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Fútbol, boxeo y burdeles en los campos nazis

Desde el momento en que los prisioneros ingresaban en los campos de concentración comenzaba para ellos una encarnizada lucha por la supervivencia entre sus iguales. La vida cotidiana en los «Konzentrationslager» se caracterizaba por la ausencia total de límites morales, de modo que lo verdaderamente terrible era que los prisioneros no tenían más remedio que acabar aceptando esta situación como algo natural. Del mismo modo que tenían que aceptar la realidad en la que vivían (y sufrían), una realidad a la que los responsables de los «Lager» pretendían dar un ligerísimo barniz de normalidad. En este sentido, en algunos campos se permitía el ocio y la práctica deportiva en ocasiones muy concretas o se improvisaban prostíbulos reservados en exclusiva para algunos prisioneros autorizados. En este extracto de «Psicología del mal» (Ediciones B, colección Sine Qua Non), Pablo Martínez-Botello, conferenciante sobre el Holocausto y autor del libro, explica cómo se gestionaba y qué se hacía en esos escasísimos momentos de tiempo libre que se les proporcionaba a los deportados.

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En este extracto de \u00abPsicolog\u00eda del mal\u00bb, Pablo Mart\u00ednez-Botello explica qu\u00e9 se hac\u00eda en esos escas\u00edsimos momentos de tiempo libre que se les proporcionaba a los deportados.","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA, Campos de exterminio, Nazismo, Psicolog\u00eda del mal","short_content":"<p>Desde el momento en que los prisioneros ingresaban en los campos de concentraci\u00f3n comenzaba para ellos una encarnizada lucha por la supervivencia entre sus iguales. La vida cotidiana en los \u00abKonzentrationslager\u00bb se caracterizaba por la ausencia total de l\u00edmites morales, de modo que lo verdaderamente terrible era que los prisioneros no ten\u00edan m\u00e1s remedio que acabar aceptando esta situaci\u00f3n como algo natural. Del mismo modo que ten\u00edan que aceptar la realidad en la que viv\u00edan (y sufr\u00edan), una realidad a la que los responsables de los \u00abLager\u00bb pretend\u00edan dar un liger\u00edsimo barniz de normalidad. 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Estatal de Auschwitz-Birkenau, Polonia. 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Ese partido de f\u00fatbol\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"q53b23a\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>podr\u00eda parecer quiz\u00e1 una breve pausa de humanidad en medio de un horror infinito. 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A partir de ah\u00ed, y dadas las profundas ra\u00edces que tiene el f\u00fatbol en Alemania, los SS proporcionaron balones reglamentarios y, en algunas ocasiones, hasta equipaciones completas fabricadas por los presos de la sastrer\u00eda. En algunos <em>Lager<\/em> se llegaron a organizar liguillas en las que compet\u00edan los cautivos por nacionalidades.\u00a0<\/p><p>Merece especial atenci\u00f3n <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/biografias\/336886-ebook-ko-auschwitz-9788412417968\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la pr\u00e1ctica del boxeo entre el colectivo de deportados<\/a><\/span>. Seg\u00fan el resto de los prisioneros, estos eran los \u00abpreferidos\u00bb de los SS. Debido al arraigo de este deporte en Alemania, estos presos eran mejor tratados que el resto, pues los nazis se divert\u00edan con ellos organizando combates de boxeo entre prisioneros y <em>Kapos<\/em> en los que apostaban dinero. Los p\u00fagiles eran recompensados con una raci\u00f3n extra de comida, una hogaza de pan o mantequilla. \u00abC\u00f3mo es posible que los miembros de la SS pudieran sentarse a disfrutar de un combate despu\u00e9s de incinerar a cientos, a miles de personas cada d\u00eda? \u00bfC\u00f3mo es posible que un ser humano pudiera siquiera pensar en el boxeo en aquel lugar?\u00bb. 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Levi, autor de memorias, relatos, poemas y novelas, estuvo preso en Auschwitz desde febrero de 1944 hasta la liberaci\u00f3n del campo en enero de 1945. 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Con esta pregunta los SS localizaban a aquellos prisioneros que, en alg\u00fan momento anterior de su vida, hubieran practicado este deporte, ya fuera como profesionales o como <em>amateurs.<\/em> Entre los que \u00abboxearon en el infierno\u00bb se encontraban Johann Wilhelm Trollmann, p\u00fagil saj\u00f3n de etnia gitana conocido con el sobrenombre de \u00abRukeli\u00bb, quien, tras ser esterilizado y enviado al frente ruso, fue deportado al campo de concentraci\u00f3n de Neugamme, en Alemania. All\u00ed boxe\u00f3 contra los<em> Kapos,<\/em> y uno de ellos, Emil Cornelius, acab\u00f3 con su vida golpe\u00e1ndole con un garrote en la cabeza. Todo apunta a que se trat\u00f3 de un acto de venganza, pues, al parecer, Rukeli lo hab\u00eda noqueado. En Mauthausen, entre los peleadores se encontraban los espa\u00f1oles Segundo Espallargas, Pablo Agraz y Lorenzo Vitri\u00e0. Los dos primeros sobrevivieron; Vitri\u00e0, peso gallo conocido como \u00abla maravilla del ring\u00bb, no corri\u00f3 la misma suerte. Hab\u00eda formado parte del equipo ol\u00edmpico espa\u00f1ol de los Juegos Ol\u00edmpicos de Par\u00eds de 1924 y lleg\u00f3 a Mauthausen en \u00abel convoy de los 927\u00bb procedente del campo de Les Alliers en Angulema (Francia). El 18 de agosto de 1941, apenas un a\u00f1o despu\u00e9s de llegar a Mauthausen, tir\u00f3 la toalla. Cansado y desesperado se quit\u00f3 la vida lanz\u00e1ndose contra la alambrada electrificada en el <em>Nebenlager<\/em> de Gusen. El boxeador polaco Tadeusz Pietrzykowski, apodado \u00abTeddy\u00bb, disput\u00f3 entre cuarenta y sesenta peleas mientras estuvo prisionero en los campos de Neugamme, Auschwitz y Bergen-Belsen, donde fue liberado por el ej\u00e9rcito brit\u00e1nico en abril de 1945. El tunecino de origen sefard\u00ed, campe\u00f3n del mundo del peso pluma, V\u00edctor P\u00e9rez, se enfrent\u00f3 en Buna-Monowitz a un alem\u00e1n que le superaba en cerca de treinta kilos. Falleci\u00f3 en enero de 1945 a causa de un disparo de un SS cuando compart\u00eda un saco de pan con unos compa\u00f1eros.<\/p><p>En Auschwitz, Noah Klieger, a pesar de no tener experiencia previa en el boxeo, se present\u00f3 voluntario para formar parte del equipo del campo. Los compa\u00f1eros que s\u00ed sab\u00edan boxear le ense\u00f1aron los rudimentos de este deporte, adem\u00e1s de protegerle. El \u00abfarol\u00bb le pudo salir mal, pues cuando los SS descubr\u00edan que alg\u00fan deportado se hab\u00eda hecho pasar por boxeador, o le buscaban combates en los que el contrincante le pudiera dejar al borde de la muerte, o lo enviaban directamente a la c\u00e1mara de gas. 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Wilhelm Trollmann, boxeador alem\u00e1n de etnia gitana conocido con el sobrenombre de Rukeli. 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campos nazis tambi\u00e9n contaban con un peque\u00f1o lugar destinado al burdel. En el verano de 1943 Heinrich Himmler hizo aprobar un decreto por el que se dispon\u00eda la instalaci\u00f3n de burdeles en los <em>Konzentrationslager,<\/em> seg\u00fan \u00e9l, para elevar la moral de los prisioneros. Entre los campos que tuvieron un burdel se pueden citar Mauthausen, Sachsenhasuen, Buchenwald o Dachau. Las prostitutas de estas singulares \u00abcasas de citas\u00bb eran tra\u00eddas del campo de concentraci\u00f3n de mujeres de Ravensbr\u00fcck. Las mujeres, entre las que se encontraban gitanas, sol\u00edan presentarse voluntariamente embaucadas con la promesa de que ser\u00edan puestas en libertad en unos seis meses, cosa que no era cierta. El prost\u00edbulo se nutr\u00eda tambi\u00e9n de prostitutas alemanas con delitos comunes, o de meretrices condenadas en los propios pa\u00edses ocupados, salvo si eran jud\u00edas. El uso del burdel estaba reservado a los <em>Kapos<\/em> y <em>Prominenten,<\/em> que eran los \u00fanicos que pod\u00edan pagar los dos reichsmark, que era lo que costaba el servicio, y los regalos con que agasajaban a las mujeres, como sostenes, blusas de encaje o similares y que obten\u00edan de otras prisioneras. El lugar estaba vigilado por una guardia de las SS. Al cliente se le daba un t\u00edquet que deb\u00eda entregar al <em>Kapo<\/em> del burdel antes de entrar en el cub\u00edculo de la prostituta, y este hac\u00eda una revisi\u00f3n de sus genitales por si portaba alguna enfermedad ven\u00e9rea. Adem\u00e1s, le proporcionaba una pomada para evitar contraer enfermedades. Hab\u00eda que ir con la ropa y la muda interior impoluta, y estaba prohibido besarse. El prost\u00edbulo abr\u00eda todos los d\u00edas de la semana, de seis a ocho de la tarde, y la meretriz deb\u00eda atender a unos diez parroquianos, por lo que no pod\u00eda dedicar a cada uno m\u00e1s de diez o doce minutos. La habitaci\u00f3n solo ten\u00eda una silla y una cama estrecha en la que apenas cab\u00edan dos personas. El cuarto no ten\u00eda puerta, una cortina hac\u00eda las veces de esta. Adem\u00e1s, en cada habitaci\u00f3n hab\u00eda un agujero en la pared por el que vigilar que el cliente y la prostituta no intercambiaran informaci\u00f3n prohibida.\u00a0<\/p><p>Como hemos comentado, el uso del burdel no estaba autorizado para la masa an\u00f3nima de prisioneros; los cuales, por otra parte, no necesitaban los servicios de una meretriz, pues estaban sometidos a un \u00abproceso de deserotizaci\u00f3n del cuerpo y la consiguiente desaparici\u00f3n de cualquier deseo sexual\u00bb. Para ellos, su mayor preocupaci\u00f3n era la comida. Al no estar cubierta esta necesidad primaria, desaparec\u00eda en ellos cualquier forma de deseo sexual.\u00a0<\/p><p>En los primeros meses tras el establecimiento de los prost\u00edbulos, los prisioneros homosexuales con tri\u00e1ngulo rosa estaban obligados a frecuentarlos. Los nacionalsocialistas pensaban que, de esa manera, se curar\u00edan de lo que ellos entend\u00edan que era una enfermedad. Con el paso de los meses esta pr\u00e1ctica se fue relajando, pues los tri\u00e1ngulos rosas se apuntaban a la lista del burdel y luego regalaban el t\u00edquet a cualquier otro prisionero.<\/p><p>Los SS dispon\u00edan de un burdel separado del de los deportados.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"60\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zls4ejt\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/art-spiegelman-liniers\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Art Spiegelman: \u00abAuschwitz estaba en mi patio trasero: era mi casa\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/george-orwell-mein-kampf-adolf-hitler\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">George Orwell sobre \u00abMein Kampf\u00bb: Hitler o el m\u00e1rtir Prometeo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/suite-francesa-irene-nemirovsky-teresa-lussone-version-inedita\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abSuite francesa\u00bb, de Ir\u00e8ne N\u00e9mirovsky: la f\u00e1brica de una obra maestra<\/a><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/sobre-la-mentira-fascista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Sobre la mentira fascista: hacer de las met\u00e1foras una realidad<\/a><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/doris-lessing-vosotros-al-infierno-nosotros-al-cielo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Doris Lessing: Vosotros al infierno, nosotros al cielo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/benito-mussolini-antonio-scurati\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Mussolini para las masas: Scurati y las cuentas con el pasado<\/a><\/span><\/p><p 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10 minutos
Museo Estatal de Auschwitz-Birkenau, Polonia. El mural muestra retratos de prisioneros del que fuera uno de los mayores campos de concentración y exterminio nazis. Se estima que allí fueron asesinadas entre un millón y un millón y medio de personas, en su mayoría de origen judío. Crédito: Getty Images.

Museo Estatal de Auschwitz-Birkenau, Polonia. El mural muestra retratos de prisioneros del que fuera uno de los mayores campos de concentración y exterminio nazis. Se estima que allí fueron asesinadas entre un millón y un millón y medio de personas, en su mayoría de origen judío. Crédito: Getty Images.

Es cierto que en los campos de concentración había tiempo libre los domingos, «pero era miserable y había que gastarlo en la limpieza de la indumentaria, de los zapatos y de los armarios. La SS acudía, además con cualquier pretexto, para reducirlo», con lo que realmente solo se disponía de la tarde del domingo. La mayor parte de los deportados lo empleaban en descansar o pasear por las calles del campo. Aun siendo el Lager un ecosistema diabólico, en las tardes de esos domingos los prisioneros podían llegar a descubrir retazos de humanidad al apreciar en sus propias caras, o en las de sus compañeros, leves sonrisas mientras contemplaban, por ejemplo, la puesta del sol o la belleza de la naturaleza más allá de la alambrada de espino. 

Algunos deportados llevaban a cabo otras actividades. Por ejemplo, los que sabían tocar un instrumento formaban parte de la banda de música del campo, que se reunía cuando los grupos de deportados partían por la mañana a trabajar a un Kommando exterior (Aussenkommando), cuando se ridiculizaba a algún preso que había intentado fugarse o, incluso, en los campos de exterminio, cuando tocaban para los presos que eran enviados a las falsas duchas en las que se les gasearía para darles una falsa sensación de tranquilidad. Un grupo de deportados en Mauthausen fueron recibidos con el acompañamiento musical de dos prisioneros alemanes, uno al violín y otro al acordeón, que tocaban con cierta ironía el «Adiós a la vida», de Tosca.

Las orquestas o bandas que podía haber en los campos también solían tocar por Navidad, Semana Santa o con ocasión del cumpleaños de algún oficial de las SS. Ni que decir tiene que los prisioneros no asistían a estos conciertos, salvo algunos Kapos y Prominenten, sobre todo alemanes. Las interpretaciones solían ser de música popular y, a veces, clásica. Los músicos que formaban parte de estas agrupaciones —al igual que les sucedía a los boxeadores— recibían raciones extra de comida, además de que los ensayos les liberaban del trabajo más duro.

Los rincones más oscuros del alma humana

En algunos campos, aunque el estado de salud de los prisioneros no era el mejor para practicar deporte, se llegaron a organizar partidos de fútbol. Primo Levi refiere cómo uno de los miembros del Sonderkommando de Auschwitz II-Birkenau asistió a un partido de fútbol durante la pausa del trabajo en el crematorio. Ese partido de fútbol 

podría parecer quizá una breve pausa de humanidad en medio de un horror infinito. Pero […] para los testigos [ese] partido, [ese] momento de normalidad, [era] el verdadero horror del campo.

Al encuentro asisten otros soldados de las SS y el resto de la escuadra [Sonderkommando], muestran sus preferencias, apuestan, aplauden, animan a los jugadores como si, en lugar de las puertas del infierno, el partido se estuviera celebrando en el campo de un pueblo.

Los primeros partidos de fútbol surgieron de forma accidental, y consistió en dar patadas a una pelota confeccionada por los propios prisioneros con papel de sacos de cemento, trapos y cuerdas. A partir de ahí, y dadas las profundas raíces que tiene el fútbol en Alemania, los SS proporcionaron balones reglamentarios y, en algunas ocasiones, hasta equipaciones completas fabricadas por los presos de la sastrería. En algunos Lager se llegaron a organizar liguillas en las que competían los cautivos por nacionalidades. 

Merece especial atención la práctica del boxeo entre el colectivo de deportados. Según el resto de los prisioneros, estos eran los «preferidos» de los SS. Debido al arraigo de este deporte en Alemania, estos presos eran mejor tratados que el resto, pues los nazis se divertían con ellos organizando combates de boxeo entre prisioneros y Kapos en los que apostaban dinero. Los púgiles eran recompensados con una ración extra de comida, una hogaza de pan o mantequilla. «Cómo es posible que los miembros de la SS pudieran sentarse a disfrutar de un combate después de incinerar a cientos, a miles de personas cada día? ¿Cómo es posible que un ser humano pudiera siquiera pensar en el boxeo en aquel lugar?». Eso era lo verdaderamente aterrador, asumir la germinación de la semilla del mal como algo cotidiano.

Retrato de Primo Levi por el artista Larry Rivers. Levi, autor de memorias, relatos, poemas y novelas, estuvo preso en Auschwitz desde febrero de 1944 hasta la liberación del campo en enero de 1945. Crédito: Getty Images.

Retrato de Primo Levi por el artista Larry Rivers. Levi, autor de memorias, relatos, poemas y novelas, estuvo preso en Auschwitz desde febrero de 1944 hasta la liberación del campo en enero de 1945. Crédito: Getty Images.

¿Quién sabe boxear? Con esta pregunta los SS localizaban a aquellos prisioneros que, en algún momento anterior de su vida, hubieran practicado este deporte, ya fuera como profesionales o como amateurs. Entre los que «boxearon en el infierno» se encontraban Johann Wilhelm Trollmann, púgil sajón de etnia gitana conocido con el sobrenombre de «Rukeli», quien, tras ser esterilizado y enviado al frente ruso, fue deportado al campo de concentración de Neugamme, en Alemania. Allí boxeó contra los Kapos, y uno de ellos, Emil Cornelius, acabó con su vida golpeándole con un garrote en la cabeza. Todo apunta a que se trató de un acto de venganza, pues, al parecer, Rukeli lo había noqueado. En Mauthausen, entre los peleadores se encontraban los españoles Segundo Espallargas, Pablo Agraz y Lorenzo Vitrià. Los dos primeros sobrevivieron; Vitrià, peso gallo conocido como «la maravilla del ring», no corrió la misma suerte. Había formado parte del equipo olímpico español de los Juegos Olímpicos de París de 1924 y llegó a Mauthausen en «el convoy de los 927» procedente del campo de Les Alliers en Angulema (Francia). El 18 de agosto de 1941, apenas un año después de llegar a Mauthausen, tiró la toalla. Cansado y desesperado se quitó la vida lanzándose contra la alambrada electrificada en el Nebenlager de Gusen. El boxeador polaco Tadeusz Pietrzykowski, apodado «Teddy», disputó entre cuarenta y sesenta peleas mientras estuvo prisionero en los campos de Neugamme, Auschwitz y Bergen-Belsen, donde fue liberado por el ejército británico en abril de 1945. El tunecino de origen sefardí, campeón del mundo del peso pluma, Víctor Pérez, se enfrentó en Buna-Monowitz a un alemán que le superaba en cerca de treinta kilos. Falleció en enero de 1945 a causa de un disparo de un SS cuando compartía un saco de pan con unos compañeros.

En Auschwitz, Noah Klieger, a pesar de no tener experiencia previa en el boxeo, se presentó voluntario para formar parte del equipo del campo. Los compañeros que sí sabían boxear le enseñaron los rudimentos de este deporte, además de protegerle. El «farol» le pudo salir mal, pues cuando los SS descubrían que algún deportado se había hecho pasar por boxeador, o le buscaban combates en los que el contrincante le pudiera dejar al borde de la muerte, o lo enviaban directamente a la cámara de gas. De la misma manera, pasaron por los campos de concentración, entre otros, el neerlandés Judah Vandervelde, al que el boxeo le salvó del duro e indigno trabajo del Sonderkommando de Auschwitz y que sobrevivió a la deportación, o los judíos de Tesalónica León Kuenca y Salom Arouch, a quienes el boxeo también les libró de la muerte.

En el KZ Mauthausen funcionó una biblioteca clandestina organizada por el deportado español Joan Tarrago, que aglutinó algo más de ciento cincuenta libros robados a los SS; libros que estos, a su vez, habían expoliado, en los procesos de selección, a los prisioneros de distintas nacionalidades que ingresaban en el Lager. Los ejemplares se escondían bajo el entarimado del barracón número trece. Estas lecturas fueron, sin duda, una válvula de escape para los prisioneros que, mientras leían, distraían la mente y se evadían de la dureza de la vida en el campo.

Johann Wilhelm Trollmann, boxeador alemán de etnia gitana conocido con el sobrenombre de Rukeli. Se sucidió en 1944 en el campo de concentración de Neuengamme. Crédito: Getty Images.

Johann Wilhelm Trollmann, boxeador alemán de etnia gitana conocido con el sobrenombre de Rukeli. Murió en 1944 en el campo de concentración de Neuengamme. Crédito: Getty Images.

Los campos nazis también contaban con un pequeño lugar destinado al burdel. En el verano de 1943 Heinrich Himmler hizo aprobar un decreto por el que se disponía la instalación de burdeles en los Konzentrationslager, según él, para elevar la moral de los prisioneros. Entre los campos que tuvieron un burdel se pueden citar Mauthausen, Sachsenhasuen, Buchenwald o Dachau. Las prostitutas de estas singulares «casas de citas» eran traídas del campo de concentración de mujeres de Ravensbrück. Las mujeres, entre las que se encontraban gitanas, solían presentarse voluntariamente embaucadas con la promesa de que serían puestas en libertad en unos seis meses, cosa que no era cierta. El prostíbulo se nutría también de prostitutas alemanas con delitos comunes, o de meretrices condenadas en los propios países ocupados, salvo si eran judías. El uso del burdel estaba reservado a los Kapos y Prominenten, que eran los únicos que podían pagar los dos reichsmark, que era lo que costaba el servicio, y los regalos con que agasajaban a las mujeres, como sostenes, blusas de encaje o similares y que obtenían de otras prisioneras. El lugar estaba vigilado por una guardia de las SS. Al cliente se le daba un tíquet que debía entregar al Kapo del burdel antes de entrar en el cubículo de la prostituta, y este hacía una revisión de sus genitales por si portaba alguna enfermedad venérea. Además, le proporcionaba una pomada para evitar contraer enfermedades. Había que ir con la ropa y la muda interior impoluta, y estaba prohibido besarse. El prostíbulo abría todos los días de la semana, de seis a ocho de la tarde, y la meretriz debía atender a unos diez parroquianos, por lo que no podía dedicar a cada uno más de diez o doce minutos. La habitación solo tenía una silla y una cama estrecha en la que apenas cabían dos personas. El cuarto no tenía puerta, una cortina hacía las veces de esta. Además, en cada habitación había un agujero en la pared por el que vigilar que el cliente y la prostituta no intercambiaran información prohibida. 

Como hemos comentado, el uso del burdel no estaba autorizado para la masa anónima de prisioneros; los cuales, por otra parte, no necesitaban los servicios de una meretriz, pues estaban sometidos a un «proceso de deserotización del cuerpo y la consiguiente desaparición de cualquier deseo sexual». Para ellos, su mayor preocupación era la comida. Al no estar cubierta esta necesidad primaria, desaparecía en ellos cualquier forma de deseo sexual. 

En los primeros meses tras el establecimiento de los prostíbulos, los prisioneros homosexuales con triángulo rosa estaban obligados a frecuentarlos. Los nacionalsocialistas pensaban que, de esa manera, se curarían de lo que ellos entendían que era una enfermedad. Con el paso de los meses esta práctica se fue relajando, pues los triángulos rosas se apuntaban a la lista del burdel y luego regalaban el tíquet a cualquier otro prisionero.

Los SS disponían de un burdel separado del de los deportados.

Los campos del horror

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