Literatura

Álvaro Mutis por Juan Esteban Constaín: Maqroll es universal

En el centenario del nacimiento de Álvaro Mutis (en Bogotá en 1923), Alfaguara ha recuperado -en dos entregas- la magistral saga novelística y obra cumbre del colombiano, sin duda uno de los escritores hispanoamericanos más importantes del siglo XX (un autor admirado por Gabriel García Márquez, Mario Benedetti, Octavio Paz, Héctor Abad Faciolince o Piedad Bonnett). Así, el primer volumen de «Empresas y tribulaciones de Maqroll el Gaviero» reúne las cuatro primeras novelas protagonizadas por el emblemático personaje de Mutis, un viejo marinero que surca los mares más recónditos y que se ha convertido en un arquetipo de la literatura universal. Juan Esteban Constaín, voraz lector de su compatriota, firma el prólogo de esta primera entrega (el cual reproducimos a continuación) para realizar un perfil detallado de Mutis al tiempo que ofrece contexto sobre los cuatro títulos que conforman este volumen: «La Nieve del Almirante», «Ilona llega con la lluvia», «Un bel morir» y «La última escala del 'tramp steamer'».

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Juan Esteban Consta\u00edn, voraz lector de su compatriota, firma el pr\u00f3logo de esta primera entrega (el cual reproducimos a continuaci\u00f3n) para realizar un perfil detallado de Mutis al tiempo que ofrece contexto sobre los cuatro t\u00edtulos que conforman este volumen: \u00abLa Nieve del Almirante\u00bb, \u00abIlona llega con la lluvia\u00bb, \u00abUn bel morir\u00bb y \u00abLa \u00faltima escala del 'tramp 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Pero siempre dec\u00eda lo mismo, como pensando en voz alta: \u00abCuando me jubile, carajo, dejo salir a Maqroll\u00bb.<\/p><p>Lo cierto es que un par de a\u00f1os antes de su ansiada jubilaci\u00f3n, y despu\u00e9s de una vida entera dedicada a los m\u00e1s variados y estramb\u00f3ticos oficios, desde el de locutor de radio hasta el de vendedor de pel\u00edculas en medio mundo, Mutis se sent\u00f3 y escribi\u00f3 la que ser\u00eda la primera entrega de la saga novelesca sobre Maqroll el Gaviero, publicada en 1986 con el t\u00edtulo de <em>La Nieve del Almirante<\/em>, el mismo de un poema en prosa, con clar\u00edsimas intenciones narrativas, que estaba en <em>Caravansary<\/em>, su hermoso poemario de 1981. Hay quienes han se\u00f1alado, obvio, la filiaci\u00f3n entre ese poema y la novela, como si en el primero estuviera la semilla inconsciente y latente de la segunda. Y as\u00ed es: en el texto de 1981, Maqroll malvive (sobrevive, como siempre) en lo m\u00e1s alto de la cordillera. 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dec\u00eda que \u00e9sa era la fuente secreta de toda su obra: el recuerdo y la nostalgia de su infancia en la hacienda cafetera de Coello que su familia ten\u00eda en el Tolima. All\u00ed conoci\u00f3 el para\u00edso, un para\u00edso perdido y recobrado luego en su poes\u00eda. Ese olor, ese clima, ese mundo, dec\u00eda, eran el venero del que manaba su literatura. Por eso buena parte de las aventuras y desventuras de Maqroll tienen ese paisaje inequ\u00edvoco y no siempre expl\u00edcito; desde el principio, desde sus primeros y visionarios poemas, el entorno es siempre el mismo: el tr\u00f3pico como un destino abrasador e implacable, el tiempo que se disuelve y se funde en la vegetaci\u00f3n corrosiva y malsana, los elementos del desastre. Y \u00abLa Nieve del Almirante\u00bb, el poema de 1981, no es la excepci\u00f3n: el Gaviero arrastra en su pierna derecha una herida purulenta y atroz que lo hace cojear. As\u00ed camina, con su pasado a cuestas. Lo que vemos de \u00e9l es ese instante, esa imagen, en eso consiste la poes\u00eda, que nos revela la sucesi\u00f3n interminable de proezas fallidas y conmovedoras empresas y tribulaciones de Maqroll, no en vano Octavio Paz lo consider\u00f3, desde muy pronto, un h\u00e9roe rom\u00e1ntico. Siempre al borde del abismo, siempre empe\u00f1ado en lo imposible, que se justifica s\u00f3lo por eso, ah\u00ed est\u00e1 su valor y su grandeza, jam\u00e1s por los resultados obtenidos o esperados.<\/p><p>Est\u00e1 muy claro que en toda la poes\u00eda de Mutis, protagonizada en su gran mayor\u00eda por Maqroll el Gaviero, lo que hab\u00eda era un relato \u00e9pico y una novela que durante d\u00e9cadas, hasta 1986, se fue anunciando s\u00f3lo en destellos y fulgores, fragmentos\u00a0apenas que sin embargo conten\u00edan la totalidad de ese universo que s\u00f3lo se iba a completar y a esclarecer con la saga que inauguran <em>La Nieve del Almirante<\/em> e <em>Ilona llega con la lluvia<\/em>. Pero lo m\u00e1s impresionante, lo m\u00e1s estremecedor, es que eso ya estaba en \u00abLa oraci\u00f3n de Maqroll\u00bb, el primer poema en el que \u00c1lvaro Mutis invoca a su h\u00e9roe y nos lo presenta en 1948, en La balanza, ese libro juvenil escrito a cuatro manos con Carlos Pati\u00f1o Rosselli y del cual dec\u00edan sus autores que hab\u00eda sido el libro m\u00e1s exitoso de la historia de Occidente, pues su primera y \u00fanica edici\u00f3n se agot\u00f3 en menos de dos horas, por incineraci\u00f3n. La balanza, en efecto, fue publicado el 9 de abril de 1948 por la editorial Prag, cuyos talleres ardieron esa tarde que el pueblo bogotano, enloquecido y borracho, sali\u00f3 a vengar la muerte de su caudillo, Jorge Eli\u00e9cer Gait\u00e1n. Y all\u00ed, en ese poema, en esa plegaria clarividente, Maqroll ya es el que ser\u00eda para toda la vida hasta su muerte en los esteros:<\/p><p><em>Con tu barba de asirio y tus callosas manos, preside \u00a1Oh, fe-<br \/><\/em><em>cund\u00edsimo! la bendici\u00f3n de las piscinas p\u00fablicas y el sub-<br \/><\/em><em>secuente ba\u00f1o de los adolescentes sin pecado.<\/em><\/p><p><em>\u00a1Oh Se\u00f1or! recibe las preces de este avizor suplicante y conc\u00e9de-<br \/><\/em><em>le la gracia de morir envuelto en el polvo de las ciudades,\u00a0<br \/><\/em><em>recostado en las grader\u00edas de una casa infame e ilumina-<br \/><\/em><em>do por todas las estrellas del firmamento.<\/em><\/p><p><em>Recuerda Se\u00f1or que tu siervo ha observado pacientemente las\u00a0<br \/><\/em><em>leyes de la manada. 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Su autor sol\u00eda decir, cuando se lo preguntaban, que era su coartada perfecta para poder destilar en sus poemas todas esas verdades te\u00f1idas de experiencia y de distancia, lo uno por lo otro. Tambi\u00e9n en eso consiste la poes\u00eda. Mutis ten\u00eda veintid\u00f3s a\u00f1os cuando Maqroll se le apareci\u00f3 por primera vez y fue como un milagro porque gracias a \u00e9l pudo expresar lo que en su boca habr\u00eda sido inconcebible para un joven de esa edad. Entonces le puso a su personaje un nombre que aspiraba, como el de la Kodak, seg\u00fan sus propias palabras, a que sonara igual en todas las lenguas: Maqroll el Gaviero, un vidente, un navegante atracado en tierra firme y comprometido siempre en las empresas m\u00e1s absurdas y febriles, las cuales asume con absoluta seriedad, con la resignaci\u00f3n y la solemnidad del que sabe que la vida se honra y se justifica en esos rituales y esas ceremonias que nada tienen que ver con las quimeras de la modernidad: el \u00e9xito, la riqueza, la fama, la superaci\u00f3n personal.<\/p><p>Lo mejor de Maqroll, lo m\u00e1s bello y perdurable, es su concepci\u00f3n del mundo, su \u00e9tica, emparentada hasta lo m\u00e1s profundo, claro, con la de su autor, quien a lo largo de la vida, y conforme iba madurando, fue adjudic\u00e1ndole a su inolvidable personaje muchas de sus peripecias y aventuras, al punto de que no era f\u00e1cil saber bien qu\u00e9 de aquello le hab\u00eda pasado de verdad a cu\u00e1l de los dos. En ese sentido, el Gaviero es una invenci\u00f3n en el significado latino de la palabra, porque <em>invenire<\/em> quiere decir, en esa lengua, descubrir, desentra\u00f1ar. Mutis fue el amanuense, el demiurgo de un ser que era a la vez su interlocutor y su reflejo, su compa\u00f1ero de viaje, su sombra y el int\u00e9rprete m\u00e1s certero de su forma de pensar. Y viceversa, por eso \u00e9l mismo dec\u00eda: \u00abNo hay nada de Maqroll que no sea m\u00edo\u00bb. Pero en el plano simb\u00f3lico el solo oficio del Gaviero ya dice mucho de su destino y de su suerte: la gavia es la vela del palo mayor de una nave, hasta all\u00ed sube el gaviero a observar el horizonte y a intuir\u00a0el curso de los vientos. Es lo mismo que hace el poeta, de ah\u00ed que \u00abgavia\u00bb tambi\u00e9n significara, en el siglo xviii, como lo escribi\u00f3 don Esteban de Terreros en su <em>Diccionario castellano<\/em>, Madrid, Imprenta de la Viuda de Ibarra, MDCCLXXXVII,\u00a0\u00abjaula de palo en que se encierra a un loco\u00bb. \u00c9sa es la percepci\u00f3n que tienen los dem\u00e1s de Maqroll: que es un demente, un sujeto por fuera del mundo. En realidad es un hombre decoroso y digno que vive seg\u00fan sus reglas y su c\u00f3digo de honor; un descre\u00eddo, ya dije, de todas las mentiras de la modernidad.<\/p><p>Mutis tambi\u00e9n era as\u00ed: reaccionario, mon\u00e1rquico, legitimista. Y hablaba muy en serio cuando dec\u00eda que el \u00faltimo episodio pol\u00edtico que le importaba de verdad en la historia era la ca\u00edda de Constantinopla a manos de los infieles en 1453. Se declaraba gibelino sin ning\u00fan pudor, es decir partidario de los emperadores germ\u00e1nicos en su lucha contra el papado. Maqroll es igual: un ser intemporal que llega a los aserraderos del Tolima o del Quind\u00edo en pos de un negocio que de antemano sabe perdido y catastr\u00f3fico, y en el bolsillo lleva las <em>Memorias de ultratumba<\/em>, de Chateaubriand, o las<em> Memorias<\/em> de Jean-Fran\u00e7ois Paul de Gondi, el Cardenal de Retz. Su obsesi\u00f3n, quiz\u00e1s la de ambos, Mutis y Maqroll, es entender las razones que llevaron a esa guerra in\u00fatil entre los borgo\u00f1ones y los armagnacs en la Francia del siglo xv. Los dos saben que la Tierra es el exilio por naturaleza del ser humano: el lugar de la expulsi\u00f3n del para\u00edso. Tienen un consuelo y un refugio, la amistad. La certeza de que todo en este mundo es vano y el valor de nadie no est\u00e1 determinado por los prejuicios de la sociedad ni por lo material y lo tangible, por eso una de las m\u00e1ximas de Maqroll es la de no juzgar jam\u00e1s a nadie, nunca, por nada. O as\u00ed lo dice en su desbocada letan\u00eda de la \u00abVisita del Gaviero\u00bb, un poema aparecido en <em>Los Emisarios<\/em>, en 1984: \u00abSaber que nadie escucha a nadie. 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All\u00ed, en su cruj\u00eda, el poeta colombiano fue testigo y part\u00edcipe de una de las tragedias humanas m\u00e1s desgarradoras que pueda haber, en medio de la cual asisti\u00f3 tambi\u00e9n a la irrupci\u00f3n inesperada y sobrecogedora de valores como la solidaridad, la nobleza, la ternura, la bondad, tanto m\u00e1s conmovedores cuanto m\u00e1s se hac\u00edan evidentes y dolorosos el contexto y la naturaleza, la desgracia de quienes los encarnaban y compart\u00edan. La vida en el\u00a0\u00abPalacio Negro\u00bb de Lecumberri fue para Mutis como estar en una de las novelas de su adorado Charles Dickens, y las ense\u00f1anzas que extrajo de ella se quedaron para siempre en su obra y en su alma. No es gratuito que fuera en la c\u00e1rcel donde escribi\u00f3 su primera gran pieza narrativa, un cuento que se llama \u00abLa muerte del estratega\u00bb y que es una absoluta obra maestra, uno de los relatos m\u00e1s bellos de nuestra lengua. En \u00e9l, un estratega bizantino del Thema de Lycandos, Alar el Ilirio, descubre que nada es m\u00e1s importante que el amor. Ni la fe, ni la gloria, ni el poder, nada. Pero el suyo es un amor fugaz y fatal, condenado desde el principio al fracaso y a la muerte; y sin embargo en \u00e9l est\u00e1 la redenci\u00f3n, la justificaci\u00f3n de la vida. Alar el Ilirio es una especie de Maqroll en el Imperio Romano de Oriente: un h\u00e9roe rom\u00e1ntico que vive a contrapelo de la historia; un derrotado, \u00e9sa es su victoria, como en el caso del Gaviero.<\/p><p>La desesperanza, se ha dicho muchas veces, y es cierto, es la clave para entender la obra de \u00c1lvaro Mutis. Sobre ese tema, con el pretexto de la novela<em> Victory<\/em>, de Joseph Conrad, escribi\u00f3 una conferencia brillante que dio en la Casa del Lago de la\u00a0UNAM en 1965; ah\u00ed est\u00e1 toda su po\u00e9tica, su filosof\u00eda. Pero la desesperanza no es el pesimismo ni el des\u00e1nimo, no es la renuncia a la vida ni es la amargura. No. La desesperanza es la certeza de que \u00abel hombre es un problema sin soluci\u00f3n humana\u00bb, como escribi\u00f3 Nicol\u00e1s G\u00f3mez D\u00e1vila, uno de los mejores amigos y mentores de Mutis y un escritor al que idolatraba, del cual tambi\u00e9n extrajo el \u00faltimo ep\u00edgrafe que abre su novela <em>Un bel morir<\/em>, de 1989: \u00abTodo hombre vive su vida como un animal acosado\u00bb. Eso es lo que caracteriza y define a Maqroll tanto\u00a0en los libros de poemas como en las novelas: su profundo escepticismo y su compasi\u00f3n, su acatamiento del destino como un hecho irreversible y al mismo tiempo risible, su desprecio por el triunfo y la victoria como una de las grandes trampas de la condici\u00f3n humana. Pero el Gaviero \u2013y su autor era un gran lector de Julio Verne\u2013 es el personaje central de un relato de aventuras en prosa y en verso: su vida es no s\u00f3lo un reproche y una cr\u00edtica al mundo moderno sino tambi\u00e9n un intento permanente por sabotearlo desde la acci\u00f3n. La de Maqroll es una \u00e9pica de la derrota, una declaraci\u00f3n de principios que va mucho m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de la contemplaci\u00f3n y la quietud.<\/p><p>Y ah\u00ed s\u00ed est\u00e1 muy claro el tr\u00e1nsito que \u00c1lvaro Mutis oficia entre sus poemarios y sus novelas (y n\u00f3tese bien que no hablo del tr\u00e1nsito entre su poes\u00eda y su narrativa: en su obra esa frontera no existe o carece por completo de sentido, \u00e9sa es la gracia) porque con cada nuevo libro, antes de <em>La Nieve del Almirante<\/em>, en 1986, la vida del Gaviero va revel\u00e1ndose m\u00e1s y lo que la constituye no son s\u00f3lo sus imprecaciones, sus im\u00e1genes, sus letan\u00edas sino ahora tambi\u00e9n sus proezas y sus empresas y tribulaciones. Ya en la <em>Rese\u00f1a de los Hospitales de Ultramar<\/em> los poemas en prosa nos muestran a Maqroll dedicado de lleno a sus delirantes y hermosos y ociosos oficios; ya all\u00ed se dice de \u00e9l:<\/p><p><em>Derivaba el Gaviero un cierto consuelo de su trato con las gentes. Vert\u00eda sobre sus oyentes la melancol\u00eda de sus largos viajes y la nostalgia de los lugares que eran caros a su memoria y de los que destilaba la raz\u00f3n de su vida.\u00a0<\/em><\/p><p><em>Pero fue en el Hospital del R\u00edo en donde aprendi\u00f3 a gustar de la soledad y a rescatar en ella la \u00fanica, la imperecedera substancia de sus d\u00edas. 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en <em>Caravansary<\/em> y en <em>Los Emisarios,<\/em> conviviendo con bell\u00edsimas reflexiones hist\u00f3ricas o personales como la del funeral del Duque de Viana o la del gorri\u00f3n que entra al Mexuar de la Alhambra, Maqroll el Gaviero es ya, con toda claridad, un personaje de novela. En sus apariciones en esos libros est\u00e1 anunciado lo que vendr\u00e1 a partir de 1986 con <em>La Nieve del Almirante.<\/em> Baste leer, por ejemplo, ese poema en prosa que se llama \u00abEl Ca\u00f1\u00f3n de Aracuriare\u00bb: ah\u00ed hay un relato perfecto, casi un cuento, en el que el Gaviero se ha escapado de la poes\u00eda, aunque siempre la arrastra consigo, la lleva impregnada en sus llagas y estigmas, y va al acecho de la narrativa. Mutis es apenas el notario de ese prodigio, su dichoso y resignado oficiante:<\/p><p><em>El Gaviero viaj\u00f3 all\u00ed para entregar unos instrumentos y balanzas y una alcuza de mercurio encargados por un par de gambusinos con los que hab\u00eda tenido trato en un puerto petrolero <\/em><em>de la costa. Al llegar se enter\u00f3 que sus clientes hab\u00edan fallecido hac\u00eda varias semanas. Un alma piadosa los enterr\u00f3 a la entrada del ca\u00f1\u00f3n. Una tabla carcomida ten\u00eda escritos sus <\/em><em>nombres en improbable ortograf\u00eda que el Gaviero apenas pudo descifrar. Penetr\u00f3 en el ca\u00f1\u00f3n y se fue internando por entre playones en cuya lisa superficie aparec\u00edan de vez en cuando el <\/em><em>esqueleto de un ave o los restos de una almad\u00eda arrastrada por la corriente desde alg\u00fan lejano caser\u00edo valle arriba...<\/em><\/p><p>Por eso es por lo que hay que volver a la filiaci\u00f3n obvia entre el poema \u00abLa Nieve del Almirante\u00bb y la novela del mismo t\u00edtulo; all\u00ed est\u00e1 todo. En 1981, en el poema, vemos a Maqroll con su herida supurante y acompa\u00f1ado por una extra\u00f1a mujer, la t\u00edpica mujer de la tierra caliente, como le dijo Mutis a Eduardo Garc\u00eda Aguilar en una entrevista. En 1986, en la novela, esa mujer es Flor Estevez y la aventura del Gaviero consiste en remontar el r\u00edo Xurand\u00f3 mientras va escribiendo un diario, el cual encuentra \u00c1lvaro Mutis, el autor y personaje, en una librer\u00eda de viejo en el Barrio G\u00f3tico de Barcelona. En realidad lo que Mutis encuentra es un libro sobre la muerte del Duque de Orleans, pero all\u00ed, agazapado entre sus pliegues, est\u00e1 el diario.\u00a0\u00c9sa es la primera entrega de la saga; la primera salida novelada, por fin, de Maqroll el Gaviero. De ah\u00ed se desgajaron, en cascada, los siete libros de la serie: una impresionante haza\u00f1a literaria que hoy vuelve a las manos de los lectores, por suerte. As\u00ed la exalt\u00f3 Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez en 1993: \u00abSiempre pens\u00e9 que la lentitud de su creaci\u00f3n era causada por sus oficios tir\u00e1nicos. Pens\u00e9 adem\u00e1s que estaba agravada por el desastre de su caligraf\u00eda, que parece hecha con pluma de ganso, y por el ganso mismo, y cuyos trazos de vampiro har\u00edan aullar de pavor a los mastines en la niebla de Transilvania. \u00c9l me dijo cuando se lo dije, hace muchos a\u00f1os, que tan pronto como se jubilara de sus galeras iba a ponerse al d\u00eda con sus libros. Que haya sido as\u00ed, y que haya saltado sin paraca\u00eddas de sus aviones eternos a la tierra firme de una gloria abundante y merecida, es uno de los grandes milagros de nuestras letras: ocho libros en seis a\u00f1os...\u00bb.<\/p><p>La gran literatura es una forma particular y \u00fanica de ver el mundo, de nombrarlo. Los grandes escritores no son sino eso: una voz irremplazable, una entonaci\u00f3n que es la que nos seduce y maravilla, nos inquieta, nos hace seguirla por todos los recodos que va abriendo, la ruta luminosa de un estilo, unos temas, unas obsesiones. Quiz\u00e1s no haya un logro est\u00e9tico y art\u00edstico m\u00e1s grande que \u00e9se, crear un mundo, dotarlo de un protagonista que trasciende la voluntad de su creador y, en el caso concreto de la literatura, se vuelve una presencia tan consistente y poderosa que acompa\u00f1a a los lectores como si fuera un gran amigo o un miembro de su casa, a veces incluso m\u00e1s que los que s\u00ed lo son de verdad. Pocos autores lograron ese milagro, \u00c1lvaro Mutis lo hizo con Maqroll el Gaviero. Y al hacerlo honr\u00f3 a sus maestros: a Conrad, a Valery Larbaud, a don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. No creo que se le pueda pedir m\u00e1s a un escritor, no se me ocurre mayor gloria que \u00e9sa.\u00a0<\/p><p>Por mi parte puedo decir que haberme encontrado con la obra de \u00c1lvaro Mutis fue una de las cosas m\u00e1s felices e importantes que me ocurrieron en la vida; su influencia es una de las razones por las que quise hacerme escritor. Su voz y su poes\u00eda, su lucidez, su humor, su altivez, su sabidur\u00eda, me acompa\u00f1an todos los d\u00edas bajo la especie de un verso, una frase, una an\u00e9cdota, el recuerdo de su generosidad sin sombras ni reparos. Tambi\u00e9n Maqroll el Gaviero va conmigo: basta invocarlo para reencontrarme con \u00e9l, con Abdul Bashur y su ojo perdido que era el de don Ernesto Volkening, con Jamil vestido como rey mago en Pollensa. Esta edici\u00f3n de las novelas del maestro conmemora el primer centenario de su nacimiento; me llena de orgullo y de emoci\u00f3n poder vincular mi nombre, para siempre, al de una celebraci\u00f3n tan merecida y tan feliz.<\/p><p>Buen viento y buena mar: \u00abDuerme el guerrero, s\u00f3lo sus armas velan...\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cop48w0\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/adolfo-bioy-casares-martin-caparros\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Bioy Casares por Caparr\u00f3s: un escritor de clase<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/lucia-berlin-sara-mesa-una-nueva-vida\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Lucia Berlin por Sara Mesa: todos esos nombres, todas esas vidas<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/arthur-rimbaud-por-sylvain-tesson-el-azimut-y-el-meandro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Arthur Rimbaud por Sylvain Tesson: el \u00abazimut\u00bb y el meandro<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/roberto-bolano-por-lina-meruane-nunca-mas-volvio-a-verlo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Roberto Bola\u00f1o por Lina Meruane: nunca m\u00e1s volvi\u00f3 a verlo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/natalia-ginzburg-por-elena-medel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Natalia Ginzburg por Elena Medel: el viaje de una hormiga por las grietas de un muro<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/james-salter-john-banville-prologo-cuentos-completos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">James Salter por John Banville: hay belleza en lo 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10 minutos
Álvaro Mutis Jaramillo en el Festival de Venecia, el 30 de agosto de 1996. Crédito: Getty Images.

Álvaro Mutis Jaramillo en el Festival de Venecia, el 30 de agosto de 1996. Crédito: Getty Images.

Álvaro Mutis solía decirles a sus amigos que el día en que se jubilara iba a escribir por fin la gran novela de Maqroll el Gaviero, ese personaje desastrado y marginal, estoico y lúcido, que lo acompañaba en su poesía desde los veintidós años. Todos pensaban, entre tequila y tequila, que esa promesa era una más de sus ocurrencias geniales, y se echaban a reír mientras él los seguía deslumbrando con alguna de sus historias prodigiosas, quizás la de Pandolfo Petrucci, tirano de Siena, quien se subía al monte Amiato y hacía que sus esclavos cortaran piedras gigantes para luego lanzarlas al vacío y ver si un pobre desdichado iba pasando por allí y alguna le caía encima para carcajearse, así de cruel es el destino. Mutis tenía eso: el encanto inagotable de un prestidigitador y sus anécdotas históricas o personales lo volvían de inmediato, donde estuviera, el alma de la fiesta, el dueño de todas las miradas, porque además era apuesto y culto y su risa se oía al otro lado de la Tierra. Pero siempre decía lo mismo, como pensando en voz alta: «Cuando me jubile, carajo, dejo salir a Maqroll».

Lo cierto es que un par de años antes de su ansiada jubilación, y después de una vida entera dedicada a los más variados y estrambóticos oficios, desde el de locutor de radio hasta el de vendedor de películas en medio mundo, Mutis se sentó y escribió la que sería la primera entrega de la saga novelesca sobre Maqroll el Gaviero, publicada en 1986 con el título de La Nieve del Almirante, el mismo de un poema en prosa, con clarísimas intenciones narrativas, que estaba en Caravansary, su hermoso poemario de 1981. Hay quienes han señalado, obvio, la filiación entre ese poema y la novela, como si en el primero estuviera la semilla inconsciente y latente de la segunda. Y así es: en el texto de 1981, Maqroll malvive (sobrevive, como siempre) en lo más alto de la cordillera. Allí regenta una tienda que se llama La Nieve del Almirante y repara sus heridas mientras ve pasar los camiones que suben y bajan por el Alto de La Línea, aunque eso no esté dicho, pero el paisaje sí es ése, como el de casi toda su literatura: la «tierra caliente», el ardoroso clima de la zona cafetera colombiana que se concentra en la bruma del páramo para desembocar luego, como un río desatado entre cámbulos y guaduas y piedras monumentales, en el Valle del Cauca.

Mutis decía que ésa era la fuente secreta de toda su obra: el recuerdo y la nostalgia de su infancia en la hacienda cafetera de Coello que su familia tenía en el Tolima. Allí conoció el paraíso, un paraíso perdido y recobrado luego en su poesía. Ese olor, ese clima, ese mundo, decía, eran el venero del que manaba su literatura. Por eso buena parte de las aventuras y desventuras de Maqroll tienen ese paisaje inequívoco y no siempre explícito; desde el principio, desde sus primeros y visionarios poemas, el entorno es siempre el mismo: el trópico como un destino abrasador e implacable, el tiempo que se disuelve y se funde en la vegetación corrosiva y malsana, los elementos del desastre. Y «La Nieve del Almirante», el poema de 1981, no es la excepción: el Gaviero arrastra en su pierna derecha una herida purulenta y atroz que lo hace cojear. Así camina, con su pasado a cuestas. Lo que vemos de él es ese instante, esa imagen, en eso consiste la poesía, que nos revela la sucesión interminable de proezas fallidas y conmovedoras empresas y tribulaciones de Maqroll, no en vano Octavio Paz lo consideró, desde muy pronto, un héroe romántico. Siempre al borde del abismo, siempre empeñado en lo imposible, que se justifica sólo por eso, ahí está su valor y su grandeza, jamás por los resultados obtenidos o esperados.

Está muy claro que en toda la poesía de Mutis, protagonizada en su gran mayoría por Maqroll el Gaviero, lo que había era un relato épico y una novela que durante décadas, hasta 1986, se fue anunciando sólo en destellos y fulgores, fragmentos apenas que sin embargo contenían la totalidad de ese universo que sólo se iba a completar y a esclarecer con la saga que inauguran La Nieve del Almirante e Ilona llega con la lluvia. Pero lo más impresionante, lo más estremecedor, es que eso ya estaba en «La oración de Maqroll», el primer poema en el que Álvaro Mutis invoca a su héroe y nos lo presenta en 1948, en La balanza, ese libro juvenil escrito a cuatro manos con Carlos Patiño Rosselli y del cual decían sus autores que había sido el libro más exitoso de la historia de Occidente, pues su primera y única edición se agotó en menos de dos horas, por incineración. La balanza, en efecto, fue publicado el 9 de abril de 1948 por la editorial Prag, cuyos talleres ardieron esa tarde que el pueblo bogotano, enloquecido y borracho, salió a vengar la muerte de su caudillo, Jorge Eliécer Gaitán. Y allí, en ese poema, en esa plegaria clarividente, Maqroll ya es el que sería para toda la vida hasta su muerte en los esteros:

Con tu barba de asirio y tus callosas manos, preside ¡Oh, fe-
cundísimo! la bendición de las piscinas públicas y el sub-
secuente baño de los adolescentes sin pecado.

¡Oh Señor! recibe las preces de este avizor suplicante y concéde-
le la gracia de morir envuelto en el polvo de las ciudades, 
recostado en las graderías de una casa infame e ilumina-
do por todas las estrellas del firmamento.

Recuerda Señor que tu siervo ha observado pacientemente las 
leyes de la manada. No olvides su rostro.

Amén.

Álvaro Mutis en Ciudad de México, en diciembre de 2001. Crédito: Getty Images.

Álvaro Mutis en Ciudad de México, en diciembre de 2001. Crédito: Getty Images.

Luego, en los siguientes libros de poesía, en Los elementos del desastre, en Los trabajos perdidos y la Reseña de los Hospitales de Ultramar, en Caravansary y Los Emisarios –qué títulos, por favor–, la figura del Gaviero se irá definiendo cada vez más y su visión del mundo irá poblando y colonizando, de manera casi absoluta, la obra de un poeta cuya voz y cuyo estilo serán cada vez más decantados, más ricos, más exuberantes y a la vez más escépticos y esenciales. ¿Quién es ese personaje tan extraño y enigmático, tan sabio y universal? ¿Quién es Maqroll, de dónde surge? Su autor solía decir, cuando se lo preguntaban, que era su coartada perfecta para poder destilar en sus poemas todas esas verdades teñidas de experiencia y de distancia, lo uno por lo otro. También en eso consiste la poesía. Mutis tenía veintidós años cuando Maqroll se le apareció por primera vez y fue como un milagro porque gracias a él pudo expresar lo que en su boca habría sido inconcebible para un joven de esa edad. Entonces le puso a su personaje un nombre que aspiraba, como el de la Kodak, según sus propias palabras, a que sonara igual en todas las lenguas: Maqroll el Gaviero, un vidente, un navegante atracado en tierra firme y comprometido siempre en las empresas más absurdas y febriles, las cuales asume con absoluta seriedad, con la resignación y la solemnidad del que sabe que la vida se honra y se justifica en esos rituales y esas ceremonias que nada tienen que ver con las quimeras de la modernidad: el éxito, la riqueza, la fama, la superación personal.

Lo mejor de Maqroll, lo más bello y perdurable, es su concepción del mundo, su ética, emparentada hasta lo más profundo, claro, con la de su autor, quien a lo largo de la vida, y conforme iba madurando, fue adjudicándole a su inolvidable personaje muchas de sus peripecias y aventuras, al punto de que no era fácil saber bien qué de aquello le había pasado de verdad a cuál de los dos. En ese sentido, el Gaviero es una invención en el significado latino de la palabra, porque invenire quiere decir, en esa lengua, descubrir, desentrañar. Mutis fue el amanuense, el demiurgo de un ser que era a la vez su interlocutor y su reflejo, su compañero de viaje, su sombra y el intérprete más certero de su forma de pensar. Y viceversa, por eso él mismo decía: «No hay nada de Maqroll que no sea mío». Pero en el plano simbólico el solo oficio del Gaviero ya dice mucho de su destino y de su suerte: la gavia es la vela del palo mayor de una nave, hasta allí sube el gaviero a observar el horizonte y a intuir el curso de los vientos. Es lo mismo que hace el poeta, de ahí que «gavia» también significara, en el siglo xviii, como lo escribió don Esteban de Terreros en su Diccionario castellano, Madrid, Imprenta de la Viuda de Ibarra, MDCCLXXXVII, «jaula de palo en que se encierra a un loco». Ésa es la percepción que tienen los demás de Maqroll: que es un demente, un sujeto por fuera del mundo. En realidad es un hombre decoroso y digno que vive según sus reglas y su código de honor; un descreído, ya dije, de todas las mentiras de la modernidad.

Mutis también era así: reaccionario, monárquico, legitimista. Y hablaba muy en serio cuando decía que el último episodio político que le importaba de verdad en la historia era la caída de Constantinopla a manos de los infieles en 1453. Se declaraba gibelino sin ningún pudor, es decir partidario de los emperadores germánicos en su lucha contra el papado. Maqroll es igual: un ser intemporal que llega a los aserraderos del Tolima o del Quindío en pos de un negocio que de antemano sabe perdido y catastrófico, y en el bolsillo lleva las Memorias de ultratumba, de Chateaubriand, o las Memorias de Jean-François Paul de Gondi, el Cardenal de Retz. Su obsesión, quizás la de ambos, Mutis y Maqroll, es entender las razones que llevaron a esa guerra inútil entre los borgoñones y los armagnacs en la Francia del siglo xv. Los dos saben que la Tierra es el exilio por naturaleza del ser humano: el lugar de la expulsión del paraíso. Tienen un consuelo y un refugio, la amistad. La certeza de que todo en este mundo es vano y el valor de nadie no está determinado por los prejuicios de la sociedad ni por lo material y lo tangible, por eso una de las máximas de Maqroll es la de no juzgar jamás a nadie, nunca, por nada. O así lo dice en su desbocada letanía de la «Visita del Gaviero», un poema aparecido en Los Emisarios, en 1984: «Saber que nadie escucha a nadie. Nadie sabe nada de nadie».

Gabriel García Márquez (derecha) besa la mano de Álvaro Mutis (izq.) durante un acto celebrado en la Feria Internacional del Libro en Guadalajara, México, el 25 de noviembre de 2007. Crédito: Getty Images.

Gabriel García Márquez (derecha) besa la mano de Álvaro Mutis (izq.) durante un acto celebrado en la Feria Internacional del Libro en Guadalajara, México, el 25 de noviembre de 2007. Crédito: Getty Images.

Es muy probable que esa premisa moral, tan bella, la reafirmara Álvaro Mutis en su experiencia en la cárcel de Lecumberri, donde pasó encerrado quince meses de su vida, casi recién llegado a México entre 1958 y 1959, «por un delito del que disfrutamos muchos escritores y artistas y que sólo él pagó», como escribió Gabriel García Márquez, su amigo del alma. Allí, en su crujía, el poeta colombiano fue testigo y partícipe de una de las tragedias humanas más desgarradoras que pueda haber, en medio de la cual asistió también a la irrupción inesperada y sobrecogedora de valores como la solidaridad, la nobleza, la ternura, la bondad, tanto más conmovedores cuanto más se hacían evidentes y dolorosos el contexto y la naturaleza, la desgracia de quienes los encarnaban y compartían. La vida en el «Palacio Negro» de Lecumberri fue para Mutis como estar en una de las novelas de su adorado Charles Dickens, y las enseñanzas que extrajo de ella se quedaron para siempre en su obra y en su alma. No es gratuito que fuera en la cárcel donde escribió su primera gran pieza narrativa, un cuento que se llama «La muerte del estratega» y que es una absoluta obra maestra, uno de los relatos más bellos de nuestra lengua. En él, un estratega bizantino del Thema de Lycandos, Alar el Ilirio, descubre que nada es más importante que el amor. Ni la fe, ni la gloria, ni el poder, nada. Pero el suyo es un amor fugaz y fatal, condenado desde el principio al fracaso y a la muerte; y sin embargo en él está la redención, la justificación de la vida. Alar el Ilirio es una especie de Maqroll en el Imperio Romano de Oriente: un héroe romántico que vive a contrapelo de la historia; un derrotado, ésa es su victoria, como en el caso del Gaviero.

La desesperanza, se ha dicho muchas veces, y es cierto, es la clave para entender la obra de Álvaro Mutis. Sobre ese tema, con el pretexto de la novela Victory, de Joseph Conrad, escribió una conferencia brillante que dio en la Casa del Lago de la UNAM en 1965; ahí está toda su poética, su filosofía. Pero la desesperanza no es el pesimismo ni el desánimo, no es la renuncia a la vida ni es la amargura. No. La desesperanza es la certeza de que «el hombre es un problema sin solución humana», como escribió Nicolás Gómez Dávila, uno de los mejores amigos y mentores de Mutis y un escritor al que idolatraba, del cual también extrajo el último epígrafe que abre su novela Un bel morir, de 1989: «Todo hombre vive su vida como un animal acosado». Eso es lo que caracteriza y define a Maqroll tanto en los libros de poemas como en las novelas: su profundo escepticismo y su compasión, su acatamiento del destino como un hecho irreversible y al mismo tiempo risible, su desprecio por el triunfo y la victoria como una de las grandes trampas de la condición humana. Pero el Gaviero –y su autor era un gran lector de Julio Verne– es el personaje central de un relato de aventuras en prosa y en verso: su vida es no sólo un reproche y una crítica al mundo moderno sino también un intento permanente por sabotearlo desde la acción. La de Maqroll es una épica de la derrota, una declaración de principios que va mucho más allá de la contemplación y la quietud.

Y ahí sí está muy claro el tránsito que Álvaro Mutis oficia entre sus poemarios y sus novelas (y nótese bien que no hablo del tránsito entre su poesía y su narrativa: en su obra esa frontera no existe o carece por completo de sentido, ésa es la gracia) porque con cada nuevo libro, antes de La Nieve del Almirante, en 1986, la vida del Gaviero va revelándose más y lo que la constituye no son sólo sus imprecaciones, sus imágenes, sus letanías sino ahora también sus proezas y sus empresas y tribulaciones. Ya en la Reseña de los Hospitales de Ultramar los poemas en prosa nos muestran a Maqroll dedicado de lleno a sus delirantes y hermosos y ociosos oficios; ya allí se dice de él:

Derivaba el Gaviero un cierto consuelo de su trato con las gentes. Vertía sobre sus oyentes la melancolía de sus largos viajes y la nostalgia de los lugares que eran caros a su memoria y de los que destilaba la razón de su vida. 

Pero fue en el Hospital del Río en donde aprendió a gustar de la soledad y a rescatar en ella la única, la imperecedera substancia de sus días. Fue en el río donde vino a aficionarse a las largas horas de solitario soñador, de sumergido pesquisidor de un cierto hilo de claridad que manaba de su vigilia sin compañía ni testigos...

Álvaro Mutis en Milán en septiembre de 1997. Crédito: Getty Images.

Álvaro Mutis en Milán en septiembre de 1997. Crédito: Getty Images.

Pero en Caravansary y en Los Emisarios, conviviendo con bellísimas reflexiones históricas o personales como la del funeral del Duque de Viana o la del gorrión que entra al Mexuar de la Alhambra, Maqroll el Gaviero es ya, con toda claridad, un personaje de novela. En sus apariciones en esos libros está anunciado lo que vendrá a partir de 1986 con La Nieve del Almirante. Baste leer, por ejemplo, ese poema en prosa que se llama «El Cañón de Aracuriare»: ahí hay un relato perfecto, casi un cuento, en el que el Gaviero se ha escapado de la poesía, aunque siempre la arrastra consigo, la lleva impregnada en sus llagas y estigmas, y va al acecho de la narrativa. Mutis es apenas el notario de ese prodigio, su dichoso y resignado oficiante:

El Gaviero viajó allí para entregar unos instrumentos y balanzas y una alcuza de mercurio encargados por un par de gambusinos con los que había tenido trato en un puerto petrolero de la costa. Al llegar se enteró que sus clientes habían fallecido hacía varias semanas. Un alma piadosa los enterró a la entrada del cañón. Una tabla carcomida tenía escritos sus nombres en improbable ortografía que el Gaviero apenas pudo descifrar. Penetró en el cañón y se fue internando por entre playones en cuya lisa superficie aparecían de vez en cuando el esqueleto de un ave o los restos de una almadía arrastrada por la corriente desde algún lejano caserío valle arriba...

Por eso es por lo que hay que volver a la filiación obvia entre el poema «La Nieve del Almirante» y la novela del mismo título; allí está todo. En 1981, en el poema, vemos a Maqroll con su herida supurante y acompañado por una extraña mujer, la típica mujer de la tierra caliente, como le dijo Mutis a Eduardo García Aguilar en una entrevista. En 1986, en la novela, esa mujer es Flor Estevez y la aventura del Gaviero consiste en remontar el río Xurandó mientras va escribiendo un diario, el cual encuentra Álvaro Mutis, el autor y personaje, en una librería de viejo en el Barrio Gótico de Barcelona. En realidad lo que Mutis encuentra es un libro sobre la muerte del Duque de Orleans, pero allí, agazapado entre sus pliegues, está el diario. Ésa es la primera entrega de la saga; la primera salida novelada, por fin, de Maqroll el Gaviero. De ahí se desgajaron, en cascada, los siete libros de la serie: una impresionante hazaña literaria que hoy vuelve a las manos de los lectores, por suerte. Así la exaltó García Márquez en 1993: «Siempre pensé que la lentitud de su creación era causada por sus oficios tiránicos. Pensé además que estaba agravada por el desastre de su caligrafía, que parece hecha con pluma de ganso, y por el ganso mismo, y cuyos trazos de vampiro harían aullar de pavor a los mastines en la niebla de Transilvania. Él me dijo cuando se lo dije, hace muchos años, que tan pronto como se jubilara de sus galeras iba a ponerse al día con sus libros. Que haya sido así, y que haya saltado sin paracaídas de sus aviones eternos a la tierra firme de una gloria abundante y merecida, es uno de los grandes milagros de nuestras letras: ocho libros en seis años...».

La gran literatura es una forma particular y única de ver el mundo, de nombrarlo. Los grandes escritores no son sino eso: una voz irremplazable, una entonación que es la que nos seduce y maravilla, nos inquieta, nos hace seguirla por todos los recodos que va abriendo, la ruta luminosa de un estilo, unos temas, unas obsesiones. Quizás no haya un logro estético y artístico más grande que ése, crear un mundo, dotarlo de un protagonista que trasciende la voluntad de su creador y, en el caso concreto de la literatura, se vuelve una presencia tan consistente y poderosa que acompaña a los lectores como si fuera un gran amigo o un miembro de su casa, a veces incluso más que los que sí lo son de verdad. Pocos autores lograron ese milagro, Álvaro Mutis lo hizo con Maqroll el Gaviero. Y al hacerlo honró a sus maestros: a Conrad, a Valery Larbaud, a don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. No creo que se le pueda pedir más a un escritor, no se me ocurre mayor gloria que ésa. 

Por mi parte puedo decir que haberme encontrado con la obra de Álvaro Mutis fue una de las cosas más felices e importantes que me ocurrieron en la vida; su influencia es una de las razones por las que quise hacerme escritor. Su voz y su poesía, su lucidez, su humor, su altivez, su sabiduría, me acompañan todos los días bajo la especie de un verso, una frase, una anécdota, el recuerdo de su generosidad sin sombras ni reparos. También Maqroll el Gaviero va conmigo: basta invocarlo para reencontrarme con él, con Abdul Bashur y su ojo perdido que era el de don Ernesto Volkening, con Jamil vestido como rey mago en Pollensa. Esta edición de las novelas del maestro conmemora el primer centenario de su nacimiento; me llena de orgullo y de emoción poder vincular mi nombre, para siempre, al de una celebración tan merecida y tan feliz.

Buen viento y buena mar: «Duerme el guerrero, sólo sus armas velan...».

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