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Susan Sontag por David Rieff: desesperada por perdurar

Siendo aún muy joven, Susan Sontag (1933-2004) dejó escritas en su diario las siguientes palabras: «No puedo imaginar el mundo sin mí». Es un sentimiento que nunca la abandonó: años después, ya de adulta, la propia Sontag confesó que confiaba en vivir una vida muy larga para, según sus palabras, «ver hasta dónde llega la estupidez». Alcanzó los 71 años, ni uno más. Ahora, cuando se cumplen 90 años de su nacimiento (el 16 de enero de 1933), recuperamos el prólogo que firma su hijo, el escritor y analista político David Rieff, en «Obra imprescindible» (Random House, 2022), la compilación de textos más «perdurables» de una de las intelectuales más trascendentales de la segunda mitad del siglo XX.

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Es un sentimiento que nunca la abandon\u00f3: a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s, ya de adulta, la propia Sontag confes\u00f3 que confiaba en vivir una vida muy larga para, seg\u00fan sus palabras, \u00abver hasta d\u00f3nde llega la estupidez\u00bb. Alcanz\u00f3 los 71 a\u00f1os, ni uno m\u00e1s. 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/borges-y-bioy-casares-alias\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Borges<\/a><\/span>\u00a0afirm\u00f3 que \u00abcuando los escritores mueren se convierten en libros, lo que, al fin y al cabo, no es una encarnaci\u00f3n tan mala\u00bb. Hace falta una rara \u00edndole de elegancia moral para hallar consuelo en la idea de que algo quedar\u00e1 de nosotros tras nuestra extinci\u00f3n. Y que alguien, aun trat\u00e1ndose de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/400-jorge-luis-borges\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Borges<\/a><\/span>, pueda hallar pleno consuelo en ello es una cuesti\u00f3n discutible. Para los que no est\u00e1n dotados de una gran capacidad de resignaci\u00f3n o de autoenga\u00f1o, y no creen en la vida de ultratumba (y probablemente incluso para muchos que s\u00ed creen en ella), el olvido es algo dif\u00edcil de entender, y m\u00e1s a\u00fan de aceptar. La esperanza de que no todo concluye con la propia muerte radica por tradici\u00f3n en la familia; para otros la consecuci\u00f3n de los logros p\u00fablicos, o bien las causas por las que se ha luchado, alimentan la esperanza de que su memoria perdurar\u00e1. Aunque para muchos artistas se trate m\u00e1s bien de la obra, la obra, la obra. No obstante, dicha idea, aun en su sentido m\u00e1s amplio, coexiste en tensi\u00f3n con la certidumbre, incluso entre las reputaciones m\u00e1s imperecederas, de que el destino ineludible de la obra es verse reinterpretada por cada generaci\u00f3n, y quiz\u00e1 a la postre repudiada por ella; pues el repudio es la burda prerrogativa de los j\u00f3venes.<\/p><p>En el caso concreto de los escritores, hay algunos que intentan, por as\u00ed decirlo, echar dados trucados a sus contempor\u00e1neos, as\u00ed como a la posteridad. En vida ambicionan y a menudo consiguen, al menos en alguna medida, conformar c\u00f3mo se comprende su obra, ya sea rebatiendo constantemente a sus cr\u00edticos, ya sea incitando a sus admiradores. Wagner es el caso emblem\u00e1tico de dicho esfuerzo en un gran artista. En el caso de los escritores a lo largo del siglo pasado, el empe\u00f1o se extendi\u00f3 a los que eligieron a sus bi\u00f3grafos o al menos colaboraron con ellos. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/philip-roth-por-blake-bailey\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La reciente y muy controvertida biograf\u00eda de Philip Roth<\/a><\/span>, que \u00e9l mismo se esforz\u00f3 denodadamente por guiar, es otro ejemplo tanto del poder como de las trampas de todo ello. Pero a m\u00e1s largo plazo, como concluyeron hasta los escritores m\u00e1s empe\u00f1ados en dirigir lo que ocurre con su obra \u2014un \u00adRoth o un <a href=\\\"https:\/\/mobile.twitter.com\/penguinlibros\/status\/720367338982387712\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Beckett<\/a>\u2014, por mucho que intervinieran resistiendo dicha conclusi\u00f3n, tales esfuerzos est\u00e1n indefectiblemente condenados al 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Sontag, mi madre, estaba profunda y a veces desesperadamente interesada en que se la recordara. \u00abPerdurar\u00e1\u00bb era para ella el mayor homenaje que se pod\u00eda rendir a la obra de un colega. Y aunque eso no pueda deducirse del fr\u00edvolo relato de sus ambiciones en la banal biograf\u00eda de Benjamin Moser, mi madre en realidad no estaba de ning\u00fan modo ofuscada por alcanzar la fama y luego por mantenerla. Bien al contrario, muchas de las decisiones relativas a los proyectos que deseaba emprender, sobre todo en su determinaci\u00f3n de participar en los prop\u00f3sitos de amigos y parejas que en otras circunstancias apenas le habr\u00edan interesado, fueron distracciones decisivas que la apartaron de sus propias aspiraciones. Fueron tambi\u00e9n m\u00e1s preservadoras de la fama que medios para alcanzarla o mantenerla. Al margen del \u00e1mbito de las proyecciones de Moser, lo que mi madre m\u00e1s ambicionaba era que su obra fuera recordada por la perdurable originalidad de lo que hab\u00eda hecho, pensado y escrito, y no porque hab\u00eda sido famosa. En alg\u00fan sentido compart\u00eda el punto de vista de Borges, si bien la versi\u00f3n de este era conciliadora y la suya estaba electrizada por el terror a la extinci\u00f3n. Pues ella era la mujer que, siendo a\u00fan muy joven, hab\u00eda escrito en su diario: \u00abNo puedo imaginar el mundo sin m\u00ed\u00bb. Es un sentimiento que nunca la abandon\u00f3, y su persistencia provoc\u00f3 que fuera sumamente angustioso para ella dejar este mundo; un sufrimiento que intent\u00e9 plasmar, no del todo cabalmente, en <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/11389-libro-un-mar-de-muerte-9788483068052\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Un mar de muerte<\/a><\/span>,<\/em> mis memorias de sus \u00faltimos meses. 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hallar consuelo ante la extinci\u00f3n inevitable y ansiar que la posteridad preste atenci\u00f3n puede parecer contradictorio, pero en el caso de mi madre creo que su horror a lo primero y su deseo de lo segundo simplemente discurr\u00edan por cauces distintos. Recuerdo que en una ocasi\u00f3n \u2014en San Petersburgo para su septuag\u00e9simo primer y \u00faltimo cumplea\u00f1os, casi 11 meses antes de su muerte\u2014 trajo consigo como regalo para las personas que pudiera conocer ejemplares de su libro m\u00e1s reciente, <em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/35737-libro-ante-el-dolor-de-los-demas-9788499082370\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Ante el dolor de los dem\u00e1s<\/a><\/span><\/em>, su meditaci\u00f3n sobre la fotograf\u00eda y la guerra, y de A Susan Sontag Reader, una compilaci\u00f3n de su obra publicada hasta 1982. Me sorprendi\u00f3 que hubiera elegido un libro de 20 a\u00f1os atr\u00e1s en lugar de otro m\u00e1s reciente. Pero respondi\u00f3 con toda naturalidad que probablemente nadie leer\u00eda entera la obra comprendida en el periodo de la compilaci\u00f3n y que era un modo de transmitir lo que hab\u00eda abordado en ella. Sin embargo, con suerte, me dijo, pronto se editar\u00eda otra con su obra escrita desde entonces, tal y como la conceb\u00eda. La autora del ensayo\u00a0<em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/arte-cine-y-musica\/35474-libro-contra-la-interpretacion-y-otros-ensayos-9788483464205\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Contra la interpretaci\u00f3n<\/a><\/span><\/em> nunca tuvo reparo alguno en ello. Porque tambi\u00e9n se trataba de la mujer a la que le gustaba citar la frase de Nietzsche: \u00abNo hay hechos, solo interpretaciones\u00bb. Y, como he tratado de exponer, aspiraba, sobre todo, a que se la siguiera 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autora y cr\u00edtica cultural estadounidense Susan Sontag trabaja en su escritorio, alrededor de 1971. Detr\u00e1s de ella se ve \u00abMao\u00bb, de Roy Lichtenstein, cuadro que apareci\u00f3 en la portada de la novela de Frederic Tuten \u00abLas aventuras de Mao en la Larga Marcha\u00bb (la cual hab\u00eda sido rese\u00f1ada favorablemente por la propia Sontag). Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wssminu\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">La autora y cr\u00edtica cultural estadounidense Susan Sontag trabaja en su escritorio, alrededor de 1971. Detr\u00e1s de ella se ve \u00abMao\u00bb, de Roy Lichtenstein, cuadro que apareci\u00f3 en la portada de la novela de Frederic Tuten\u00a0 \u00abLas aventuras de Mao en la Larga Marcha\u00bb (la cual hab\u00eda sido rese\u00f1ada favorablemente por la propia Sontag). Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.<\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"2\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"10\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"u9zt393\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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eso consisten las compilaciones cuando las preparan sus autores y no sus herederos: se trata de ejercicios de autointerpretaci\u00f3n. En cambio, una p\u00f3stuma,\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/1726575-home_default\/obra-imprescindible.webp\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">como esta<\/a><\/span> o la precedente, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/28992-libro-al-mismo-tiempo-9788439720539\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Al mismo tiempo<\/a><\/em><\/span>, publicada en 2009, es por su misma naturaleza una interpretaci\u00f3n ajena de la obra de un escritor, en este caso mi interpretaci\u00f3n. Tal es el privilegio y la carga de ser un heredero. Y si la obra de mi madre perdura, como creo que as\u00ed ocurrir\u00e1, habr\u00e1 personas que nunca la conocieron en vida, y menos a\u00fan que entablaron una relaci\u00f3n con ella, que al cabo editar\u00e1n otras compilaciones. No obstante, la tarea me ha correspondido a m\u00ed mientras tanto, y quiero dejar claro que lo que se sirve aqu\u00ed es una selecci\u00f3n de la obra de toda la vida de Susan Sontag vista a trav\u00e9s de la lente de David Rieff. \u00bfQu\u00e9 habr\u00eda pensado de la iniciativa? No tengo otra respuesta que la que ofrezco cuando sus admiradores me escriben para preguntar qu\u00e9 \u00abhabr\u00eda pensado\u00bb de gente y acontecimientos sucedidos tras su deceso: Donald Trump, <em>woke,<\/em>\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/el-cambio-climatico-en-cuatro-preguntas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la crisis clim\u00e1tica<\/a><\/span>, etc\u00e9tera. La \u00fanica respuesta honrada, por supuesto, es que soy un hijo, no un m\u00e9dium. Con todo, lo que he pretendido es incluir la obra que consideraba m\u00e1s destacada porque ella misma me lo dijo, obra que quiz\u00e1 habr\u00eda \u00absuperado\u00bb (aunque no repudiado; eso solo ocurri\u00f3 con algunas de sus posiciones pol\u00edticas, en particular con sus primeras apolog\u00edas de varios reg\u00edmenes comunistas, principalmente <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/wendy-guerra-ernest-hemingway\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el cubano<\/a><\/span>) y obra que en mi opini\u00f3n podr\u00eda tener eco sobre todo entre quienes la leen actualmente, en la tercera d\u00e9cada del siglo XXI. A todo lo anterior he a\u00f1adido unas cuantas entradas de sus diarios que se revisten de singular relevancia para los escritos que se reproducen en estas p\u00e1ginas.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"tk7a5uv\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>No hallar consuelo ante la extinci\u00f3n inevitable y ansiar que la posteridad preste atenci\u00f3n puede parecer contradictorio, pero en el caso de mi madre creo que su horror a lo primero y su deseo de lo segundo simplemente discurr\u00edan por cauces distintos<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"drj3oet\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Y soy el primero en reconocer que leer a\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/675-susan-sontag\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Susan Sontag<\/a><\/span> en la tercera d\u00e9cada del siglo XXI es todo menos un asunto di\u00e1fano. No me refiero solo al modo en que ella no habr\u00eda compartido las creencias recibidas de nuestra \u00e9poca (aunque, insisto, no lo s\u00e9 de cierto). S\u00ed sostengo que le habr\u00eda parecido en extremo repelente el antiintelectualismo iconoclasta de la pol\u00edtica identitaria y su filosof\u00eda (por decirlo con suma generosidad) de la cultura que sustituye la trascendencia con la representaci\u00f3n. Una vez me confes\u00f3 que una de las razones por las que confiaba en vivir una vida muy larga \u2014una obsesi\u00f3n irrealizada: solo le tocaron seis docenas de a\u00f1os, casi\u2014 era, seg\u00fan sus palabras, \u00abpara ver hasta d\u00f3nde llega la estupidez\u00bb. Mi corazonada es que se habr\u00eda quedado at\u00f3nita al ver la prontitud con la que se alcanz\u00f3 tanta estupidez. Pero lo que me parece m\u00e1s trascendente es que, a diferencia de muchos escritores importantes pr\u00f3ximos a su generaci\u00f3n (naci\u00f3 en 1933 y muri\u00f3 en 2004), la obra de mi madre es en s\u00ed misma un estudio sobre la ambivalencia y la ambig\u00fcedad. La ambivalencia es en un sentido el aspecto m\u00e1s sencillo: uno de sus contempor\u00e1neos sintetiz\u00f3 su profunda dualidad, en un tono entre admirativo y burl\u00f3n, al afirmar que se trataba de una esteta entre los moralistas, pero de una moralista entre los estetas. Los primeros ensayos que la hicieron c\u00e9lebre \u2013<em>Notas sobre lo camp, Contra la interpretaci\u00f3n, Una cultura y la nueva sensibilidad<\/em> y <em>Sobre el estilo\u2013<\/em> son los de la esteta que se enfrentaba a la moralista. Pero en\u00a0<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/35576-libro-sobre-la-fotografia-9788483467794\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em>Sobre la fotograf\u00eda<\/em><\/span>,<\/a> en sus dos libros sobre la enfermedad, <em>La enfermedad y sus met\u00e1foras<\/em> y <em>El sida y sus met\u00e1foras,<\/em> en el ensayo sobre Leni Riefenstahl, <em>Fascinante fascismo,<\/em> y en su meditaci\u00f3n sobre la fotograf\u00eda y la guerra<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">,<\/span><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/35737-libro-ante-el-dolor-de-los-demas-9788499082370\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\"><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"> Ante el dolor de los dem\u00e1s<\/span>,<\/em> <\/a>mi madre volvi\u00f3 a ser la moralista de 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propia intuici\u00f3n, y no se trata m\u00e1s que de eso, es que si se desentra\u00f1ara su dualidad escritural, la moralista superar\u00eda a la esteta. Una parte de lo que escribi\u00f3, de la cual he entresacado la mayor\u00eda de lo seleccionado, tendr\u00e1 su eco sin obst\u00e1culos. Acaso resulte ir\u00f3nico, pero me parece que su obra narrativa, valorada por ella por encima del resto de sus libros, aunque considerada por casi todos sus lectores coet\u00e1neos lo menos interesante de su empe\u00f1o, sea lo que menos precise (\u00a1s\u00ed!) de interpretaci\u00f3n para los lectores de 2022. Y por el mismo motivo me pregunto hasta qu\u00e9 punto son <em>legibles<\/em> hoy d\u00eda los primeros ensayos de su periodo de alta esteta. El axioma de Kierkegaard, objeto de fascinaci\u00f3n que citaba a menudo, seg\u00fan el cual, si bien hay que vivir la vida prospectivamente, esta solo puede ser entendida retrospectivamente, no se ajusta del todo al caso de mi madre, al menos en lo que respecta a su obra. Pues a diferencia de muchos de sus contempor\u00e1neos \u2013es decir, los m\u00e1s relevantes\u2013, todas las cr\u00f3nicas sobre ella, sobre lo que pensaba, sobre lo que defendi\u00f3, parec\u00edan y aun parecen reclamar un contradiscurso.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"va2lk6g\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Una vez me confes\u00f3 que una de las razones por las que confiaba en vivir una vida muy larga \u2014una obsesi\u00f3n irrealizada: solo le tocaron seis docenas de a\u00f1os, casi\u2014 era, seg\u00fan sus palabras, \u00abpara ver hasta d\u00f3nde llega la estupidez\u00bb. Mi corazonada es que se habr\u00eda quedado at\u00f3nita al ver la prontitud con la que se alcanz\u00f3 tanta estupidez.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"b4wp987\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Por lo anterior he querido <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/281686-ebook-obra-imprescindible-9788439736806\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">que esta compilaci\u00f3n sea lo m\u00e1s amplia posible<\/a><\/span>, es decir, he preferido errar por exceso al incluir m\u00e1s escritos y no por defecto al elegir solo aquellos textos que en mi opini\u00f3n la representan con mayor solidez. Por ello los fragmentos de sus diarios son tan importantes en la estructura de esta recopilaci\u00f3n. Algunos abarcan los mismos materiales, o al menos se solapan con lo contenido en los ensayos, relatos y fragmentos de novelas recogidos. Hace ya mucho tiempo el escritor y director ingl\u00e9s Jonathan Miller, buen amigo de mi madre en los a\u00f1os sesenta y setenta, escribi\u00f3 una \u00abCarta de Londres\u00bb para la revista literaria estadounidense <em>Partisan Review,<\/em> donde tambi\u00e9n mi madre public\u00f3 la mayor\u00eda de sus primeros ensayos importantes. Miller siempre conclu\u00eda sus art\u00edculos con estas palabras: \u00abEspero que esto te encuentre a ti tal como me deja a m\u00ed\u00bb. En un sentido todo escritor solo puede razonablemente aspirar a eso, tanto de los lectores de su \u00e9poca como de los que se ocupar\u00e1n de leer su obra cuando no se encuentre entre nosotros. Lo mismo puede decirse de los editores de compilaciones como la presente. Al recibir la obra de mi madre, me parece que a\u00fan conserva su fuerza para instruir, deleitar e interpelar. Pero eso habr\u00e1 de resolverlo esta generaci\u00f3n de lectores, no yo. <em>Caveat 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he referido a la presente antolog\u00eda como si fuese solo m\u00eda, pero no es del todo as\u00ed. Escribo esto con un poco de inquietud. Ya en mi madurez el orbe hispanohablante se ha convertido, en aspectos significativos, en mi patria cultural adoptiva. Lo cual categ\u00f3ricamente no implica que lo mire con menos escepticismo y ambivalencia que los tres pa\u00edses, adem\u00e1s del m\u00edo propio, los Estados Unidos, que m\u00e1s han importado en mi vida: Francia, Inglaterra, y acaso sobre todo Irlanda. Y la verdad es que siempre me he tenido por un estadounidense poco convincente. Aunque me he apeado a menudo en el mundo hispanohablante, la idea de una nueva compilaci\u00f3n de los escritos de Susan Sontag dirigida a un p\u00fablico de habla espa\u00f1ola no fue m\u00eda sino del \u00faltimo editor de mi madre en Espa\u00f1a (y mi buen amigo) <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/es.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Claudio_L%C3%B3pez_Lamadrid\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Claudio L\u00f3pez Lamadrid<\/a><\/span>. Durante un almuerzo en el Festival Hay de Cartagena, acompa\u00f1ados de otros escritores publicados tambi\u00e9n por Claudio y con el rumor de las conversaciones al fondo, me propuso el proyecto garabateando el \u00edndice en una hoja con el membrete del hotel. Desde entonces lo he revisado en parte, a\u00f1adiendo y eliminando textos. As\u00ed pues, este libro es en lo fundamental una idea de Claudio, no m\u00eda. Sin embargo, tiene tambi\u00e9n otro <em>padre:<\/em> el poeta Aurelio Major, traductor de la obra de mi madre y de la m\u00eda, y uno de mis amigos m\u00e1s queridos. Aurelio se ha ocupado durante mucho a\u00f1os de la obra de mi madre en lengua espa\u00f1ola, una suerte de intensa vigilancia que ha sido todo menos f\u00e1cil. Aurelio supervisar\u00e1 los cometidos globales (en ambos sentidos de la palabra) de la Fundaci\u00f3n Susan Sontag cuando yo haya desaparecido Mientras tanto, aqu\u00ed y ahora, estoy en deuda con Claudio y con Aurelio, deudas que nunca podr\u00e9 saldar.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"moyo7fv\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/despedidas\/jean-luc-godard-por-susan-sontag\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jean-Luc Godard por Susan Sontag: cine con identidad literaria<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/joseph-heller-por-rodrigo-fresan-american-mad-man-psycho\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Joseph Heller por Rodrigo Fres\u00e1n: American Mad Man Psycho<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/philip-roth-por-blake-bailey\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Philip Roth por Blake Bailey: el libertino versus el buen jud\u00edo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/roger-federer-por-david-foster-wallace\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Federer por David Foster Wallace: como silbar Mozart en un concierto de Metallica<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/Rayuela-Julio-Cortazar-Gabriel-Garcia-Marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Julio Cort\u00e1zar por Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez: el argentino que se hizo querer de todos<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/borges-en-estados-unidos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jorge Luis Borges: \u00abMe veo obligado a razonar, pero yo prefiero 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15 minutos
Susan Sontag en Francia. Noviembre de 1972. Crédito: Getty Images.

Susan Sontag en Francia. Noviembre de 1972. Crédito: Getty Images.

Borges afirmó que «cuando los escritores mueren se convierten en libros, lo que, al fin y al cabo, no es una encarnación tan mala». Hace falta una rara índole de elegancia moral para hallar consuelo en la idea de que algo quedará de nosotros tras nuestra extinción. Y que alguien, aun tratándose de Borges, pueda hallar pleno consuelo en ello es una cuestión discutible. Para los que no están dotados de una gran capacidad de resignación o de autoengaño, y no creen en la vida de ultratumba (y probablemente incluso para muchos que sí creen en ella), el olvido es algo difícil de entender, y más aún de aceptar. La esperanza de que no todo concluye con la propia muerte radica por tradición en la familia; para otros la consecución de los logros públicos, o bien las causas por las que se ha luchado, alimentan la esperanza de que su memoria perdurará. Aunque para muchos artistas se trate más bien de la obra, la obra, la obra. No obstante, dicha idea, aun en su sentido más amplio, coexiste en tensión con la certidumbre, incluso entre las reputaciones más imperecederas, de que el destino ineludible de la obra es verse reinterpretada por cada generación, y quizá a la postre repudiada por ella; pues el repudio es la burda prerrogativa de los jóvenes.

En el caso concreto de los escritores, hay algunos que intentan, por así decirlo, echar dados trucados a sus contemporáneos, así como a la posteridad. En vida ambicionan y a menudo consiguen, al menos en alguna medida, conformar cómo se comprende su obra, ya sea rebatiendo constantemente a sus críticos, ya sea incitando a sus admiradores. Wagner es el caso emblemático de dicho esfuerzo en un gran artista. En el caso de los escritores a lo largo del siglo pasado, el empeño se extendió a los que eligieron a sus biógrafos o al menos colaboraron con ellos. La reciente y muy controvertida biografía de Philip Roth, que él mismo se esforzó denodadamente por guiar, es otro ejemplo tanto del poder como de las trampas de todo ello. Pero a más largo plazo, como concluyeron hasta los escritores más empeñados en dirigir lo que ocurre con su obra —un ­Roth o un Beckett—, por mucho que intervinieran resistiendo dicha conclusión, tales esfuerzos están indefectiblemente condenados al fracaso.

Susan Sontag, mi madre, estaba profunda y a veces desesperadamente interesada en que se la recordara. «Perdurará» era para ella el mayor homenaje que se podía rendir a la obra de un colega. Y aunque eso no pueda deducirse del frívolo relato de sus ambiciones en la banal biografía de Benjamin Moser, mi madre en realidad no estaba de ningún modo ofuscada por alcanzar la fama y luego por mantenerla. Bien al contrario, muchas de las decisiones relativas a los proyectos que deseaba emprender, sobre todo en su determinación de participar en los propósitos de amigos y parejas que en otras circunstancias apenas le habrían interesado, fueron distracciones decisivas que la apartaron de sus propias aspiraciones. Fueron también más preservadoras de la fama que medios para alcanzarla o mantenerla. Al margen del ámbito de las proyecciones de Moser, lo que mi madre más ambicionaba era que su obra fuera recordada por la perdurable originalidad de lo que había hecho, pensado y escrito, y no porque había sido famosa. En algún sentido compartía el punto de vista de Borges, si bien la versión de este era conciliadora y la suya estaba electrizada por el terror a la extinción. Pues ella era la mujer que, siendo aún muy joven, había escrito en su diario: «No puedo imaginar el mundo sin mí». Es un sentimiento que nunca la abandonó, y su persistencia provocó que fuera sumamente angustioso para ella dejar este mundo; un sufrimiento que intenté plasmar, no del todo cabalmente, en Un mar de muerte, mis memorias de sus últimos meses. Me parece que en realidad la muerte la aterrorizaba más que a cualquier otro escritor importante del siglo XX, a excepción de Elias Canetti; tanto es así que de hecho, y a diferencia de Canetti, ese terror no está presente en su obra, ni siquiera cuando, como en su novela Estuche de muerte, la mortalidad es su tema.

Palabras y posteridad

No hallar consuelo ante la extinción inevitable y ansiar que la posteridad preste atención puede parecer contradictorio, pero en el caso de mi madre creo que su horror a lo primero y su deseo de lo segundo simplemente discurrían por cauces distintos. Recuerdo que en una ocasión —en San Petersburgo para su septuagésimo primer y último cumpleaños, casi 11 meses antes de su muerte— trajo consigo como regalo para las personas que pudiera conocer ejemplares de su libro más reciente, Ante el dolor de los demás, su meditación sobre la fotografía y la guerra, y de A Susan Sontag Reader, una compilación de su obra publicada hasta 1982. Me sorprendió que hubiera elegido un libro de 20 años atrás en lugar de otro más reciente. Pero respondió con toda naturalidad que probablemente nadie leería entera la obra comprendida en el periodo de la compilación y que era un modo de transmitir lo que había abordado en ella. Sin embargo, con suerte, me dijo, pronto se editaría otra con su obra escrita desde entonces, tal y como la concebía. La autora del ensayo Contra la interpretación nunca tuvo reparo alguno en ello. Porque también se trataba de la mujer a la que le gustaba citar la frase de Nietzsche: «No hay hechos, solo interpretaciones». Y, como he tratado de exponer, aspiraba, sobre todo, a que se la siguiera leyendo.

La autora y crítica cultural estadounidense Susan Sontag trabaja en su escritorio, alrededor de 1971. Detrás de ella se ve «Mao», de Roy Lichtenstein, cuadro que apareció en la portada de la novela de Frederic Tuten  «Las aventuras de Mao en la Larga Marcha» (la cual había sido reseñada favorablemente por la propia Sontag). Crédito: Getty Images.

La autora y crítica cultural estadounidense Susan Sontag trabaja en su escritorio, alrededor de 1971. Detrás de ella se ve «Mao», de Roy Lichtenstein, cuadro que apareció en la portada de la novela de Frederic Tuten  «Las aventuras de Mao en la Larga Marcha» (la cual había sido reseñada favorablemente por la propia Sontag). Crédito: Getty Images.

En eso consisten las compilaciones cuando las preparan sus autores y no sus herederos: se trata de ejercicios de autointerpretación. En cambio, una póstuma, como esta o la precedente, Al mismo tiempo, publicada en 2009, es por su misma naturaleza una interpretación ajena de la obra de un escritor, en este caso mi interpretación. Tal es el privilegio y la carga de ser un heredero. Y si la obra de mi madre perdura, como creo que así ocurrirá, habrá personas que nunca la conocieron en vida, y menos aún que entablaron una relación con ella, que al cabo editarán otras compilaciones. No obstante, la tarea me ha correspondido a mí mientras tanto, y quiero dejar claro que lo que se sirve aquí es una selección de la obra de toda la vida de Susan Sontag vista a través de la lente de David Rieff. ¿Qué habría pensado de la iniciativa? No tengo otra respuesta que la que ofrezco cuando sus admiradores me escriben para preguntar qué «habría pensado» de gente y acontecimientos sucedidos tras su deceso: Donald Trump, woke, la crisis climática, etcétera. La única respuesta honrada, por supuesto, es que soy un hijo, no un médium. Con todo, lo que he pretendido es incluir la obra que consideraba más destacada porque ella misma me lo dijo, obra que quizá habría «superado» (aunque no repudiado; eso solo ocurrió con algunas de sus posiciones políticas, en particular con sus primeras apologías de varios regímenes comunistas, principalmente el cubano) y obra que en mi opinión podría tener eco sobre todo entre quienes la leen actualmente, en la tercera década del siglo XXI. A todo lo anterior he añadido unas cuantas entradas de sus diarios que se revisten de singular relevancia para los escritos que se reproducen en estas páginas.

No hallar consuelo ante la extinción inevitable y ansiar que la posteridad preste atención puede parecer contradictorio, pero en el caso de mi madre creo que su horror a lo primero y su deseo de lo segundo simplemente discurrían por cauces distintos

Y soy el primero en reconocer que leer a Susan Sontag en la tercera década del siglo XXI es todo menos un asunto diáfano. No me refiero solo al modo en que ella no habría compartido las creencias recibidas de nuestra época (aunque, insisto, no lo sé de cierto). Sí sostengo que le habría parecido en extremo repelente el antiintelectualismo iconoclasta de la política identitaria y su filosofía (por decirlo con suma generosidad) de la cultura que sustituye la trascendencia con la representación. Una vez me confesó que una de las razones por las que confiaba en vivir una vida muy larga —una obsesión irrealizada: solo le tocaron seis docenas de años, casi— era, según sus palabras, «para ver hasta dónde llega la estupidez». Mi corazonada es que se habría quedado atónita al ver la prontitud con la que se alcanzó tanta estupidez. Pero lo que me parece más trascendente es que, a diferencia de muchos escritores importantes próximos a su generación (nació en 1933 y murió en 2004), la obra de mi madre es en sí misma un estudio sobre la ambivalencia y la ambigüedad. La ambivalencia es en un sentido el aspecto más sencillo: uno de sus contemporáneos sintetizó su profunda dualidad, en un tono entre admirativo y burlón, al afirmar que se trataba de una esteta entre los moralistas, pero de una moralista entre los estetas. Los primeros ensayos que la hicieron célebre –Notas sobre lo camp, Contra la interpretación, Una cultura y la nueva sensibilidad y Sobre el estilo– son los de la esteta que se enfrentaba a la moralista. Pero en Sobre la fotografía, en sus dos libros sobre la enfermedad, La enfermedad y sus metáforas y El sida y sus metáforas, en el ensayo sobre Leni Riefenstahl, Fascinante fascismo, y en su meditación sobre la fotografía y la guerra, Ante el dolor de los demás, mi madre volvió a ser la moralista de altura.

Susan Sontag en Beverly Hills, California. 1979. Crédito: Getty Images.

Susan Sontag en Beverly Hills, California. 1979. Crédito: Getty Images.

Mi propia intuición, y no se trata más que de eso, es que si se desentrañara su dualidad escritural, la moralista superaría a la esteta. Una parte de lo que escribió, de la cual he entresacado la mayoría de lo seleccionado, tendrá su eco sin obstáculos. Acaso resulte irónico, pero me parece que su obra narrativa, valorada por ella por encima del resto de sus libros, aunque considerada por casi todos sus lectores coetáneos lo menos interesante de su empeño, sea lo que menos precise (¡sí!) de interpretación para los lectores de 2022. Y por el mismo motivo me pregunto hasta qué punto son legibles hoy día los primeros ensayos de su periodo de alta esteta. El axioma de Kierkegaard, objeto de fascinación que citaba a menudo, según el cual, si bien hay que vivir la vida prospectivamente, esta solo puede ser entendida retrospectivamente, no se ajusta del todo al caso de mi madre, al menos en lo que respecta a su obra. Pues a diferencia de muchos de sus contemporáneos –es decir, los más relevantes–, todas las crónicas sobre ella, sobre lo que pensaba, sobre lo que defendió, parecían y aun parecen reclamar un contradiscurso.

Una vez me confesó que una de las razones por las que confiaba en vivir una vida muy larga —una obsesión irrealizada: solo le tocaron seis docenas de años, casi— era, según sus palabras, «para ver hasta dónde llega la estupidez». Mi corazonada es que se habría quedado atónita al ver la prontitud con la que se alcanzó tanta estupidez.

Por lo anterior he querido que esta compilación sea lo más amplia posible, es decir, he preferido errar por exceso al incluir más escritos y no por defecto al elegir solo aquellos textos que en mi opinión la representan con mayor solidez. Por ello los fragmentos de sus diarios son tan importantes en la estructura de esta recopilación. Algunos abarcan los mismos materiales, o al menos se solapan con lo contenido en los ensayos, relatos y fragmentos de novelas recogidos. Hace ya mucho tiempo el escritor y director inglés Jonathan Miller, buen amigo de mi madre en los años sesenta y setenta, escribió una «Carta de Londres» para la revista literaria estadounidense Partisan Review, donde también mi madre publicó la mayoría de sus primeros ensayos importantes. Miller siempre concluía sus artículos con estas palabras: «Espero que esto te encuentre a ti tal como me deja a mí». En un sentido todo escritor solo puede razonablemente aspirar a eso, tanto de los lectores de su época como de los que se ocuparán de leer su obra cuando no se encuentre entre nosotros. Lo mismo puede decirse de los editores de compilaciones como la presente. Al recibir la obra de mi madre, me parece que aún conserva su fuerza para instruir, deleitar e interpelar. Pero eso habrá de resolverlo esta generación de lectores, no yo. Caveat lector.

Nueva York, 23 de enero de 1978. Susan Sontag posa en las oficinas de su editor, Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Crédito: Getty Images.

Nueva York, 23 de enero de 1978. Susan Sontag posa en las oficinas de su editor, Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Crédito: Getty Images.

Me he referido a la presente antología como si fuese solo mía, pero no es del todo así. Escribo esto con un poco de inquietud. Ya en mi madurez el orbe hispanohablante se ha convertido, en aspectos significativos, en mi patria cultural adoptiva. Lo cual categóricamente no implica que lo mire con menos escepticismo y ambivalencia que los tres países, además del mío propio, los Estados Unidos, que más han importado en mi vida: Francia, Inglaterra, y acaso sobre todo Irlanda. Y la verdad es que siempre me he tenido por un estadounidense poco convincente. Aunque me he apeado a menudo en el mundo hispanohablante, la idea de una nueva compilación de los escritos de Susan Sontag dirigida a un público de habla española no fue mía sino del último editor de mi madre en España (y mi buen amigo) Claudio López Lamadrid. Durante un almuerzo en el Festival Hay de Cartagena, acompañados de otros escritores publicados también por Claudio y con el rumor de las conversaciones al fondo, me propuso el proyecto garabateando el índice en una hoja con el membrete del hotel. Desde entonces lo he revisado en parte, añadiendo y eliminando textos. Así pues, este libro es en lo fundamental una idea de Claudio, no mía. Sin embargo, tiene también otro padre: el poeta Aurelio Major, traductor de la obra de mi madre y de la mía, y uno de mis amigos más queridos. Aurelio se ha ocupado durante mucho años de la obra de mi madre en lengua española, una suerte de intensa vigilancia que ha sido todo menos fácil. Aurelio supervisará los cometidos globales (en ambos sentidos de la palabra) de la Fundación Susan Sontag cuando yo haya desaparecido Mientras tanto, aquí y ahora, estoy en deuda con Claudio y con Aurelio, deudas que nunca podré saldar.