Fenómenos

«Gracias, pero no»: «Cometas en el cielo» o el rechazo que devino fenómeno

Cuando aún tenía forma de manuscrito -y no de éxito superventas-, «Cometas en el cielo» fue rechazado sin contemplaciones por más de treinta agencias literarias. «Gracias, pero no se ajusta a nuestra línea», le respondían machaconamente a su autor, el médico afgano-estadounidense Khaled Hosseini, quien compaginaba su trabajo en el hospital con la escritura de esta historia ambientada en su país natal, un relato conmovedor que gira alrededor de la amistad y de los caprichos del destino. Visto ahora con perspectiva, aquellos agentes aún deben de estar arrepintiéndose: a día de hoy (otoño de 2023), el libro en que devino aquel texto ha vendido cerca de 25 millones de ejemplares en 54 idiomas, además de haber sido adaptado -con éxito- a la gran pantalla. Cuando se cumplen 20 años de la publicación original, Salamandra, el sello que lo colocó en el mercado español, publica una edición especial con un prólogo firmado por el propio Hosseini, una detallada crónica de aquellos días marcados por la incertidumbre, las dudas, la sorpresa y la alegría.

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libro nunca es tan de su autor como cuando a\u00fan vive en su imaginaci\u00f3n. En 2001 me pas\u00e9 casi todo el a\u00f1o levant\u00e1ndome a las cuatro y media de la madrugada, antes del amanecer, para poder estar tres horas a solas con Amir, Hassan, Baba y el resto de las almas que pueblan <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/28241-ebook-cometas-en-el-cielo-9788415470151\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cometas en el cielo<\/a><\/span>.<\/em> Todav\u00eda ejerc\u00eda de m\u00e9dico, as\u00ed que luego me duchaba, me vest\u00eda y me iba en coche al hospital para lidiar con corazones enfermos, articulaciones doloridas y tiroides dormidas. Auscultaba pulmones sibilantes e inyectaba cortisona en hombros inmovilizados, pero Amir nunca andaba muy lejos. Estaba siempre, a todas horas, con un pie en su mundo y \u00e9l con uno en el m\u00edo.\u00a0<\/p><p>Conoc\u00eda a fondo el mundo de Amir. Crecimos juntos en el mismo barrio de Kabul, Wazir Akbar Khan, y cursamos la primaria en el mismo colegio. De ni\u00f1os, ambos hac\u00edamos volar cometas, escrib\u00edamos cuentos y ve\u00edamos pel\u00edculas del Oeste. Compart\u00edamos los privilegios de la clase media alta, a la que ambos pertenec\u00edamos, y tuvimos la suerte de vivir nuestros a\u00f1os formativos en los setenta, en las postrimer\u00edas de una etapa que para Afganist\u00e1n estuvo marcada por la paz y la estabilidad, una \u00e9poca m\u00e1s inocente que forma parte del pasado. Tuvimos la suerte de pisar un suelo que a\u00fan no estaba impregnado de la sangre de los hijos e hijas de Afganist\u00e1n.\u00a0<\/p><p>En el silencio y la penumbra de esas madrugadas, encorvado en la mesa de la cocina, sent\u00eda el relato de Amir como algo completamente m\u00edo. Mi v\u00ednculo con \u00e9l ten\u00eda una intimidad emocionante. 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dej\u00f3 alucinado que plantaran tantas tiendas en tantos pa\u00edses y que dieran a conocer su historia en tantos idiomas, escenarios y pantallas de cine. De hecho, sigo igual de alucinado. Aunque <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/27330-ebook-cometas-en-el-cielo-novela-grafica-9788415629177\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cometas en el cielo<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0haya acabado siendo uno de esos \u00e9xitos que superan cualquier expectativa, la verdad, por decirlo suavemente, es que no fue nada f\u00e1cil publicarlo. Yo era un escritor a tiempo parcial, desconocido y sin antecedentes literarios; el libro, por su parte, era oscuro, pero oscuro de verdad. Durante gran parte de la historia el protagonista se mostraba cobarde, egoc\u00e9ntrico, codicioso, dependiente, deshonesto, poco \u00e9tico y exasperante, mientras que a los personajes que s\u00ed eran nobles, honestos y justos les pasaban aut\u00e9nticas desgracias. El viaje de Amir, largo y desgarrador, se cerraba con una nota de esperanza, pero era s\u00f3lo eso, una nota. Distaba mucho de ser la f\u00f3rmula ideal para un superventas.\u00a0<\/p><p>El manuscrito fue rechazado sin contemplaciones por m\u00e1s de treinta agencias literarias, casi ninguna de las cuales fue m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de la manida f\u00f3rmula de \u00abgracias, pero no se ajusta a nuestra l\u00ednea\u00bb. A m\u00ed no s\u00f3lo no me sorprendieron los rechazos, sino que me jacto un poco de haberlos encajado con elegancia. Hubo uno que me doli\u00f3, pero por razones inesperadas: en una agencia leyeron los cap\u00edtulos que les mand\u00e9, y les gustaron; la carta que me enviaron parec\u00eda prometedora, pero acababan diciendo que prefer\u00edan no representarme porque ten\u00edan la sensaci\u00f3n de que el p\u00fablico estadounidense se hab\u00eda cansado de Afganist\u00e1n, y ahora lo que buscaban eran historias sobre Irak. 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el mismo mes de junio, un d\u00eda despu\u00e9s de recibir aquella carta, cuando volv\u00eda a mi despacho tras atender a un paciente, vi que parpadeaba la luz del contestador. Era un mensaje de una tal Elaine Koster, que llamaba desde Nueva York, y se podr\u00eda resumir as\u00ed: \u00abHe le\u00eddo tu manuscrito, y tienes que permitirme que te represente. Tu libro ser\u00e1 un gran \u00e9xito. Ll\u00e1mame.\u00bb Calculo que escuch\u00e9 al menos doce veces el mensaje antes de llamarla y decir que aceptaba. Elaine, que por desgracia falleci\u00f3 en 2010, era una mujer de armas tomar. Hab\u00eda sido directora general y editora de Dutton, donde hab\u00eda colaborado con escritoras de la talla de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/cine-y-series\/marilyn-monroe-blonde-joyce-carol-oates-netflix\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Joyce Carol Oates<\/a><\/span> y Toni Morrison, y en los a\u00f1os setenta hab\u00eda contribuido a impulsar la carrera de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/stephen-king-por-rodrigo-fresan-holly\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Stephen King<\/a><\/span> comprando los derechos de <em>Carrie<\/em> cuando trabajaba de editora en la New American Library. Era un compendio de todas las virtudes del agente literario: lealtad, dedicaci\u00f3n, gran atenci\u00f3n a los detalles y un toque casi maternal de protecci\u00f3n hacia m\u00ed y mis intereses. 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En esa ocasi\u00f3n ced\u00ed y me alegro de haberlo hecho.\u00a0<\/p><p>Cuando s\u00f3lo faltaban dos semanas para la entrega del manuscrito a Riverhead, con su correcci\u00f3n y revisi\u00f3n definitivas, pas\u00f3 algo catastr\u00f3fico. Un d\u00eda, al volver a casa del trabajo, descubr\u00ed con horror que hab\u00eda desaparecido toda la parte central de la novela. Situ\u00e9monos un poco: acababa de empezar el nuevo siglo y yo usaba un viejo ordenador Mac, con disquetes. Se hab\u00edan \u00abcorrompido\u00bb los archivos y no hab\u00eda manera de acceder a ellos. Mi texto se hab\u00eda esfumado. Siempre me acordar\u00e9 del p\u00e1nico que me invadi\u00f3, de c\u00f3mo el coraz\u00f3n me golpeaba en el pecho y del sudor fr\u00edo que ba\u00f1\u00f3 bruscamente mi cuerpo. 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Escrib\u00eda sin descanso hasta las dos de la madrugada, parando s\u00f3lo para picar algo. Luego dorm\u00eda mal, hasta las seis como mucho, y escrib\u00eda otras dos horas antes de coger el coche e ir a la cl\u00ednica a atender a mis pacientes. Fueron dos semanas intensas, agotadoras y terror\u00edficas, aunque ten\u00edan algo de emocionante, como el equivalente literario de pasearse por la cuerda floja sin red. Nunca he vuelto a vivir nada parecido (por suerte).\u00a0<\/p><p>Al final el fallo t\u00e9cnico que me rob\u00f3 un tercio del libro acab\u00f3 siendo providencial. Lo cierto es que ni a Cindy ni a m\u00ed nos entusiasmaba la parte central del libro. Faltaba algo. En esa primera encarnaci\u00f3n Amir estaba casado con una mujer del Medio Oeste que se llamaba Suzie, y su vida en Estados Unidos se parec\u00eda muy poco a la que conocen los lectores. La desgracia del disquete me dio la oportunidad de reformular la parte \u00abamericana\u00bb de la vida de Amir. Fue en esas dos semanas cuando nacieron sus peripecias en el mercadillo, basadas en mis recuerdos de principios de los a\u00f1os ochenta, cuando trabajaba con mi padre en el bazar de San Jos\u00e9 vendiendo viejas m\u00e1quinas de coser y raquetas de tenis de madera junto a otros afganos, a muchos de los cuales conoc\u00edamos de antes, de la \u00e9poca en la que viv\u00edamos en nuestro pa\u00eds. Fue durante esas dos semanas febriles cuando nacieron Soraya, el temible general Taheri y su mujer Jamila, que modificaron de ra\u00edz el panorama vital de Amir. El libro se volvi\u00f3 m\u00e1s profundo y se llen\u00f3 de resonancias; de hecho, esas partes creadas a toda prisa contienen algunos de mis pasajes favoritos, como el momento en que Baba, devorado por el c\u00e1ncer, anda cojeando hacia una casa para pedir la mano de Soraya de parte de Amir, como \u00abun \u00faltimo deber paternal\u00bb. 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Me hab\u00eda ido de Kabul con once a\u00f1os. Volv\u00eda con treinta y ocho, y con dos hijos. Dice el aforismo que el arte imita a la vida, pero mi sensaci\u00f3n fue la contraria: caminando por las calles de Kabul reviv\u00eda recuerdos paralelos, los m\u00edos y los que hab\u00eda creado para evocar el regreso de Amir, ya adulto, a la ciudad. All\u00ed estaba la colina a la que sub\u00edamos mi hermano y yo para mirar c\u00f3mo despegaban los aviones a lo lejos, en el aeropuerto de Kabul, pero al mismo tiempo record\u00e9 que era en esa colina donde se le\u00edan, grabadas en el tronco de un granado, las palabras \u00abAmir y Hassan, sultanes de Kabul\u00bb. All\u00ed estaba el estadio al que me llev\u00f3 una vez mi padre para ver un partido de <em>Buzkashi,<\/em> el mismo donde Amir vio c\u00f3mo los talibanes ejecutaban a una pareja de ad\u00falteros. Al igual que a Amir, me invadi\u00f3 el sentimiento de culpa de quien sobrevive y la corrosiva sensaci\u00f3n de ser un turista en mi pa\u00eds natal. Compart\u00ed con \u00e9l esa tristeza profunda ante la visi\u00f3n de los escombros, los \u00e1rboles muertos, los bloques de viviendas sin techo, y contempl\u00e9 el amasijo de edificios llenos de agujeros de bala \u2014o arrasados\u2014 en el que se hab\u00edan convertido barrios enteros que antes hab\u00edan sido pr\u00f3speros. 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Toqu\u00e9 fondo en Nuevo M\u00e9xico, en una librer\u00eda muy grande donde ochenta sillas vac\u00edas se burlaban de m\u00ed en medio de un silencio f\u00fanebre. Vinieron tres personas, entre ellas una mujer mayor con andador que se levant\u00f3 cuando yo a\u00fan estaba leyendo pasajes de mi libro y que se dirigi\u00f3 a la salida con una lentitud glacial, pasando por delante del estrado. Mis o\u00eddos nunca olvidar\u00e1n el clic clac del andador. Cuando se acab\u00f3 la lectura (\u00a1menos mal!), la cara de compasi\u00f3n del due\u00f1o del establecimiento lo dec\u00eda todo.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"454vzqk\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>No soy ning\u00fan provocador. Mi prop\u00f3sito, al escribir el libro, fue retratar Afganist\u00e1n en toda su complejidad, con sus ricas tradiciones, su alma nacional llena de poes\u00eda y su hermosura, pero tambi\u00e9n con las din\u00e1micas, duras y complejas, que siguen minando aspectos esenciales de la vida afgana.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"l0acz5z\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El momento culminante de la gira, por decirlo de alg\u00fan modo, tuvo lugar en Fremont, la misma ciudad a la que emigraron Baba y Amir, y donde se concentra la comunidad afgana del norte de California. La presentaci\u00f3n se hizo en un centro c\u00edvico, en una sala grande y llena a rebosar de otros afganos. La velada acab\u00f3 siendo un microcosmos de todas las reacciones que definir\u00edan la relaci\u00f3n de la comunidad afgana con <em>Cometas en el cielo<\/em> y con mi persona. La mayor\u00eda de los asistentes expresaron claramente su apoyo y se mostraron orgullosos de que yo fuera el primer estadounidense de origen afgano que publicaba una novela para el gran p\u00fablico. En las p\u00e1ginas del libro asist\u00edan a sus propias vidas, y estaban agradecidos porque consideraban que la novela era una especie de ant\u00eddoto contra la representaci\u00f3n monocrom\u00e1tica de Afganist\u00e1n, que en los medios de comunicaci\u00f3n aparec\u00eda como un pa\u00eds lleno de cuevas y de hombres violentos con barba.\u00a0<\/p><p>Hubo, sin embargo, una parte del p\u00fablico, nada desde\u00f1able, que manifest\u00f3 una acritud sin paliativos. Percib\u00ed una rabia comprensible, e incluso llegu\u00e9 a temer un poco por mi integridad. El abanico de acusaciones que lanzaron contra m\u00ed era de lo m\u00e1s interesante: desde quienes me consideraban un aprovechado que se llenaba los bolsillos a costa del sufrimiento de los afganos hasta quienes me ve\u00edan como un fan\u00e1tico resentido contra la etnia past\u00fan, pasando por quienes sospechaban que yo era un colaborador de la cia que hab\u00eda escrito el libro en apoyo de la pol\u00edtica exterior de George W. Bush. Una mujer se levant\u00f3 para insistir en que la \u00fanica manera de \u00abexpiar este pecado\u00bb era donando a Afganist\u00e1n hasta el \u00faltimo c\u00e9ntimo que ganara con el libro. Lo que m\u00e1s ampollas levantaba, por lo general, era la representaci\u00f3n que se hac\u00eda en el libro de los conflictos \u00e9tnicos en Afganist\u00e1n.\u00a0<\/p><p>Lo m\u00e1s interesante, sin embargo, es que, en el fondo, ni los cr\u00edticos m\u00e1s severos pusieron en duda la veracidad de lo que hab\u00eda escrito. No hab\u00eda nadie en la sala que no estuviera al corriente de la historia, por lo dem\u00e1s tan bien documentada, de la desigualdad \u00e9tnica en Afganist\u00e1n, especialmente respecto a los hazaras, una minor\u00eda compuesta sobre todo por musulmanes chiitas que ha sufrido una larga historia de opresi\u00f3n, persecuci\u00f3n, desprecio y obst\u00e1culos para ingresar en lo m\u00e1s alto del escalaf\u00f3n social afgano. Entre los afganos es algo tan sabido que raya en lo banal. De lo que se me acusaba era m\u00e1s bien de \u00abmostrar los trapos sucios\u00bb, en el sentido de que no hab\u00eda ninguna necesidad de ense\u00f1arle al mundo los aspectos negativos de la vida afgana. Huelga decir que nunca ha sido \u00e9sa mi intenci\u00f3n. No soy ning\u00fan provocador. Mi prop\u00f3sito, al escribir el libro, fue retratar Afganist\u00e1n en toda su complejidad, con sus ricas tradiciones, su alma nacional llena de poes\u00eda y su hermosura, pero tambi\u00e9n con las din\u00e1micas, duras y complejas, que siguen minando aspectos esenciales de la vida afgana. Si hubiera soslayado lo segundo les habr\u00eda hecho un flaco favor a mis lectores, adem\u00e1s de traicionarme a m\u00ed mismo como escritor. En el fondo, lo que quer\u00edan quienes reclamaban mi cabeza era una especie de panfleto que mostrase a Afganist\u00e1n como un pa\u00eds orgulloso y habitado por gentes orgullosas, protagonistas de gestas heroicas, algo que a m\u00ed, como es natural, no me interesaba. El cometido del novelista no es tranquilizar, exaltar ni blanquear, sino remover ideas inc\u00f3modas, sondear lo que nos quita el sue\u00f1o, explorar l\u00edneas de falla dolorosas y sacar de lo m\u00e1s hondo el perd\u00f3n y la 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Afganist\u00e1n, septiembre de 2009. Khaled Hosseini con Mohammed Ibrahim, un l\u00edder n\u00f3mada en una colonia de tiendas de campa\u00f1a de ocupantes ilegales en las afueras de Kabul. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"cilx1sg\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Kabul, Afganist\u00e1n, septiembre de 2009. Khaled Hosseini con Mohammed Ibrahim, un l\u00edder n\u00f3mada en una colonia de tiendas de campa\u00f1a de ocupantes ilegales en las afueras de Kabul. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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2003, al final de mis dos semanas de gira de promoci\u00f3n del libro, volv\u00ed a la cl\u00ednica con mis pacientes y a una vida m\u00e1s o menos normal. Durante algo m\u00e1s de un a\u00f1o no hubo grandes sobresaltos. Por esas fechas naci\u00f3 mi segunda hija, Farah. <em>Cometas en el cielo<\/em> no estaba haciendo mucho ruido y, a pesar de que segu\u00eda sinti\u00e9ndome profundamente orgulloso del libro, ya me hab\u00eda resignado a que no dejara de ser uno m\u00e1s entre tantos. Volv\u00eda a ser marido, padre y m\u00e9dico.\u00a0<\/p><p>En oto\u00f1o de 2004, un par de meses despu\u00e9s de que saliera en Estados Unidos la edici\u00f3n de bolsillo, empezaron a pasar cosas raras. Entraba en las cafeter\u00edas de mi barrio y ve\u00eda a gente leyendo el libro. Empec\u00e9 a recibir invitaciones de todo el pa\u00eds para hablar en bibliotecas, universidades y programas de lectura. Una vez, en un avi\u00f3n, me sent\u00e9 al lado de una mujer de mediana edad que estaba leyendo la edici\u00f3n de bolsillo y a la que se le saltaban las l\u00e1grimas. Me pas\u00f3 por la cabeza presentarme, pero al final prevaleci\u00f3 mi innata tendencia a la discreci\u00f3n.\u00a0<\/p><p>Las cartas que me han ido llegando en los \u00faltimos veinte a\u00f1os me han permitido formarme una idea bastante s\u00f3lida de por qu\u00e9 se ha hecho tan popular <em>Cometas en el cielo.<\/em> La historia de un ni\u00f1o que siente que no encaja, y que anhela el amor de su padre, es universal. Amir tiene defectos muy profundos. Puede ser exasperante, y a veces su cobard\u00eda y su hipocres\u00eda lindan con lo atroz, pero creo que en ning\u00fan momento deja de ser reconociblemente humano. Va por el mundo con una conciencia clara y dolorosa de sus defectos y fracasos, que lo persiguen a lo largo de su adolescencia y de su vida adulta. Sabe que all\u00ed delante, en alg\u00fan sitio, hay una versi\u00f3n m\u00e1s noble de \u00e9l, pero ese lugar queda muy lejos, al final de un camino sembrado de peligros, y s\u00f3lo podr\u00e1 alcanzarlo haciendo acopio de valor, ese mismo valor que tan desastrosamente le falt\u00f3 de ni\u00f1o. Por mucha aversi\u00f3n que nos despierten sus actos, siempre nos sentimos inclinados a apoyarlo. Quiz\u00e1 sea porque vemos reflejados en \u00e9l fragmentos de nosotros mismos: todos sabemos que nos quedamos cortos, y todos queremos encarnarnos en ese yo m\u00e1s noble. <em>Cometas en el cielo<\/em> entr\u00f3 en la lista de libros m\u00e1s vendidos en <em>The New York Times<\/em> en septiembre de 2004, a los quince meses de su publicaci\u00f3n, y estuvo un tiempo incre\u00edblemente largo sin moverse de ella.\u00a0<\/p><p>Este cambio hizo maravillas en mi trayectoria de escritor, pero al mismo tiempo introdujo complicaciones imprevistas en mi trabajo como m\u00e9dico. Ten\u00eda entre veinte y treinta minutos por paciente, y me di cuenta de que estaba destinando una parte bastante desproporcionada de ese tiempo a contestar preguntas sobre Amir y Hassan, y a dedicar ejemplares de <em>Cometas en el cielo<\/em>, en lugar de concentrarme en tratar edemas de tobillo o inflamaciones del nervio ci\u00e1tico. Llegu\u00e9 a la conclusi\u00f3n de que deb\u00eda elegir, m\u00e1xime cuando ya estaba trabajando en mi segunda novela, <em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/28121-ebook-mil-soles-esplendidos-9788415630258\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Mil soles espl\u00e9ndidos<\/a>,<\/em> y se acercaba la fecha de entrega. En diciembre de 2004 me desped\u00ed de la medicina para dedicarme a la escritura.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"klsann4\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En oto\u00f1o de 2004 empezaron a pasar cosas raras. Entraba en las cafeter\u00edas de mi barrio y ve\u00eda a gente leyendo el libro (...). 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Me ha permitido ganarme un sueldo haciendo algo que siempre me hab\u00eda gustado: escribir. La profesi\u00f3n de m\u00e9dico me merece el mayor de los respetos, y fue un honor que mis pacientes pusieran en mis manos su salud y su bienestar, pero nunca fue mi verdadera vocaci\u00f3n. Mi primer amor, mi novia del instituto, fue la escritura, y vivir de lo que te apasiona es un privilegio apabullante.\u00a0<\/p><p>Lo que m\u00e1s agradezco, sin embargo, es que<em> Cometas en el cielo<\/em> ha hecho posible que lectores de todo el mundo vieran Afganist\u00e1n de un modo distinto, al brindar a quienes no conoc\u00edan el pa\u00eds una perspectiva m\u00e1s humana, matizada y diversa. Las historias sobre Afganist\u00e1n hab\u00edan girado durante mucho tiempo alrededor de la guerra, el desplazamiento, el hambre, el extremismo y los abusos contra las mujeres y las ni\u00f1as. Muchas de estas historias, por desgracia, mantienen su vigencia, pero no son las \u00fanicas verdades acerca del pa\u00eds. Para m\u00ed siempre es una alegr\u00eda recibir cartas de lectores de Italia, India, Israel, Reino Unido, Brasil y otras zonas que explican su descubrimiento de Afganist\u00e1n, de su rica historia, de su excepcional belleza y del alma humilde y po\u00e9tica de sus gentes, que tantas penurias pasan, 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en el cielo<\/em> tambi\u00e9n me dio la oportunidad de poner en marcha, en 2008, una fundaci\u00f3n que ayuda a las mujeres y a los ni\u00f1os afganos a tener acceso a la educaci\u00f3n, la sanidad y las posibilidades econ\u00f3micas. Estoy orgulloso de los logros que hasta hoy ha acumulado la fundaci\u00f3n: hemos dado refugio a m\u00e1s de tres mil personas, hemos sufragado la educaci\u00f3n de miles de ni\u00f1os, en su mayor\u00eda ni\u00f1as, hemos participado en programas de alfabetizaci\u00f3n femenina, hemos aplicado programas de educaci\u00f3n en la primera infancia para evitar la explotaci\u00f3n infantil y hemos financiado centros de maternidad para ayudar a paliar la mortalidad materna, un aut\u00e9ntico azote en Afganist\u00e1n. Gracias a <em>Cometas en el cielo<\/em>, ACNUR, el organismo de la ONU que se ocupa de los refugiados y los desplazados, me invit\u00f3 en 2006 a ejercer como embajador de buena voluntad. He tenido el privilegio de visitar refugios en lugares tan diversos como Chad, Uganda, Jordania, Irak, Sicilia y L\u00edbano, y de sentarme con familias que han visto brutalmente trastocadas sus vidas por la persecuci\u00f3n y la guerra. Como antiguo asilado, ha sido un honor salir en defensa de los refugiados y presionar a favor de que la comunidad internacional preste apoyo econ\u00f3mico a programas de protecci\u00f3n de la vida y a pol\u00edticas m\u00e1s compasivas.\u00a0<\/p><p>Uno de los sitios que he visitado varias veces con ACNUR ha sido, por supuesto, Afganist\u00e1n. A este respecto, conviene se\u00f1alar que cuando empec\u00e9 a escribir <em>Cometas en el cielo<\/em> en forma de relato corto, en primavera de 1999, el r\u00e9gimen talib\u00e1n controlaba casi todo el pa\u00eds, y ahora que escribo este pr\u00f3logo, en marzo de 2023, para conmemorar los veinte a\u00f1os de la publicaci\u00f3n del libro, mi tierra natal vuelve a estar gobernada por los talibanes. Es como un c\u00edrculo tr\u00e1gico. Menos de dos a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s de que se vieran en los televisores de todo el mundo las horrendas im\u00e1genes de la fren\u00e9tica retirada estadounidense del aeropuerto de Kabul, la econom\u00eda afgana se encuentra al borde del precipicio. M\u00e1s de veinte millones de afganos sufren inseguridad alimentaria y viven en la miseria. Del sistema de salud afgano poco queda en pie. Se ha disparado el desempleo, millones de personas han tenido que abandonar sus hogares, y la COVID-19 y el cambio clim\u00e1tico no han hecho m\u00e1s que agravar la conflictiva situaci\u00f3n del pa\u00eds.<\/p><p>Entretanto, los talibanes, fieles a su promesa, han vuelto a despojar a las mujeres de derechos tan esenciales como trabajar, viajar e ir a la escuela. El veto a su presencia en las ONG no s\u00f3lo constituye una violaci\u00f3n de la dignidad de las mujeres, sino que en los pr\u00f3ximos a\u00f1os tendr\u00e1 repercusiones desastrosas en la sanidad p\u00fablica del pa\u00eds. Todas estas noticias provocan una deprimente sensaci\u00f3n de <em>d\u00e9j\u00e0 vu<\/em>. Aunque las c\u00e1maras ya no est\u00e9n enfocadas en Afganist\u00e1n y el centro de inter\u00e9s mundial se haya desplazado a otras regiones <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/la-invasion-rusa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u2014sobre todo al terrible conflicto en Ucrania\u2014<\/a><\/span>, es de vital importancia que los afganos de a pie, y en especial las mujeres y las ni\u00f1as, que una vez m\u00e1s se llevar\u00e1n la peor parte de los draconianos edictos talibanes, no caigan en el olvido. La comunidad internacional debe intervenir y tomar las medidas necesarias para paliar esta crisis humanitaria que no deja de agravarse. Ya han sufrido bastante los afganos.<\/p><p>Para acabar, deseo dar las gracias a quienes me han tendido la mano en estos \u00faltimos veinte a\u00f1os de camino, empezando, claro est\u00e1, por mi familia, sin cuyo respaldo no podr\u00eda haber llevado a cabo ni una \u00ednfima parte de todo lo que he tenido el privilegio de hacer. Quiero expresar mi m\u00e1s profunda gratitud a los agentes y editores de todo el mundo, cuyos consejos y conocimientos me han alimentado durante estos \u00faltimos veinte a\u00f1os. Gracias tambi\u00e9n a los innumerables bibliotecarios y libreros que lucharon con tes\u00f3n por esta novela cuando pocos la le\u00edan. Y gracias sobre todo a los lectores: gracias por haberles abierto los brazos a Amir, a Hassan y al resto de los personajes, y por el sinf\u00edn de cartas en las que, a\u00f1o tras a\u00f1o, me hab\u00e9is revelado c\u00f3mo os interpelaban todos ellos y c\u00f3mo os ayudaban a modificar vuestra visi\u00f3n de Afganist\u00e1n y de sus gentes. Como decimos en dar\u00ed: <em>Tashakor!<\/em> Os deseo muchos a\u00f1os de alegr\u00eda, paz y felices lecturas.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"igrx14h\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/abraham-verghese-el-pacto-del-agua-oprah-winfrey\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Abraham Verghese sobre la pizarra: el origen de un portento<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/sigrid-kraus-editora-de-harry-potter-salamandra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">C\u00f3mo llegu\u00e9 a ser la editora de Harry Potter<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/boom-latinoamericano-julio-cortazar-carlos-fuentes-gabriel-garcia-marquez-mario-vargas-llosa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El Boom antes del gran \u00abboom\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/stephen-king-por-rodrigo-fresan-holly\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Stephen King por Rodrigo Fres\u00e1n: el Rey y yo<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"hytn28d\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos
Khaled Hosseini en una foto de 2003. Crédito: Getty Images.

Khaled Hosseini en una foto de 2003. Crédito: Getty Images.

Un libro nunca es tan de su autor como cuando aún vive en su imaginación. En 2001 me pasé casi todo el año levantándome a las cuatro y media de la madrugada, antes del amanecer, para poder estar tres horas a solas con Amir, Hassan, Baba y el resto de las almas que pueblan Cometas en el cielo. Todavía ejercía de médico, así que luego me duchaba, me vestía y me iba en coche al hospital para lidiar con corazones enfermos, articulaciones doloridas y tiroides dormidas. Auscultaba pulmones sibilantes e inyectaba cortisona en hombros inmovilizados, pero Amir nunca andaba muy lejos. Estaba siempre, a todas horas, con un pie en su mundo y él con uno en el mío. 

Conocía a fondo el mundo de Amir. Crecimos juntos en el mismo barrio de Kabul, Wazir Akbar Khan, y cursamos la primaria en el mismo colegio. De niños, ambos hacíamos volar cometas, escribíamos cuentos y veíamos películas del Oeste. Compartíamos los privilegios de la clase media alta, a la que ambos pertenecíamos, y tuvimos la suerte de vivir nuestros años formativos en los setenta, en las postrimerías de una etapa que para Afganistán estuvo marcada por la paz y la estabilidad, una época más inocente que forma parte del pasado. Tuvimos la suerte de pisar un suelo que aún no estaba impregnado de la sangre de los hijos e hijas de Afganistán. 

En el silencio y la penumbra de esas madrugadas, encorvado en la mesa de la cocina, sentía el relato de Amir como algo completamente mío. Mi vínculo con él tenía una intimidad emocionante. Amir y Baba se convirtieron en secretos deliciosos, y me hice la ilusión de que todas las personas de mi entorno tenían una sola vida, mientras que yo disfrutaba de muchas a la vez. Ocurre, sin embargo, que, a partir del momento en que un libro pasa de las manos de su creador a los estantes de las librerías, ese vínculo con los personajes deja de ser exclusivo, y Amir y compañía, después de salir al ancho mundo, establecieron lazos con otras personas, convirtiéndose en el centro de una rueda con muchos radios, el primero de los cuales había sido yo. A cada lector le hablaban en voz baja en un idioma propio, intransferible, como lo habían hecho conmigo; plantaban sus tiendas en el pensamiento de desconocidos que vivían en otros continentes, y ya no eran sólo de mi propiedad.

Me dejó alucinado que plantaran tantas tiendas en tantos países y que dieran a conocer su historia en tantos idiomas, escenarios y pantallas de cine. De hecho, sigo igual de alucinado. Aunque Cometas en el cielo haya acabado siendo uno de esos éxitos que superan cualquier expectativa, la verdad, por decirlo suavemente, es que no fue nada fácil publicarlo. Yo era un escritor a tiempo parcial, desconocido y sin antecedentes literarios; el libro, por su parte, era oscuro, pero oscuro de verdad. Durante gran parte de la historia el protagonista se mostraba cobarde, egocéntrico, codicioso, dependiente, deshonesto, poco ético y exasperante, mientras que a los personajes que sí eran nobles, honestos y justos les pasaban auténticas desgracias. El viaje de Amir, largo y desgarrador, se cerraba con una nota de esperanza, pero era sólo eso, una nota. Distaba mucho de ser la fórmula ideal para un superventas. 

El manuscrito fue rechazado sin contemplaciones por más de treinta agencias literarias, casi ninguna de las cuales fue más allá de la manida fórmula de «gracias, pero no se ajusta a nuestra línea». A mí no sólo no me sorprendieron los rechazos, sino que me jacto un poco de haberlos encajado con elegancia. Hubo uno que me dolió, pero por razones inesperadas: en una agencia leyeron los capítulos que les mandé, y les gustaron; la carta que me enviaron parecía prometedora, pero acababan diciendo que preferían no representarme porque tenían la sensación de que el público estadounidense se había cansado de Afganistán, y ahora lo que buscaban eran historias sobre Irak. Estoy hablando de junio de 2002, apenas nueve meses después de que el ejército estadounidense y los muyahidines afganos derrocasen a los talibanes. La carta me sentó como un jarro de agua fría, y no sólo por lo que daba a entender sobre el punto de vista y las prioridades de Estados Unidos, sino porque dejaba bastante claro que Afganistán estaba destinado de nuevo al olvido. Fue una revelación inquietante, y un mal presagio sobre lo que le esperaba a mi tierra natal. Más adelante seguiremos hablando sobre Afganistán. 

En el mismo mes de junio, un día después de recibir aquella carta, cuando volvía a mi despacho tras atender a un paciente, vi que parpadeaba la luz del contestador. Era un mensaje de una tal Elaine Koster, que llamaba desde Nueva York, y se podría resumir así: «He leído tu manuscrito, y tienes que permitirme que te represente. Tu libro será un gran éxito. Llámame.» Calculo que escuché al menos doce veces el mensaje antes de llamarla y decir que aceptaba. Elaine, que por desgracia falleció en 2010, era una mujer de armas tomar. Había sido directora general y editora de Dutton, donde había colaborado con escritoras de la talla de Joyce Carol Oates y Toni Morrison, y en los años setenta había contribuido a impulsar la carrera de Stephen King comprando los derechos de Carrie cuando trabajaba de editora en la New American Library. Era un compendio de todas las virtudes del agente literario: lealtad, dedicación, gran atención a los detalles y un toque casi maternal de protección hacia mí y mis intereses. Fue una figura esencial en mi trayectoria, y casi seguro que sin ella no existiría Cometas en el cielo. 

En septiembre de ese mismo año Elaine ya había vendido el manuscrito a Riverhead Books, que dirigía Susan Petersen Kennedy, otra figura decisiva a la que le debo mucho. En Riverhead tuve la suerte de trabajar con una editora tan respetada como Cindy Spiegel, que había editado libros de Anne Lamott y Chang-Rae Lee. Cindy, que tenía una gran perspicacia para los detalles, me dio consejos directos pero constructivos, lo cual no significa que nunca discrepásemos: yo a veces no daba mi brazo a torcer, pero otras sí, vencido por sus convincentes argumentos. Me acuerdo como si fuera hoy de algunos encontronazos amistosos, el más sonado de los cuales giró en torno a la muerte de un personaje importante al final de la novela. (Quien la haya leído sabrá a quién me refiero.) En esa ocasión cedí y me alegro de haberlo hecho. 

Cuando sólo faltaban dos semanas para la entrega del manuscrito a Riverhead, con su corrección y revisión definitivas, pasó algo catastrófico. Un día, al volver a casa del trabajo, descubrí con horror que había desaparecido toda la parte central de la novela. Situémonos un poco: acababa de empezar el nuevo siglo y yo usaba un viejo ordenador Mac, con disquetes. Se habían «corrompido» los archivos y no había manera de acceder a ellos. Mi texto se había esfumado. Siempre me acordaré del pánico que me invadió, de cómo el corazón me golpeaba en el pecho y del sudor frío que bañó bruscamente mi cuerpo. Me dejé caer en el sofá, sumido en una mezcla de consternación e incredulidad. ¿Cómo iba a poder reescribir una tercera parte de la novela en menos de dos semanas, a la vez que seguía trabajando a jornada completa como médico? ¿Cómo iba a decírselo a Elaine y a Cindy? 

El manuscrito fue rechazado sin contemplaciones por más de treinta agencias literarias, casi ninguna de las cuales fue más allá de la manida fórmula de «gracias, pero no se ajusta a nuestra línea». A mí no sólo no me sorprendieron los rechazos, sino que me jacto un poco de haberlos encajado con elegancia.

Durante las dos semanas siguientes, cada vez que volvía a casa de la clínica, después de pasar una hora con mi hija Haris —que entonces era muy pequeña—, me sentaba a escribir tratando de reconstruir lo perdido. Escribía sin descanso hasta las dos de la madrugada, parando sólo para picar algo. Luego dormía mal, hasta las seis como mucho, y escribía otras dos horas antes de coger el coche e ir a la clínica a atender a mis pacientes. Fueron dos semanas intensas, agotadoras y terroríficas, aunque tenían algo de emocionante, como el equivalente literario de pasearse por la cuerda floja sin red. Nunca he vuelto a vivir nada parecido (por suerte). 

Al final el fallo técnico que me robó un tercio del libro acabó siendo providencial. Lo cierto es que ni a Cindy ni a mí nos entusiasmaba la parte central del libro. Faltaba algo. En esa primera encarnación Amir estaba casado con una mujer del Medio Oeste que se llamaba Suzie, y su vida en Estados Unidos se parecía muy poco a la que conocen los lectores. La desgracia del disquete me dio la oportunidad de reformular la parte «americana» de la vida de Amir. Fue en esas dos semanas cuando nacieron sus peripecias en el mercadillo, basadas en mis recuerdos de principios de los años ochenta, cuando trabajaba con mi padre en el bazar de San José vendiendo viejas máquinas de coser y raquetas de tenis de madera junto a otros afganos, a muchos de los cuales conocíamos de antes, de la época en la que vivíamos en nuestro país. Fue durante esas dos semanas febriles cuando nacieron Soraya, el temible general Taheri y su mujer Jamila, que modificaron de raíz el panorama vital de Amir. El libro se volvió más profundo y se llenó de resonancias; de hecho, esas partes creadas a toda prisa contienen algunos de mis pasajes favoritos, como el momento en que Baba, devorado por el cáncer, anda cojeando hacia una casa para pedir la mano de Soraya de parte de Amir, como «un último deber paternal». Reconozco que algunas de esas escenas las escribí con los ojos empañados.

Khaled Hosseini en una foto de 2003. Crédito: Getty Images.

Khaled Hosseini en una foto de 2003. Crédito: Getty Images.

En marzo de 2003, tres meses antes de la publicación de Cometas en el cielo, volví a Afganistán por primera vez en veintisiete años. Me había ido de Kabul con once años. Volvía con treinta y ocho, y con dos hijos. Dice el aforismo que el arte imita a la vida, pero mi sensación fue la contraria: caminando por las calles de Kabul revivía recuerdos paralelos, los míos y los que había creado para evocar el regreso de Amir, ya adulto, a la ciudad. Allí estaba la colina a la que subíamos mi hermano y yo para mirar cómo despegaban los aviones a lo lejos, en el aeropuerto de Kabul, pero al mismo tiempo recordé que era en esa colina donde se leían, grabadas en el tronco de un granado, las palabras «Amir y Hassan, sultanes de Kabul». Allí estaba el estadio al que me llevó una vez mi padre para ver un partido de Buzkashi, el mismo donde Amir vio cómo los talibanes ejecutaban a una pareja de adúlteros. Al igual que a Amir, me invadió el sentimiento de culpa de quien sobrevive y la corrosiva sensación de ser un turista en mi país natal. Compartí con él esa tristeza profunda ante la visión de los escombros, los árboles muertos, los bloques de viviendas sin techo, y contemplé el amasijo de edificios llenos de agujeros de bala —o arrasados— en el que se habían convertido barrios enteros que antes habían sido prósperos. Me vinieron a la cabeza, como a Amir, las palabras «esplendor caído», y fue una de las experiencias más emotivas y surrealistas de mi vida. 

En junio del mismo año se publicó Cometas en el cielo, que fue acogido con buenas críticas, aunque con ventas —a pesar de una elogiosa frase de sobrecubierta que tuvo la bondad de aportar la gran Isabel Allende, a quien Dios bendiga siempre—, por decirlo con benevolencia, modestas. Emprendí una gira de promoción por todo el país que tuvo mucho de cura de humildad, y que me hizo albergar dudas sobre el porvenir del libro. Mi público, en las librerías, era casi inexistente. Toqué fondo en Nuevo México, en una librería muy grande donde ochenta sillas vacías se burlaban de mí en medio de un silencio fúnebre. Vinieron tres personas, entre ellas una mujer mayor con andador que se levantó cuando yo aún estaba leyendo pasajes de mi libro y que se dirigió a la salida con una lentitud glacial, pasando por delante del estrado. Mis oídos nunca olvidarán el clic clac del andador. Cuando se acabó la lectura (¡menos mal!), la cara de compasión del dueño del establecimiento lo decía todo. 

No soy ningún provocador. Mi propósito, al escribir el libro, fue retratar Afganistán en toda su complejidad, con sus ricas tradiciones, su alma nacional llena de poesía y su hermosura, pero también con las dinámicas, duras y complejas, que siguen minando aspectos esenciales de la vida afgana.

El momento culminante de la gira, por decirlo de algún modo, tuvo lugar en Fremont, la misma ciudad a la que emigraron Baba y Amir, y donde se concentra la comunidad afgana del norte de California. La presentación se hizo en un centro cívico, en una sala grande y llena a rebosar de otros afganos. La velada acabó siendo un microcosmos de todas las reacciones que definirían la relación de la comunidad afgana con Cometas en el cielo y con mi persona. La mayoría de los asistentes expresaron claramente su apoyo y se mostraron orgullosos de que yo fuera el primer estadounidense de origen afgano que publicaba una novela para el gran público. En las páginas del libro asistían a sus propias vidas, y estaban agradecidos porque consideraban que la novela era una especie de antídoto contra la representación monocromática de Afganistán, que en los medios de comunicación aparecía como un país lleno de cuevas y de hombres violentos con barba. 

Hubo, sin embargo, una parte del público, nada desdeñable, que manifestó una acritud sin paliativos. Percibí una rabia comprensible, e incluso llegué a temer un poco por mi integridad. El abanico de acusaciones que lanzaron contra mí era de lo más interesante: desde quienes me consideraban un aprovechado que se llenaba los bolsillos a costa del sufrimiento de los afganos hasta quienes me veían como un fanático resentido contra la etnia pastún, pasando por quienes sospechaban que yo era un colaborador de la cia que había escrito el libro en apoyo de la política exterior de George W. Bush. Una mujer se levantó para insistir en que la única manera de «expiar este pecado» era donando a Afganistán hasta el último céntimo que ganara con el libro. Lo que más ampollas levantaba, por lo general, era la representación que se hacía en el libro de los conflictos étnicos en Afganistán. 

Lo más interesante, sin embargo, es que, en el fondo, ni los críticos más severos pusieron en duda la veracidad de lo que había escrito. No había nadie en la sala que no estuviera al corriente de la historia, por lo demás tan bien documentada, de la desigualdad étnica en Afganistán, especialmente respecto a los hazaras, una minoría compuesta sobre todo por musulmanes chiitas que ha sufrido una larga historia de opresión, persecución, desprecio y obstáculos para ingresar en lo más alto del escalafón social afgano. Entre los afganos es algo tan sabido que raya en lo banal. De lo que se me acusaba era más bien de «mostrar los trapos sucios», en el sentido de que no había ninguna necesidad de enseñarle al mundo los aspectos negativos de la vida afgana. Huelga decir que nunca ha sido ésa mi intención. No soy ningún provocador. Mi propósito, al escribir el libro, fue retratar Afganistán en toda su complejidad, con sus ricas tradiciones, su alma nacional llena de poesía y su hermosura, pero también con las dinámicas, duras y complejas, que siguen minando aspectos esenciales de la vida afgana. Si hubiera soslayado lo segundo les habría hecho un flaco favor a mis lectores, además de traicionarme a mí mismo como escritor. En el fondo, lo que querían quienes reclamaban mi cabeza era una especie de panfleto que mostrase a Afganistán como un país orgulloso y habitado por gentes orgullosas, protagonistas de gestas heroicas, algo que a mí, como es natural, no me interesaba. El cometido del novelista no es tranquilizar, exaltar ni blanquear, sino remover ideas incómodas, sondear lo que nos quita el sueño, explorar líneas de falla dolorosas y sacar de lo más hondo el perdón y la esperanza.

Kabul, Afganistán, septiembre de 2009. Khaled Hosseini con Mohammed Ibrahim, un líder nómada en una colonia de tiendas de campaña de ocupantes ilegales en las afueras de Kabul. Crédito: Getty Images.

Kabul, Afganistán, septiembre de 2009. Khaled Hosseini con Mohammed Ibrahim, un líder nómada en una colonia de tiendas de campaña de ocupantes ilegales en las afueras de Kabul. Crédito: Getty Images.

En 2003, al final de mis dos semanas de gira de promoción del libro, volví a la clínica con mis pacientes y a una vida más o menos normal. Durante algo más de un año no hubo grandes sobresaltos. Por esas fechas nació mi segunda hija, Farah. Cometas en el cielo no estaba haciendo mucho ruido y, a pesar de que seguía sintiéndome profundamente orgulloso del libro, ya me había resignado a que no dejara de ser uno más entre tantos. Volvía a ser marido, padre y médico. 

En otoño de 2004, un par de meses después de que saliera en Estados Unidos la edición de bolsillo, empezaron a pasar cosas raras. Entraba en las cafeterías de mi barrio y veía a gente leyendo el libro. Empecé a recibir invitaciones de todo el país para hablar en bibliotecas, universidades y programas de lectura. Una vez, en un avión, me senté al lado de una mujer de mediana edad que estaba leyendo la edición de bolsillo y a la que se le saltaban las lágrimas. Me pasó por la cabeza presentarme, pero al final prevaleció mi innata tendencia a la discreción. 

Las cartas que me han ido llegando en los últimos veinte años me han permitido formarme una idea bastante sólida de por qué se ha hecho tan popular Cometas en el cielo. La historia de un niño que siente que no encaja, y que anhela el amor de su padre, es universal. Amir tiene defectos muy profundos. Puede ser exasperante, y a veces su cobardía y su hipocresía lindan con lo atroz, pero creo que en ningún momento deja de ser reconociblemente humano. Va por el mundo con una conciencia clara y dolorosa de sus defectos y fracasos, que lo persiguen a lo largo de su adolescencia y de su vida adulta. Sabe que allí delante, en algún sitio, hay una versión más noble de él, pero ese lugar queda muy lejos, al final de un camino sembrado de peligros, y sólo podrá alcanzarlo haciendo acopio de valor, ese mismo valor que tan desastrosamente le faltó de niño. Por mucha aversión que nos despierten sus actos, siempre nos sentimos inclinados a apoyarlo. Quizá sea porque vemos reflejados en él fragmentos de nosotros mismos: todos sabemos que nos quedamos cortos, y todos queremos encarnarnos en ese yo más noble. Cometas en el cielo entró en la lista de libros más vendidos en The New York Times en septiembre de 2004, a los quince meses de su publicación, y estuvo un tiempo increíblemente largo sin moverse de ella. 

Este cambio hizo maravillas en mi trayectoria de escritor, pero al mismo tiempo introdujo complicaciones imprevistas en mi trabajo como médico. Tenía entre veinte y treinta minutos por paciente, y me di cuenta de que estaba destinando una parte bastante desproporcionada de ese tiempo a contestar preguntas sobre Amir y Hassan, y a dedicar ejemplares de Cometas en el cielo, en lugar de concentrarme en tratar edemas de tobillo o inflamaciones del nervio ciático. Llegué a la conclusión de que debía elegir, máxime cuando ya estaba trabajando en mi segunda novela, Mil soles espléndidos, y se acercaba la fecha de entrega. En diciembre de 2004 me despedí de la medicina para dedicarme a la escritura.

En otoño de 2004 empezaron a pasar cosas raras. Entraba en las cafeterías de mi barrio y veía a gente leyendo el libro (...). Una vez, en un avión, me senté al lado de una mujer de mediana edad que estaba leyendo la edición de bolsillo y a la que se le saltaban las lágrimas.

Después de todos estos años estoy profundamente agradecido por los efectos que Cometas en el cielo ha tenido en mi vida. Me ha permitido ganarme un sueldo haciendo algo que siempre me había gustado: escribir. La profesión de médico me merece el mayor de los respetos, y fue un honor que mis pacientes pusieran en mis manos su salud y su bienestar, pero nunca fue mi verdadera vocación. Mi primer amor, mi novia del instituto, fue la escritura, y vivir de lo que te apasiona es un privilegio apabullante. 

Lo que más agradezco, sin embargo, es que Cometas en el cielo ha hecho posible que lectores de todo el mundo vieran Afganistán de un modo distinto, al brindar a quienes no conocían el país una perspectiva más humana, matizada y diversa. Las historias sobre Afganistán habían girado durante mucho tiempo alrededor de la guerra, el desplazamiento, el hambre, el extremismo y los abusos contra las mujeres y las niñas. Muchas de estas historias, por desgracia, mantienen su vigencia, pero no son las únicas verdades acerca del país. Para mí siempre es una alegría recibir cartas de lectores de Italia, India, Israel, Reino Unido, Brasil y otras zonas que explican su descubrimiento de Afganistán, de su rica historia, de su excepcional belleza y del alma humilde y poética de sus gentes, que tantas penurias pasan, demasiadas.

Kabul, Afganistán, septiembre de 2009. Hosseini observa a niños afganos volar cometas durante una visita patrocinada por las Naciones Unidas. El autor participó en este acto para impulsar el desarrollo social como herramienta clave para acabar con los rebeldes talibanes. Crédito: Getty Images.

Kabul, Afganistán, septiembre de 2009. Hosseini observa a niños afganos volar cometas durante una visita patrocinada por las Naciones Unidas. El autor participó en este acto para impulsar el desarrollo social como herramienta clave para acabar con los rebeldes talibanes. Crédito: Getty Images.

Cometas en el cielo también me dio la oportunidad de poner en marcha, en 2008, una fundación que ayuda a las mujeres y a los niños afganos a tener acceso a la educación, la sanidad y las posibilidades económicas. Estoy orgulloso de los logros que hasta hoy ha acumulado la fundación: hemos dado refugio a más de tres mil personas, hemos sufragado la educación de miles de niños, en su mayoría niñas, hemos participado en programas de alfabetización femenina, hemos aplicado programas de educación en la primera infancia para evitar la explotación infantil y hemos financiado centros de maternidad para ayudar a paliar la mortalidad materna, un auténtico azote en Afganistán. Gracias a Cometas en el cielo, ACNUR, el organismo de la ONU que se ocupa de los refugiados y los desplazados, me invitó en 2006 a ejercer como embajador de buena voluntad. He tenido el privilegio de visitar refugios en lugares tan diversos como Chad, Uganda, Jordania, Irak, Sicilia y Líbano, y de sentarme con familias que han visto brutalmente trastocadas sus vidas por la persecución y la guerra. Como antiguo asilado, ha sido un honor salir en defensa de los refugiados y presionar a favor de que la comunidad internacional preste apoyo económico a programas de protección de la vida y a políticas más compasivas. 

Uno de los sitios que he visitado varias veces con ACNUR ha sido, por supuesto, Afganistán. A este respecto, conviene señalar que cuando empecé a escribir Cometas en el cielo en forma de relato corto, en primavera de 1999, el régimen talibán controlaba casi todo el país, y ahora que escribo este prólogo, en marzo de 2023, para conmemorar los veinte años de la publicación del libro, mi tierra natal vuelve a estar gobernada por los talibanes. Es como un círculo trágico. Menos de dos años después de que se vieran en los televisores de todo el mundo las horrendas imágenes de la frenética retirada estadounidense del aeropuerto de Kabul, la economía afgana se encuentra al borde del precipicio. Más de veinte millones de afganos sufren inseguridad alimentaria y viven en la miseria. Del sistema de salud afgano poco queda en pie. Se ha disparado el desempleo, millones de personas han tenido que abandonar sus hogares, y la COVID-19 y el cambio climático no han hecho más que agravar la conflictiva situación del país.

Entretanto, los talibanes, fieles a su promesa, han vuelto a despojar a las mujeres de derechos tan esenciales como trabajar, viajar e ir a la escuela. El veto a su presencia en las ONG no sólo constituye una violación de la dignidad de las mujeres, sino que en los próximos años tendrá repercusiones desastrosas en la sanidad pública del país. Todas estas noticias provocan una deprimente sensación de déjà vu. Aunque las cámaras ya no estén enfocadas en Afganistán y el centro de interés mundial se haya desplazado a otras regiones —sobre todo al terrible conflicto en Ucrania—, es de vital importancia que los afganos de a pie, y en especial las mujeres y las niñas, que una vez más se llevarán la peor parte de los draconianos edictos talibanes, no caigan en el olvido. La comunidad internacional debe intervenir y tomar las medidas necesarias para paliar esta crisis humanitaria que no deja de agravarse. Ya han sufrido bastante los afganos.

Para acabar, deseo dar las gracias a quienes me han tendido la mano en estos últimos veinte años de camino, empezando, claro está, por mi familia, sin cuyo respaldo no podría haber llevado a cabo ni una ínfima parte de todo lo que he tenido el privilegio de hacer. Quiero expresar mi más profunda gratitud a los agentes y editores de todo el mundo, cuyos consejos y conocimientos me han alimentado durante estos últimos veinte años. Gracias también a los innumerables bibliotecarios y libreros que lucharon con tesón por esta novela cuando pocos la leían. Y gracias sobre todo a los lectores: gracias por haberles abierto los brazos a Amir, a Hassan y al resto de los personajes, y por el sinfín de cartas en las que, año tras año, me habéis revelado cómo os interpelaban todos ellos y cómo os ayudaban a modificar vuestra visión de Afganistán y de sus gentes. Como decimos en darí: Tashakor! Os deseo muchos años de alegría, paz y felices lecturas.