Cómic

Alison Bechdel: la verdad está ahí dentro

Alison Bechdel fue la primera en plasmar en viñetas que la infancia es el crisol de todas nuestras veleidades. En el quince aniversario de «Fun Home», la semilla de la narración autobiográfica aplicada al cómic, reivindicamos la vida y obra de esta brillante e intuitiva escritora estadounidense, celebrado referente de la literatura LGTBI+ y, sí, ideóloga del archiconocido test de Bechdel.

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style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Alison Bechdel en 2016. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images. Ilustraci\u00f3n de apertura: detalle de la cubierta de <em>El secreto de la fuerza sobrehumana.<br \/><\/em><br \/><br 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style=\\\"text-align: left;\\\"><strong>Por CARMEN COCINA<br \/><br \/><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/4241-jose-carlos-yrigoyen\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><br 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que alguien logra escapar a su infancia? Yo creo que no. Ese tipo de sensaci\u00f3n que uno tiene en la infancia de ser muy misterioso. En ese tiempo te ven y no te oyen. De hecho, a nosotros ni nos ve\u00edan\u00bb.<\/strong> La cita es de la pintora surrealista Leonora Carrington, pero bien podr\u00eda atribuirse a la introspectiva, hiperreflexiva, absorbente\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1377-alison-bechdel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Alison Bechdel<\/a><\/span> (Pennsylvania, 1960). Todos los ni\u00f1os nacen con un lienzo en blanco entre las manos, y el de Bechdel (periodista, escritora y autora de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/29015-fun-home-9788439721048\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Fun Home: Una familia tragic\u00f3mica<\/a><\/em><\/span>, novela gr\u00e1fica seminal de la narraci\u00f3n autobiogr\u00e1fica en la disciplina del c\u00f3mic) no tard\u00f3 en salpicarse de<strong> las obsesiones y frustraciones que arrastraban sus irregulares progenitores.<\/strong> El primer cap\u00edtulo, de t\u00edtulo \u00abViejo padre, viejo artesano\u00bb e \u00edntegramente dedicado a su figura, lo retrata como un hombre absorto en sus propias obsesiones est\u00e9ticas que, en palabras de la autora, \u00abtrataba a sus muebles como hijos y a sus hijos como muebles\u00bb (o, m\u00e1s propiamente dicho, como operarios para sus sempiternas odiseas dom\u00e9sticas). Entre las innumerables referencias mitol\u00f3gicas, literarias y culturales que riegan <em>Fun Home<\/em>, Bechdel lleg\u00f3 a asimilar la consagraci\u00f3n de su padre al interiorismo barroco y la funeraria familiar (en cuyos menesteres trabajaban todos sus miembros) con la tenebrosa y extravagante familia Addams. Por las mismas, su hogar ser\u00eda como un museo decr\u00e9pito en el que, sin embargo, bull\u00eda la actividad familiar, siempre bajo la amenaza latente de que la m\u00e1s tenue discordancia, la m\u00e1s m\u00ednima asimetr\u00eda, desatase el peor de los estallidos de su 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a las man\u00edas de su padre y a la pasividad de su madre, que hab\u00eda renunciado tiempo atr\u00e1s a una vida m\u00e1s edificante (y estimulante) en la bohemia Europa para resignarse a la rutina de una aldea de provincias, <strong>Bechdel pas\u00f3 su infancia entre cortinas de terciopelo, viejos candelabros de cobre y el olor a naftalina y a sales arom\u00e1ticas de la funeraria,<\/strong> cuya cotidianeidad contribuir\u00eda sin duda a forjar su mordaz sentido del humor y sembrar\u00eda en ella una sana indiferencia ante los usos y costumbres \u00abde recibo\u00bb en una sociedad que acabar\u00eda por revelarse aburrida y retr\u00f3grada. Pero si algo hab\u00eda en esa casa eran libros. Muchos libros. Leer a Sartre, a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/la-peste-vendra-la-muerte-y-tendra-tus-ojos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Camus<\/a><\/span>, a Plat\u00f3n, a James Joyce, a Scott Fitzgerald y a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/los-documentos-de-aspern-henry-james\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Henry James<\/a><\/span>, entre otros, subrayar\u00eda su tendencia a la introspecci\u00f3n y a una verbalizaci\u00f3n inusitadamente elocuente de sus propios sentimientos, reflexiones, dilemas y paradojas, una de las mayores delicias de sus libros y de la <strong>tira c\u00f3mica <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/26232-lo-indispensable-de-unas-lesbianas-de-cuidado\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em>Dykes to Watch Out For (Unas lesbianas de cuidado)<\/em><\/span>,<\/a>\u00a0que dinamitar\u00eda los estereotipos sobre las relaciones l\u00e9sbicas<\/strong> y se publicar\u00eda en el peri\u00f3dico<em> WomaNews<\/em> entre 1983 y 2008. Su calado en la cultura popular ser\u00eda tal que acabar\u00edan incluy\u00e9ndose en m\u00e1s de cincuenta publicaciones en Estados Unidos y el Reino Unido, lo que permitir\u00eda a Bechdel abandonar su puesto en el peri\u00f3dico <em>Equal Times<\/em> en 1990 y dedicarse exclusivamente a dibujar historietas. Su devoci\u00f3n por la psicolog\u00eda cl\u00ednica quedar\u00eda plasmada en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/19998-eres-mi-madre\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em>\u00bfEres mi madre?<\/em><\/a><\/span> (2012), cuyos cap\u00edtulos se estructuraban en torno a las teor\u00edas del desarrollo infantil del psiquiatra Donald Woods Winnicott e inclu\u00edan citas de Sigmund Freud, Alice Miller y Virginia Woolf. D\u00e9cadas antes, en la universidad, su c\u00edrculo de amistades la hab\u00eda llevado a descubrir la llamada \u00abliteratura de mujeres para mujeres\u00bb y el feminismo de escritoras como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/las-inseparables-simone-de-beauvoir\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Simone de Beauvoir<\/a><\/span>, Ana\u00efs Nin o Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, <strong>que instaba a las mujeres a \u00absalir del armario y tomar las calles\u00bb.<\/strong> Un g\u00e9nero que Bechdel explor\u00f3 con exhaustividad y entusiasmo, y que la llevar\u00eda a constatar una verdad esencial sobre s\u00ed misma.\u00a0<\/p><p>A pesar de que la joven Alison no proces\u00f3 su condici\u00f3n homosexual hasta su primer a\u00f1o en la facultad de Literatura, su lesbianismo hab\u00eda latido en su interior desde que era ni\u00f1a. Sus hermanos la llamaban \u00abchicote\u00bb (sin acritud alguna) y ella se escabull\u00eda para ponerse pantalones cortos mientras su padre insist\u00eda en vestirla con lazos y vestiditos, <strong>una forzada reconducci\u00f3n hacia la normatividad femenina<\/strong> con la que probablemente trataba de ahorrar a su hija los peajes e infortunios que \u00e9l mismo sufr\u00eda por su \u00abdesviada\u00bb orientaci\u00f3n sexual, que siempre se neg\u00f3 a abrazar abierta y plenamente. Poco despu\u00e9s de que Bechdel, en el umbral de sus veinte a\u00f1os, revelara a su familia que le gustaban las chicas, su padre fue atropellado por un cami\u00f3n y falleci\u00f3. <strong>Aun hoy, la autora tiene claro que aquello no fue un accidente, sino un suicidio.<\/strong>\u00a0Tal\u00a0creencia revela su interiorizada presunci\u00f3n de que la vida de su padre hab\u00eda sido un fracaso y <strong>su propio sentimiento de culpa ante su muerte, fruto quiz\u00e1 de una educaci\u00f3n marcada por una sobreexigencia impl\u00edcita<\/strong> y por un entorno familiar en el que, tal como ella expresa en una de sus vi\u00f1etas m\u00e1s elocuentes, cada miembro era un elemento insular hilvanado al resto mediante un afecto ambivalente, reprimido y rara vez expresado en gestos o 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hablando, todas estas elucubraciones, tribulaciones y vivencias no acabar\u00edan por materializarse hasta que Bechdel cumpli\u00f3 los cuarenta y seis a\u00f1os.\u00a0<strong><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/29015-fun-home-9788439721048\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Fun Home: Una familia tragic\u00f3mica<\/a><\/span><\/em> era el resultado de toda una vida acumulando diarios, cartas y escritos<\/strong> (una variante del s\u00edndrome de Di\u00f3genes que ha revelado su utilidad en m\u00e1s de una ocasi\u00f3n) y de siete a\u00f1os escarbando dentro de s\u00ed misma y moldeando sus propios recuerdos. Publicada en 2006, la obra fue galardonada con el prestigioso Stonewall Book Award, especializado en literatura LGTBI+, y elegida como uno de los mejores libros del a\u00f1o por las publicaciones<em>\u00a0Time<\/em>,<em> Entertainment Weekly<\/em>,<em> The New York Times<\/em>,<em> Los Angeles Times<\/em>,<em> People<\/em> y <em>USA Today<\/em>, entre otras, que celebraron tanto <strong>su perspicaz acidez en la narraci\u00f3n de traumas intergeneracionales como la boyante expresividad de sus dibujos.<\/strong>\u00a0<\/p><p>Pese a que Bechdel nunca se ha considerado a s\u00ed misma una activista, la m\u00e1xima feminista \u00ablo personal es pol\u00edtico\u00bb se ajusta a su obra como un guante. La espontaneidad y la integradora honestidad de su legado <strong>forman parte indisoluble del imaginario cultural y pol\u00edtico del colectivo LGTBI+<\/strong> a nivel global y son objeto de estudio en universidades a lo largo y ancho de Estados Unidos. Con todo, no deja de resultar parad\u00f3jico que, en lo que a popularidad se refiere, su brillante carrera literaria no pueda competir con su condici\u00f3n de art\u00edfice del llamado <strong>test de Bechdel, un sencillo baremo feminista para el an\u00e1lisis del rol de las mujeres en las producciones cinematogr\u00e1ficas<\/strong> (a saber: en ellas debe haber al menos dos mujeres y han de hablar entre s\u00ed de algo que no sea un hombre). Con suerte, la clarividencia de dicho mecanismo despertar\u00e1 en quienes lo conozcan la curiosidad por saber de d\u00f3nde viene eso de Bechdel. Y entonces\u2026\u00a0<br \/><br \/><br \/><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><ul style=\\\"list-style-type: circle;\\\"><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/liv-stromquist-no-siento-nada\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Feminismo, nuevas masculinidades y tab\u00faes sociopol\u00edticos: un viaje de ida al universo de Liv Str\u00f6mquist<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/ilu-ros-federico-garcia-lorca\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Lorca por Ilu Ros: el a\u00f1o que hizo Federico<\/a><\/span><\/li><li><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/comic\/Posy-Simmonds-Tamara-Drewe\\\">Posy Simmonds o por qu\u00e9 dibujar los cl\u00e1sicos<\/a><\/span><\/li><\/ul>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"06\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"qfc1v6r\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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10 minutos

Alison Bechdel en 2016. Crédito: Getty Images. Ilustración de apertura: detalle de la cubierta de El secreto de la fuerza sobrehumana.


Por CARMEN COCINA


«¿Crees que alguien logra escapar a su infancia? Yo creo que no. Ese tipo de sensación que uno tiene en la infancia de ser muy misterioso. En ese tiempo te ven y no te oyen. De hecho, a nosotros ni nos veían». La cita es de la pintora surrealista Leonora Carrington, pero bien podría atribuirse a la introspectiva, hiperreflexiva, absorbente Alison Bechdel (Pennsylvania, 1960). Todos los niños nacen con un lienzo en blanco entre las manos, y el de Bechdel (periodista, escritora y autora de Fun Home: Una familia tragicómica, novela gráfica seminal de la narración autobiográfica en la disciplina del cómic) no tardó en salpicarse de las obsesiones y frustraciones que arrastraban sus irregulares progenitores. El primer capítulo, de título «Viejo padre, viejo artesano» e íntegramente dedicado a su figura, lo retrata como un hombre absorto en sus propias obsesiones estéticas que, en palabras de la autora, «trataba a sus muebles como hijos y a sus hijos como muebles» (o, más propiamente dicho, como operarios para sus sempiternas odiseas domésticas). Entre las innumerables referencias mitológicas, literarias y culturales que riegan Fun Home, Bechdel llegó a asimilar la consagración de su padre al interiorismo barroco y la funeraria familiar (en cuyos menesteres trabajaban todos sus miembros) con la tenebrosa y extravagante familia Addams. Por las mismas, su hogar sería como un museo decrépito en el que, sin embargo, bullía la actividad familiar, siempre bajo la amenaza latente de que la más tenue discordancia, la más mínima asimetría, desatase el peor de los estallidos de su minotauro.

Cosas de casa

Acostumbrada a las manías de su padre y a la pasividad de su madre, que había renunciado tiempo atrás a una vida más edificante (y estimulante) en la bohemia Europa para resignarse a la rutina de una aldea de provincias, Bechdel pasó su infancia entre cortinas de terciopelo, viejos candelabros de cobre y el olor a naftalina y a sales aromáticas de la funeraria, cuya cotidianeidad contribuiría sin duda a forjar su mordaz sentido del humor y sembraría en ella una sana indiferencia ante los usos y costumbres «de recibo» en una sociedad que acabaría por revelarse aburrida y retrógrada. Pero si algo había en esa casa eran libros. Muchos libros. Leer a Sartre, a Camus, a Platón, a James Joyce, a Scott Fitzgerald y a Henry James, entre otros, subrayaría su tendencia a la introspección y a una verbalización inusitadamente elocuente de sus propios sentimientos, reflexiones, dilemas y paradojas, una de las mayores delicias de sus libros y de la tira cómica Dykes to Watch Out For (Unas lesbianas de cuidado), que dinamitaría los estereotipos sobre las relaciones lésbicas y se publicaría en el periódico WomaNews entre 1983 y 2008. Su calado en la cultura popular sería tal que acabarían incluyéndose en más de cincuenta publicaciones en Estados Unidos y el Reino Unido, lo que permitiría a Bechdel abandonar su puesto en el periódico Equal Times en 1990 y dedicarse exclusivamente a dibujar historietas. Su devoción por la psicología clínica quedaría plasmada en ¿Eres mi madre? (2012), cuyos capítulos se estructuraban en torno a las teorías del desarrollo infantil del psiquiatra Donald Woods Winnicott e incluían citas de Sigmund Freud, Alice Miller y Virginia Woolf. Décadas antes, en la universidad, su círculo de amistades la había llevado a descubrir la llamada «literatura de mujeres para mujeres» y el feminismo de escritoras como Simone de Beauvoir, Anaïs Nin o Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, que instaba a las mujeres a «salir del armario y tomar las calles». Un género que Bechdel exploró con exhaustividad y entusiasmo, y que la llevaría a constatar una verdad esencial sobre sí misma. 

A pesar de que la joven Alison no procesó su condición homosexual hasta su primer año en la facultad de Literatura, su lesbianismo había latido en su interior desde que era niña. Sus hermanos la llamaban «chicote» (sin acritud alguna) y ella se escabullía para ponerse pantalones cortos mientras su padre insistía en vestirla con lazos y vestiditos, una forzada reconducción hacia la normatividad femenina con la que probablemente trataba de ahorrar a su hija los peajes e infortunios que él mismo sufría por su «desviada» orientación sexual, que siempre se negó a abrazar abierta y plenamente. Poco después de que Bechdel, en el umbral de sus veinte años, revelara a su familia que le gustaban las chicas, su padre fue atropellado por un camión y falleció. Aun hoy, la autora tiene claro que aquello no fue un accidente, sino un suicidio. Tal creencia revela su interiorizada presunción de que la vida de su padre había sido un fracaso y su propio sentimiento de culpa ante su muerte, fruto quizá de una educación marcada por una sobreexigencia implícita y por un entorno familiar en el que, tal como ella expresa en una de sus viñetas más elocuentes, cada miembro era un elemento insular hilvanado al resto mediante un afecto ambivalente, reprimido y rara vez expresado en gestos o palabras.

Literariamente hablando, todas estas elucubraciones, tribulaciones y vivencias no acabarían por materializarse hasta que Bechdel cumplió los cuarenta y seis años. Fun Home: Una familia tragicómica era el resultado de toda una vida acumulando diarios, cartas y escritos (una variante del síndrome de Diógenes que ha revelado su utilidad en más de una ocasión) y de siete años escarbando dentro de sí misma y moldeando sus propios recuerdos. Publicada en 2006, la obra fue galardonada con el prestigioso Stonewall Book Award, especializado en literatura LGTBI+, y elegida como uno de los mejores libros del año por las publicaciones Time, Entertainment Weekly, The New York Times, Los Angeles Times, People y USA Today, entre otras, que celebraron tanto su perspicaz acidez en la narración de traumas intergeneracionales como la boyante expresividad de sus dibujos. 

Pese a que Bechdel nunca se ha considerado a sí misma una activista, la máxima feminista «lo personal es político» se ajusta a su obra como un guante. La espontaneidad y la integradora honestidad de su legado forman parte indisoluble del imaginario cultural y político del colectivo LGTBI+ a nivel global y son objeto de estudio en universidades a lo largo y ancho de Estados Unidos. Con todo, no deja de resultar paradójico que, en lo que a popularidad se refiere, su brillante carrera literaria no pueda competir con su condición de artífice del llamado test de Bechdel, un sencillo baremo feminista para el análisis del rol de las mujeres en las producciones cinematográficas (a saber: en ellas debe haber al menos dos mujeres y han de hablar entre sí de algo que no sea un hombre). Con suerte, la clarividencia de dicho mecanismo despertará en quienes lo conozcan la curiosidad por saber de dónde viene eso de Bechdel. Y entonces… 


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