos, o intrahistorias\u2014, y dan muestra de la extraordinaria e inacabable imaginaci\u00f3n de la escritora.<\/p><p>El uso de los documentos supuestamente oficiales \u2014incluidos desde el arranque, con el pr\u00f3logo del tal profesor Sutherland\u2014 es una de las dos cosas que unen estos relatos \u2014adem\u00e1s del asunto de los duendes\u2014. La otra es lo femenino. Porque se dir\u00eda que <em>Jonathan Strange y el se\u00f1or Norrell<\/em> dej\u00f3 fuera a la magia hecha por mujeres de una manera que aqu\u00ed resulta central, y \u00fanica. En cierto sentido, <em>Las damas de Grace Adieu<\/em> se ha considerado una \u00abrevisi\u00f3n feminista\u00bb de aquella, pues en estos relatos, son los hombres los que padecen los efectos de lo m\u00e1gico, y las mujeres quienes conjuran, o invocan lo inexplicable. Su condici\u00f3n de f\u00e1bula es tambi\u00e9n superior en todo caso. Pensemos en la forma en que se le aparece la casa de la se\u00f1ora Mabb a Venetia en m\u00faltiples ocasiones, siempre como una torre alt\u00edsima pero a la vez comparada con algo que deber\u00eda ser peque\u00f1o, en la distancia, y aparentemente, por lo tanto, min\u00fascula. Y en c\u00f3mo despierta cada vez desmemoriada, y magullada, como si hubiera sido v\u00edctima de alg\u00fan tipo de atropello que no recuerda. Lo maldito de las historias de <em>Los hermanos Grimm<\/em> est\u00e1 por todas partes, y la magia, de bosque, asociada a los duendes, es del todo distinta a la que aparece en la novela. El tono es macabro y a la vez sat\u00edrico, y el juego de espejos con los g\u00e9neros populares, y la multiplicidad de supuestos autores, y la verosimilitud \u2014hay personajes hist\u00f3ricos ah\u00ed dentro\u2014, hacen de la antolog\u00eda no s\u00f3lo una peque\u00f1a joya, ind\u00f3mita y rara, en la obra de Clarke, sino tambi\u00e9n un tesoro h\u00edbrido en el que se espejan las narrativas de autoras tan formidablemente \u00fanicas en lo fant\u00e1stico como Kelly Link, Helen Oyeyemi y, y\u00e9ndonos al pasado, Barbara Comyns, o, por qu\u00e9 no, Angela Carter. En uno de los \u00faltimos relatos, <em>Antickes y Frets<\/em>, Clarke mete en la c\u00e1rcel a Mar\u00eda, reina de Escocia, e inventa un n\u00famero de magia \u2014que empieza con cierta ropa que alguien usa y que le hace ver las cosas en blanco y negro, a cuadros blancos y negros, pues ese es el aspecto del jub\u00f3n que el personaje lleva\u2014 que podr\u00eda serle \u00fatil \u2014pues a la reina le gustaba bordar\u2014. Fue curiosamente \u00e9ste el primer relato de la antolog\u00eda que se public\u00f3 al poco de llegar a librer\u00edas <em>Jonathan Strange y el se\u00f1or Norrell<\/em>. Fue el <em>New York Times<\/em> quien lo public\u00f3, sentando tambi\u00e9n un referente en aquello que la literatura de Clarke hace, sin darse cuenta, esto es, por el mero hecho de ser tan considerablemente buena como es, empeque\u00f1ecer o emborronar las fronteras del g\u00e9nero (fant\u00e1stico) y su siempre inexplicablemente prejuicioso encaje en lo real.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"5ne85h0\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/la-paciente-silenciosa-alex-michaelides-final-tiktok\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">De Agatha Christie a \u00abLa paciente silenciosa\u00bb: una mirada al maquiav\u00e9lico arte del \u00abplot twist\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/tan-poca-vida-hanya-yanagihara-libro-viral-tiktok\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00bfPor qu\u00e9 todo el mundo est\u00e1 hablando (otra vez) sobre \u00abTan poca vida\u00bb?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/historia-charles-dickens-cancion-de-navidad\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">De c\u00f3mo Dickens redefini\u00f3 la Navidad<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/abraham-verghese-el-pacto-del-agua-oprah-winfrey\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Abraham Verghese sobre la pizarra: el origen de un portento<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/dias-de-fantasmas-novela-gotica-libros-terror\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">D\u00edas de fantasmas... y de libros: un recorrido por la novela g\u00f3tica y de terror<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"4vfacv3\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos
Susanna Clarke. Crédito: Sarah M. Lee.

Susanna Clarke. Crédito: Sarah M. Lee.

Susanna Clarke es un personaje singular. Podría, ella misma, provenir de algún tipo de otro mundo en el que la magia intelectualmente documentada existiese como existe en sus novelas. En realidad, en su novela. En la monumental Jonathan Strange y el señor Norrell, obra fantástica mayor, indiscutible clásico instantáneo, algo así como la más divertida, y adictiva historia jamás contada, dickensianamente, sobre lo que podría pasar, o habría pasado, de existir, de verdad, la magia. Una magia intelectual, y formal, que podría echar guantes a los gobiernos cuando los necesitasen, y corregir hasta el más travieso de los desplantes del destino, o el azar. En cierto sentido, Jonathan Strange y el señor Norrell juega a la ucronía deseablemente imposible: detener la Historia, con mayúsculas, en determinado momento, para insertarle la posibilidad de la existencia de la magia como ciencia, un algo ordenado que pasase de las habladurías, y los estudios, de los libros de supuestas historias, a la realidad. Ese momento es el siglo XIX. En concreto, es 1806. Pero es un momento cualquiera, por supuesto. Porque la magia ha existido, en el mundo según Clarke, siempre. Y regresó a la palestra, o se la empezó a tener en cuenta otra vez, cuando apareció el señor Gilbert Norrell y prácticó ante una corte de teóricos del asunto, un poco de magia. ¿Que qué hizo? Hizo hablar a las estatuas de la Catedral de York. A continuación, John Childermass, su sirviente, convenció a un miembro del grupo, John Segundus, para que escribiese un artículo sobre lo que acababa de ocurrir. Artículo que acabó en los periódicos de Londres, y el resto fue, como suele decirse, historia.

  • ¡En oferta!
  • -5%

Las damas de Grace Adieu

Un mundo de fantasía en el que historia y magia se entrelazan de manera prodigiosa

Por la autora de JONATHAN STRANGE Y EL SEÑOR NORRELL

Jonathan Strange y el señor Norrell se publicó el año 2004. El mismo año en que se publicó El atlas de las nubes, de David Mitchell, y 2666, de Roberto Bolaño. El asombro ante el ambicioso brillo de la historia, un gótico fantástico sin igual, que invoca a la vez a Jane Austen y a Charles Dickens, un frondoso bosque con aspecto de novela en el que perderse y reencontrarse con todo aquello que hace del artefacto narrativo algo que refleja el mundo desde sus más deseables posibilidades, fue unánime. La novela, obra de una entonces, a sus 45 años, debutante, fue finalista del prestigioso Premio Booker en 2004, y ganó el Hugo en 2005, además de los también fantásticos World Fantasy y Mythopoeic. Pero ¿quién iba a decirle al mundo que aquella editora de libros de cocina —que antes había sido editora de todo tipo de libros, y luego había pasado dos años lejos de Inglaterra, dando clases de inglés en Turín y Bilbao— iba a cambiar el rumbo, en algún sentido, de la narrativa fantástica del siglo XXI, inaugurando su propio género, uno en el que la alta literatura rescata el misterio de lo humano y su necesidad de trascendencia? Clarke, nacida en Nottingham en 1952, tardó más de diez años en completar aquella, su primera novela, con la que luchó cuerpo a cuerpo, como en una batalla en la que nadie antes se había abierto camino. Eso, se diría, es lo que ocurre con los clásicos, o al menos, con todo aquello que no tiene un igual. Durante todo ese tiempo, estuvo editando libros de cocina para Simon & Schuster. También, asistió a un taller de escritura de ciencia ficción y fantasía. El taller tenía una mínima duración de cinco días, y lo impartían un par de escritores, Geoff Ryman y Colin Greenland. Éste último acabaría siendo su marido. «Lo primero que se me apareció fue un hombre vestido como si acabara de llegar del siglo XVIII. Lo vi en una plaza de lo que me pareció Venecia. Estaba hablando con turistas ingleses, y supe que tenía algo que ver con la magia, y que había hecho algo horrible», contó, en alguna entrevista, después de la aparición del libro. También dijo que por entonces había releído El señor de los anillos, de J. R. R. Tolkien, y que, de repente, le apetecía escribir una novela de fantasía. Pero volvamos al taller de Greenland y Ryman. Porque lo que nos interesa, el libro que acabó publicándose después del éxito de Jonathan Strange y el señor Norrell, la antología de relatos titulada Las damas de Grace Adieu —que Salamandra ha editado por primera vez en español recientemente—, está íntimamente relacionado con aquel taller. Y es, de hecho, el punto de partida de la novela. Lo que se ha tenido, desde el principio, como una especie de spin-off de la historia del par de famosos y engreídos magos, es aquello sin lo que, tal vez, no existiría.

¿Quién iba a decirle al mundo que aquella editora de libros de cocina —que antes había sido editora de todo tipo de libros, y luego había pasado dos años lejos de Inglaterra, dando clases de inglés en Turín y Bilbao— iba a cambiar el rumbo, en algún sentido, de la narrativa fantástica del siglo XXI, inaugurando su propio género, uno en el que la alta literatura rescata el misterio de lo humano y su necesidad de trascendencia?

¿Que por qué? Veamos. Para asistir al taller de escritura era necesario presentar un relato. Clarke no tenía un relato en sí mismo, sino pedazos de aquella novela en marcha. Pero uno de aquellos pedazos podía bien considerarse algo parecido a un relato. Así que lo compuso, le dio un principio y un final y lo presentó. Aquel relato contaba la historia de tres mujeres que practicaban en secreto la magia y que eran sorprendidas por el mismísimo Jonathan Strange, por entonces ya, en la mente de Clarke, un famoso mago, uno de los dos protagonistas de su novela. Lo llamó Las damas de Grace Adieu. A Greenland le fascinó de tal manera que, sin el permiso de Clarke, se lo mandó a su amigo Neil Gaiman. Lo que Gaiman dijo después de aquel relato fue: «Me fascinó lo portentoso que parecía. Era un primer relato. Al leerlo me sentí como si hubiera visto a alguien sentarse ante un piano por primera vez y tocar una sonata». Y lo que siguió a aquel taller, y a los años, arduos, de composición de la novela, es historia. Una historia que se cierra con todos los premios antes mencionados, y con la adaptación a televisión que, con éxito, llevó a cabo Toby Haynes (Doctor Who, Black Mirror, Sherlock) en 2015. Clarke, extrañamente extenuada tras los primeros encuentros con lectores después de la publicación de Jonathan Strange y el señor Norrell, desapareció del mapa durante un tiempo. Tanto tiempo que, como me contó desde el salón de su casa, con una reproducción de La Torre Roja, el célebre cuadro de Giorgio De Chirico a sus espaldas, había llegado a pensar de sí misma que jamás podría volver a escribir nada. Y he aquí la otra razón por la que este volumen, Las damas de Grace Adieu, también importa. Porque durante demasiado tiempo se creyó que sería lo único que el mundo lector, tan ávido de cualquier cosa que firmase la súbitamente esquiva Susanna Clarke, el genio que había aparecido para, un instante después, como en un truco de magia, desaparecer, iba a recibir después de aquella primera y quién sabía entonces si única novela.

No iba a ser así.

Pero durante mucho tiempo, años, se creyó que sí.

Cubiertas de varias ediciones de Las damas de Grace Adieu. Crédito: D. R.

Cubiertas de varias ediciones de Las damas de Grace Adieu. Crédito: D. R.

El año de publicación original de Las damas de Grace Adieu es 2006. Es decir, un año después de que Jonathan Strange y el señor Norrell ganase el Premio Hugo, y de que Clarke se encerrase en casa, aquejada de fatiga crónica. «De veras pensé que jamás podría volver a escribir», me dijo aquel día. Era el año 2021, y por fortuna, ya había vuelto. Aunque no había recuperado su vida social —el encuentro tuvo lugar a través de una videollamada—, acababa de publicar una nueva novela, breve, extraña, fabulosa: Piranesi. Piranesi es la historia de un hombre que vive en una casa en la que está aprisionado un océano, dedicado a observar, como me dijo, «hechos que él considera absolutos, pero finalmente puede que esté equivocado». Tiene, la novela, la obsesión de Jorge Luis Borges por los laberintos —fue, de hecho, la obra del autor argentino lo que la inspiró—, e invoca el espíritu de Giovanni Battista Piranesi. Se dice que la obra de Piranesi, arquitecto y grabador —sus más de 2.000 grabados de edificios reales e imaginarios de la época romana— anticiparon o, mejor, cimentaron el neoclasicismo a finales del siglo XVIII. En cualquier caso, eso ocurriría más tarde. Por entonces, año 2006, todo, a Susanna Clarke, le parecía imposible. Estaba cansada, y le dolía todo, y no se imaginaba volviendo a escribir, pero tenía todos aquellos relatos, así que ¿por qué no podía publicarlos, y permitir a su universo mágico expandirse? Porque eso es Las damas de Grace Adieu. Una ampliación de su reino mágico. El reino mágico de una escritora enigmáticamente perfecta.

Lo que Neil Gaiman dijo después de aquel relato [titulado Las damas de Grace Adieu] fue: «Me fascinó lo portentoso que parecía. Era un primer relato. Al leerlo me sentí como si hubiera visto a alguien sentarse ante un piano por primera vez y tocar una sonata».

La antología la forman ocho relatos, y un prólogo introductorio —igualmente mágico, en un sentido, también literario— firmado por el inexistente, el jugosamente ficticio profesor James Sutherland, el director de Estudios de Sidhe de la Universidad de Aberdeen. Sutherland pretende instruir al lector en el desarrollo de la magia en las Islas Británicas, y, sobre todo, centrarse en la forma en que ésta puede afectar a la vida cotidiana del lugar, haciendo especial hincapié en la relación entre humanos y duendes, o entre los habitantes de ciertas poblaciones de la campiña inglesa, y la no del todo oculta, omnipresente, Tierra de Duendes. Porque si algo tienen en común los relatos incluidos en Las damas de Grace Adieu es que, en un sentido u otro, están protagonizados por duendes. No siempre son el mismo tipo de duendes. Aunque siempre son duendes poderosos, y en algún sentido, temibles. Como lo es el duende que en el relato titulado En el monte Lickerish pacta con la protagonista algo que podría hacerla desaparecer —a cambio de un puñado de madejas de hilo que su madre prometió que ella sería capaz de hilar una vez se casase—, o la maléfica mujer del tamaño de un pimentero que mantiene secuestrado al prometido de Venetia en La señora Mabb. Hay un relato, El duque de Wellington extravía el caballo, que se sitúa en el mundo por Neil Gailman y Charles Vess en Stardust. Y otro, narrado a través de un diario que el protagonista comparte con una tal señora Gathercole —madre de cinco damiselas extraordinariamente solícitas—, en el que un párroco recién llegado a Derbyshire parece haber asistido el parto de alguien que no existe. ¿Su título? El señor Simonelli o el viudo duende. Ocurre en ese cuento, y sobre todo en el siguiente, Tom Brightwind o cómo se construyó el puente mágico de Thoresby, que el uso de documentos que se tienen por oficiales —cartas, diarios personales, e incluso cuentos basados en la supuesta historia real— trata de reforzar la posibilidad de la existencia de esa Tierra de Duendes y, en definitiva, de la magia. En este último relato, por cierto, hace uso Clarke de las notas al pie que tan sabiamente utiliza en Jonathan Strange y el señor Norrell, notas al pie que se convierten en historias paralelas, o en otras historias —capítulos paralelos, o intrahistorias—, y dan muestra de la extraordinaria e inacabable imaginación de la escritora.

El uso de los documentos supuestamente oficiales —incluidos desde el arranque, con el prólogo del tal profesor Sutherland— es una de las dos cosas que unen estos relatos —además del asunto de los duendes—. La otra es lo femenino. Porque se diría que Jonathan Strange y el señor Norrell dejó fuera a la magia hecha por mujeres de una manera que aquí resulta central, y única. En cierto sentido, Las damas de Grace Adieu se ha considerado una «revisión feminista» de aquella, pues en estos relatos, son los hombres los que padecen los efectos de lo mágico, y las mujeres quienes conjuran, o invocan lo inexplicable. Su condición de fábula es también superior en todo caso. Pensemos en la forma en que se le aparece la casa de la señora Mabb a Venetia en múltiples ocasiones, siempre como una torre altísima pero a la vez comparada con algo que debería ser pequeño, en la distancia, y aparentemente, por lo tanto, minúscula. Y en cómo despierta cada vez desmemoriada, y magullada, como si hubiera sido víctima de algún tipo de atropello que no recuerda. Lo maldito de las historias de Los hermanos Grimm está por todas partes, y la magia, de bosque, asociada a los duendes, es del todo distinta a la que aparece en la novela. El tono es macabro y a la vez satírico, y el juego de espejos con los géneros populares, y la multiplicidad de supuestos autores, y la verosimilitud —hay personajes históricos ahí dentro—, hacen de la antología no sólo una pequeña joya, indómita y rara, en la obra de Clarke, sino también un tesoro híbrido en el que se espejan las narrativas de autoras tan formidablemente únicas en lo fantástico como Kelly Link, Helen Oyeyemi y, yéndonos al pasado, Barbara Comyns, o, por qué no, Angela Carter. En uno de los últimos relatos, Antickes y Frets, Clarke mete en la cárcel a María, reina de Escocia, e inventa un número de magia —que empieza con cierta ropa que alguien usa y que le hace ver las cosas en blanco y negro, a cuadros blancos y negros, pues ese es el aspecto del jubón que el personaje lleva— que podría serle útil —pues a la reina le gustaba bordar—. Fue curiosamente éste el primer relato de la antología que se publicó al poco de llegar a librerías Jonathan Strange y el señor Norrell. Fue el New York Times quien lo publicó, sentando también un referente en aquello que la literatura de Clarke hace, sin darse cuenta, esto es, por el mero hecho de ser tan considerablemente buena como es, empequeñecer o emborronar las fronteras del género (fantástico) y su siempre inexplicablemente prejuicioso encaje en lo real.