Literatura

Elena Garro por Guadalupe Nettel: un canon por venir

«"Los recuerdos del porvenir", junto con "Pedro Páramo", es probablemente la mejor novela mexicana escrita en el siglo XX», escribe Guadalupe Nettel en el prólogo de la edición definitiva de la obra maestra de la autora nacida en Puebla, un texto de 2019 que reproducimos íntegro a continuación. En las líneas que aquí siguen, Nettel reivindica a una escritora que brillaba con una luz inmensa, cualidad que desgraciadamente no se la reconoció por completo en vida: Garro fue contemporánea de los señores del «boom» latinoamericano, aquel fenómeno que fue casi por completo masculino y dejó fuera a muchas de las grandes escritoras de su tiempo, y estuvo casada durante 20 años con el Nobel Octavio Paz, con quien compartió una desdichada vida conyugal. Sin embargo, el tiempo, aunque lento y pesado, está colocando a Garro en la posición que bien merece: sus obras completas se han ido reeditando, se la lee y se la escribe, y ya no es un culto ni un descubrimiento, sino un gusto extendido y para algunos hasta una religión.

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En las l\u00edneas que aqu\u00ed siguen, Nettel reivindica a una escritora que brillaba con una luz inmensa, cualidad que desgraciadamente no se la reconoci\u00f3 por completo en vida: Garro fue contempor\u00e1nea de los se\u00f1ores del \u00abboom\u00bb latinoamericano, aquel fen\u00f3meno que fue casi por completo masculino y dej\u00f3 fuera a muchas de las grandes escritoras de su tiempo, y estuvo casada durante 20 a\u00f1os con el Nobel Octavio Paz, con quien comparti\u00f3 una desdichada vida conyugal. 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la de muchos grandes escritores \u2014pienso en Kafka, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/bajo-el-volcan-malcolm-lowry\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">en Lowry<\/a><\/span> o en Mandelshtam\u2014 la obra de Elena Garro conoci\u00f3 un destino muy azaroso y estuvo a punto de desaparecer. Una parte importante de sus manuscritos se perdieron en sus mudanzas, sus largas enfermedades, el exilio y los frecuentes pleitos conyugales. La autora, casada a muy temprana edad con un poeta egoc\u00e9ntrico, padeci\u00f3 muchas inseguridades y con frecuencia destruy\u00f3 sus manuscritos, como cont\u00f3 en m\u00e1s de una entrevista. Lectora\u00a0voraz desde la adolescencia, se inici\u00f3 en la escritura en el g\u00e9nero de la poes\u00eda \u2014que informa su prosa y sus obras teatrales\u2014, pero a su marido no le gustaba que ella escribiera poemas y se vio orillada no solo a mantenerlos in\u00e9ditos sino a desaparecerlos, cosa que hizo tambi\u00e9n con algunas de sus novelas. <em>Los recuerdos del porvenir<\/em> estuvo a punto de ser quemada en una estufa. Debemos a la hija de la autora, quien la rescat\u00f3 de las llamas, la gran suerte de poderla leer.<\/p><p>Nacida en 1916 y fallecida en 1998, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/920-elena-garro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Elena Garro recorri\u00f3 el siglo XX<\/a><\/span>, un periodo durante el cual si bien las mujeres publicaron m\u00e1s que antes, su literatura a\u00fan era considerada en nuestro continente como un subg\u00e9nero intimista, meloso, y desinformado de la realidad. Quiz\u00e1 la peor injusticia cometida en este sentido fue la feroz campa\u00f1a de desprestigio, tanto literario como pol\u00edtico, que se desat\u00f3 en contra de la obra de Elena Garro tras la masacre del 2 de octubre de 1968. La escritora fue el blanco de persecuciones tanto del gobierno como de los intelectuales de oposici\u00f3n. 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/quien-ha-leido-a-elena-garro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">La obra de Garro abarca g\u00e9neros tan diversos<\/a><\/span> como el cuento, la novela, el teatro, el guion, la poes\u00eda y las memorias; due\u00f1a de una inteligencia aguda y un gran esp\u00edritu cr\u00edtico, desde muy joven Garro coment\u00f3 con iron\u00eda no solo la historia sino tambi\u00e9n la pol\u00edtica mexicana, especialmente los abusos de los latifundistas y las trampas de la reforma agraria. Desde sus primeras obras de teatro y sus primeros cuentos (dos de los cuales fueron publicados en la <em>Revista de la Universidad de M\u00e9xico),<\/em> Elena Garro obtuvo el reconocimiento de la cr\u00edtica pero tambi\u00e9n la indiferencia de sus colegas. Su caso se asemeja al de otras autoras fulgurantes, como Carson McCullers, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/sylvia-plath-por-mariana-enriquez-mary-ventura-y-el-noveno-reino\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Sylvia Plath<\/a><\/span> o <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/zelda-fitzgerald-francis-scott-fitzgerald-cartas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Zelda Fitzgerald<\/a><\/span>, por mencionar solo algunas, casadas con hombres c\u00e9lebres y poderosos en el \u00e1mbito de la literatura, que constantemente vivieron una desvalorizaci\u00f3n de su trabajo creativo y un menosprecio de su talento no solo por parte de sus esposos sino tambi\u00e9n de la industria editorial. Gracias al esfuerzo de activistas, escritoras, investigadoras y cr\u00edticas literarias, por fin podemos descubrir la obra de muchas autoras mujeres que fueron borradas de la historia y del canon literario, denostadas, ninguneadas o silenciadas como Garro.<\/p><p>Dentro de los temas m\u00e1s interesantes que aborda esta novela (junto con el abuso de poder, la circularidad de la historia, la lucha entre el pueblo y el Estado) est\u00e1 justamente la situaci\u00f3n de las mujeres. La novela retrata con minuciosidad la desigualdad de g\u00e9nero y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/laia-jufresa-violencia-deberia-ser-violencio\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la violencia dom\u00e9stica<\/a><\/span> (el general Francisco Rosas golpea con frecuencia a su amante Julia Andrade), los feminicidios y la violaci\u00f3n como forma de reprimir y humillar a toda una comunidad.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"14wmh06\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Desde sus primeras obras de teatro y sus primeros cuentos, Elena Garro obtuvo el reconocimiento de la cr\u00edtica pero tambi\u00e9n la indiferencia de sus colegas. Su caso se asemeja al de otras autoras fulgurantes, como Carson McCullers, Sylvia Plath o Zelda Fitzgerald, por mencionar solo algunas, casadas con hombres c\u00e9lebres y poderosos en el \u00e1mbito de la literatura.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"steph8u\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Isabel Moncada, la protagonista de esta historia, es una mujer inconforme, que toda su vida dese\u00f3 haber nacido var\u00f3n para poder ser libre como sus hermanos, estudiar, trabajar y no tener que casarse. Le interesaban el teatro, la pol\u00edtica y las luchas sociales. Sin embargo, esos anhelos se vieron muy pronto truncados por las costumbres de su pueblo y los valores de su familia.<\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/rosario-castellanos-feminismo\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">En una \u00e9poca en la que ser feminista era a\u00fan m\u00e1s heroico que hoy en d\u00eda<\/a><\/span>, Elena Garro discurre a lo largo de toda su obra acerca de la opresi\u00f3n que vive su g\u00e9nero tanto por la sociedad como por sus propias parejas. Los personajes masculinos luchan por convertir a las mujeres en objetos de su propiedad, por controlar sus acciones y sus pensamientos, pero ellas constantemente se liberan del yugo, aunque eso les cueste la vida. En este sentido aparecen en la novela dos figuras muy sugerentes: Julia, la suave, la sigilosa, a la que el general ama con desesperaci\u00f3n, mientras que ella lo desprecia y termina abandon\u00e1ndolo, e Isabel Moncada, la de los ojos oscuros y tenaces, la mujer fuerte y obstinada a la que Rosas no consigue repudiar por m\u00e1s que quisiera hacerlo. La fuerza interior de estos dos personajes es de \u00edndole casi opuesta, pero en ambos casos representan la b\u00fasqueda de la libertad \u2014que tanto Ixtepec como el pa\u00eds entero tanto necesitan por igual\u2014 la rebeld\u00eda ante las injusticias, los cr\u00edmenes de Estado y la impunidad. En ese sentido no estamos \u00fanicamente ante una historia de abuso y de opresi\u00f3n sino tambi\u00e9n de resistencia. La primera representada por un Estado \u00abviril\u00bb y la segunda por un pueblo organizado por mujeres.<\/p><p>A pesar de vivir una vida m\u00e1s bien dom\u00e9stica semejante al encierro, las mujeres de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/7091-libro-los-recuerdos-del-porvenir-mapa-de-las-lenguas-9788420438153\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Los recuerdos del porvenir<\/a><\/em><\/span>\u00a0se interesan por el mundo que las rodea. No solo protestan p\u00fablicamente por los cr\u00edmenes contra los dirigentes campesinos cometidos en su pueblo (como hizo la propia Garro en m\u00faltiples ocasiones) sino que comentan la pol\u00edtica\u00a0nacional:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"30\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"87pz2a6\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u2014\u00bfQu\u00e9 puede esperarse de un turco como Calles\u2026? \u00bfY qu\u00e9 me dicen del manco? \u2014agreg\u00f3, se\u00f1alando la cara regordeta de \u00c1lvaro Obreg\u00f3n.<\/p><p>\u2014No van a tener buen fin \u2014dijo In\u00e9s, convencida de sus palabras.<\/p><p>\u2014Pero antes, nosotras tendremos d\u00edas peores.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"30\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"pwf8lzz\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Como ella misma lo explica en su conversaci\u00f3n con Gabriela Mora, Elena Garro fue feminista antes de asumirse como tal. A pesar de que estaba de acuerdo con la figura del padre como sost\u00e9n de la familia, su obra est\u00e1 plagada de mujeres inconformes que acaban desafiando el orden patriarcal.<\/p><p>Pero las mujeres no son los \u00fanicos seres marginales que cobran una gran importancia en esta novela: el loco Juan Cari\u00f1o que se cree jefe de Estado y a quien los militares le siguen la corriente; la Luchi, madrota en la \u00abcasa de las cuscas\u00bb, y Dorotea, la indigente cuya casa fue quemada por el ej\u00e9rcito, son los h\u00e9roes de esta historia. Los que no tienen nada est\u00e1n dispuestos a dar la vida por obtener la justicia para todos.<\/p><p>Esa identificaci\u00f3n con los marginales no es casual. 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el t\u00e9rmino \u00abrealismo m\u00e1gico\u00bb fue acu\u00f1ado en 1925 por el cr\u00edtico alem\u00e1n Franz Roh, el g\u00e9nero se hizo mundialmente famoso a partir de <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la obra de Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez<\/a><\/span>, que debe mucho \u2014lo reconociera o no\u2014 a la de Elena Garro. Hay que recordar que la autora escribi\u00f3 esta novela en 1952 y la public\u00f3 antes de que salieran a la luz tanto <em>Cien a\u00f1os de soledad<\/em>, como <em>Terra Nostra<\/em> y <em>Casa de campo<\/em>, consideradas incluso hoy en d\u00eda como las mayores exponentes del realismo m\u00e1gico latinoamericano. Es imposible\u00a0no detectar en Los recuerdos del porvenir fragmento que despu\u00e9s retomar\u00edan otros escritores. En particular estos dos episodios:<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"30\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"qauo5gl\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En vano cruzaban los jardines nubes de mariposas amarillas: nadie agradec\u00eda sus apariciones repentinas.\u00a0<\/p><p>Cont\u00f3 que en el campo ya estaba amaneciendo y al llegar a las Trancas de Cocula se top\u00f3 con la noche cerrada. Se asust\u00f3 al ver que solo en Ixtepec segu\u00eda la noche. Nos dijo que es m\u00e1s negra rodeada por la ma\u00f1ana.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"30\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zgsngkx\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Elena Garro declar\u00f3 toda su vida que a ella no le interesaba pertenecer al realismo m\u00e1gico porque m\u00e1s que tratarse de una verdadera corriente literaria era una estrategia comercial. Habr\u00eda que ver si alguna vez la invitaron a <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/boom-latinoamericano-julio-cortazar-carlos-fuentes-gabriel-garcia-marquez-mario-vargas-llosa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">formar parte del Boom latinoamericano<\/a><\/span>. En ese grupo constituido exclusivamente por hombres, blancos y heterosexuales, la \u00fanica mujer que figuraba era la agente Carmen Balcells, autora intelectual y principal beneficiaria de este fen\u00f3meno. Las declaraciones que algunos integrantes del movimiento han hecho a lo largo de las d\u00e9cadas para denostar la literatura escrita por mujeres o por escritores homosexuales de talento indiscutible, como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/co\/218294-manuel-puig\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Manuel Puig<\/a><\/span>, producen verg\u00fcenza ajena. Tambi\u00e9n resulta curioso que esa literatura breve y concentrada, intimista y fragmentaria \u2014como la de Josefina Vicens, Juan Rulfo o Jorge Ibarg\u00fcengoitia\u2014 que los escritores del Boom despreciaron sea justamente aquella que el siglo XXI est\u00e1 reivindicando como lo m\u00e1s valioso del anterior y la que m\u00e1s influencia tiene sobre los escritores de hoy.<\/p><p>Los investigadores que se interesan por la relaci\u00f3n que existe entre literatura y enfermedad deber\u00edan un d\u00eda detenerse en las condiciones en que fue escrita <em>Los recuerdos del porvenir.<\/em> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/despedidas\/25-anos-sin-elena-garro-a-la-mujer-de-paz-no-se-la-llevo-la-muerte\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Elena Garro hab\u00eda pasado meses en cama<\/a><\/span> por culpa de una mielitis y estaba sometida a un fuerte tratamiento de cortisona. Comenz\u00f3 la escritura de este libro en la ciudad de Berna, presa del dolor f\u00edsico pero tambi\u00e9n de la nostalgia inmensa que sent\u00eda por M\u00e9xico. En situaciones as\u00ed, la fantas\u00eda y la ilusi\u00f3n son las \u00fanicas puertas de escape que encuentran los seres humanos, y son tambi\u00e9n la \u00fanica v\u00eda posible para los personajes de esta historia. A Ixtepec la ilusi\u00f3n le viene de fuera, el d\u00eda que Felipe Hurtado llega en tren con un regalo invaluable: el teatro.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"yeijb99\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>[Garro] comenz\u00f3 la escritura de <em>Los recuerdos del porvenir<\/em> en la ciudad de Berna, presa del dolor f\u00edsico pero tambi\u00e9n de la nostalgia inmensa que sent\u00eda por M\u00e9xico. En situaciones as\u00ed, la fantas\u00eda y la ilusi\u00f3n son las \u00fanicas puertas de escape que encuentran los seres humanos.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ygrsvbp\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><em>Los recuerdos del porvenir<\/em> es una novela de base hist\u00f3rica centrada en la \u00e9poca apenas posterior a la Revoluci\u00f3n mexicana y en los albores de la Guerra Cristera. El pueblo de Ixtepec, inspirado en el de Iguala, donde Garro creci\u00f3 (y escenario de uno de los episodios m\u00e1s aterradores de la historia reciente), es a la vez el narrador y el lugar donde transcurre toda la trama. Sus calles est\u00e1n sitiadas por un grupo de militares encabezado por el general Francisco Rosas, caudillo autoritario y cruel, pero a la vez de psique inestable, atormentado por un amor mal correspondido y por los celos que este le provoca. Secuestrados por el ej\u00e9rcito, los habitantes del pueblo viven una constante zozobra. Cada ma\u00f1ana los despiertan las noticias de nuevos ejecutados que suelen aparecer colgando de los \u00e1rboles o de los puentes para intimidar a la poblaci\u00f3n.<\/p><p>El ej\u00e9rcito diseminado por toda la Rep\u00fablica ejerce sadismo y represi\u00f3n contra el pueblo, en particular sobre los ind\u00edgenas (\u00ab\u00a1Ah, si pudi\u00e9ramos exterminar a todos los indios! \u00a1Son la verg\u00fcenza de M\u00e9xico!\u00bb) y los l\u00edderes comunitarios. El pa\u00eds que describe Garro est\u00e1 raptado por una ola de violencia, producto de una guerra intestina y de un constante abuso de poder. La impunidad impera tanto en la ciudad como en el campo. Los cr\u00edmenes no se persiguen, la justicia es un remedo, una pantomima casi teatral. \u00abHab\u00edan establecido la violencia y se sent\u00edan en una tierra hostil, rodeados de fantasmas. El orden de terror establecido por ellos los hab\u00eda empobrecido. De ah\u00ed proven\u00eda mi deterioro\u00bb, dice el pueblo, narrador de esta historia.<\/p><p>En la \u00e9poca durante la cual escribi\u00f3 Garro el pa\u00eds ya hab\u00eda encontrado cierta paz y estabilidad. Es probable que los primeros lectores, contempor\u00e1neos a la publicaci\u00f3n de <em>Los recuerdos del porvenir,<\/em> hayan le\u00eddo este libro con otros ojos, aquellos de la distancia hist\u00f3rica. En cambio para nosotros, lectores mexicanos del siglo XXI, familiarizados con <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/el-rey-del-cash-elena-chavez-anabel-hernandez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">el contubernio entre el Estado y el crimen organizado<\/a><\/span>, la desprotecci\u00f3n de la ciudadan\u00eda, la ausencia absoluta de justicia y de observaci\u00f3n de los derechos humanos, lo m\u00e1s aterrador de esta novela es su semejanza con nuestra \u00e9poca.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"30\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"c5x1l2c\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>As\u00ed volvimos a los d\u00edas oscuros. El juego de la muerte se jugaba con minuciosidad: vecinos y militares no hac\u00edan sino urdir muertes e intrigas. Yo miraba sus idas y venidas con tristeza. Hubiera querido llevarlos a pasear por mi memoria, para que vieran a las generaciones ya muertas: nada quedaba de sus l\u00e1grimas y duelos [\u2026]. Una generaci\u00f3n sucede a la otra y cada una repite los actos de la anterior. Solo un instante antes de morir descubren que era posible so\u00f1ar y dibujar el mundo a su manera para luego despertar y empezar un dibujo diferente. Y descubren tambi\u00e9n que hubo un tiempo en que pudieron poseer el viaje inm\u00f3vil de los \u00e1rboles y la navegaci\u00f3n de las estrellas [\u2026]. Durante unos segundos vuelven a las horas que guardan su infancia y el olor de las hierbas, pero ya es tarde y tienen que decir adi\u00f3s y descubren que en un rinc\u00f3n est\u00e1 su vida, esper\u00e1ndolos, y sus ojos se abren al paisaje sombr\u00edo de sus disputas y sus cr\u00edmenes y se van asombradas del dibujo que hicieron con sus a\u00f1os. Y vienen otras generaciones a repetir sus mismos gestos y su mismo asombro final.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"30\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"d40u62q\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Esa similitud vuelve a la novela tremendamente actual y necesaria. La historia circular que cuenta el pueblo, es tambi\u00e9n la nuestra. Nosotros somos la generaci\u00f3n futura aqu\u00ed mencionada, y el porvenir que Ixtepec recuerda no es otra cosa que nuestro presente.<\/p><p><em>Los recuerdos del porvenir,<\/em> junto con <em>Pedro P\u00e1ramo,<\/em> es probablemente la mejor novela mexicana escrita en el siglo XX. Su estructura equilibrada, el suspenso que despliega, la prosa l\u00edmpida y a la vez po\u00e9tica, su estilo innovador, la agilidad de sus di\u00e1logos, le valieron, tras su publicaci\u00f3n en 1963 en la editorial Joaqu\u00edn Mortiz, comentarios muy elogiosos de la cr\u00edtica, adem\u00e1s de uno de los premios m\u00e1s importantes de la \u00e9poca, el Xavier Villaurrutia. Sin embargo, la historia de la literatura no ha dado a\u00fan a la obra de Elena Garro el reconocimiento que le corresponde. Su brillo seguir\u00e1 emergiendo como lo ha hecho hasta ahora, paulatinamente, y no dudo en afirmar que a la mitad de este siglo estar\u00e1 ya a la cabeza de ese canon literario, constituido por mujeres y hombres, que estamos reconstruyendo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"czhd78h\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/despedidas\/25-anos-sin-elena-garro-a-la-mujer-de-paz-no-se-la-llevo-la-muerte\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">25 a\u00f1os sin Elena Garro: a la mujer de Paz no se la llev\u00f3 la muerte<\/a><\/span><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/laia-jufresa-violencia-deberia-ser-violencio\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Violencia deber\u00eda ser \u00abViolencio\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/isabel-allende-por-lydia-cacho\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Isabel Allende por Lydia Cacho: la mujer que grit\u00f3 su nombre al viento<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/rosa-beltran-radicales-libres\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Rosa Beltr\u00e1n: las distintas maneras de vivir como mujer (en un pa\u00eds donde matan once por d\u00eda)<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/cristina-rivera-garza-nayeli-garcia-sanchez-la-castaneda\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Cristina Rivera Garza: po\u00e9tica documental en medio del caos<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/quien-ha-leido-a-elena-garro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00bfQui\u00e9n ha le\u00eddo a Elena Garro?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Escritoras latinoamericanas: Una detallada biograf\u00eda de un fen\u00f3meno 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10 minutos
Elena Garro en el Bois de Boulogne de París. Crédito: Archivo familiar.

Elena Garro en el Bois de Boulogne de París. Crédito: Archivo familiar.

Como la de muchos grandes escritores —pienso en Kafka, en Lowry o en Mandelshtam— la obra de Elena Garro conoció un destino muy azaroso y estuvo a punto de desaparecer. Una parte importante de sus manuscritos se perdieron en sus mudanzas, sus largas enfermedades, el exilio y los frecuentes pleitos conyugales. La autora, casada a muy temprana edad con un poeta egocéntrico, padeció muchas inseguridades y con frecuencia destruyó sus manuscritos, como contó en más de una entrevista. Lectora voraz desde la adolescencia, se inició en la escritura en el género de la poesía —que informa su prosa y sus obras teatrales—, pero a su marido no le gustaba que ella escribiera poemas y se vio orillada no solo a mantenerlos inéditos sino a desaparecerlos, cosa que hizo también con algunas de sus novelas. Los recuerdos del porvenir estuvo a punto de ser quemada en una estufa. Debemos a la hija de la autora, quien la rescató de las llamas, la gran suerte de poderla leer.

Nacida en 1916 y fallecida en 1998, Elena Garro recorrió el siglo XX, un periodo durante el cual si bien las mujeres publicaron más que antes, su literatura aún era considerada en nuestro continente como un subgénero intimista, meloso, y desinformado de la realidad. Quizá la peor injusticia cometida en este sentido fue la feroz campaña de desprestigio, tanto literario como político, que se desató en contra de la obra de Elena Garro tras la masacre del 2 de octubre de 1968. La escritora fue el blanco de persecuciones tanto del gobierno como de los intelectuales de oposición. Sus libros se retiraron durante un tiempo de las librerías e incluso se le llegó a negar la nacionalidad mexicana —a pesar de haber nacido y crecido en nuestro país— por tener un padre español.

  • ¡En oferta!
  • -5%

Los recuerdos del porvenir

Una obra maestra, un punto y aparte en la literatura mexicana.

La obra de Garro abarca géneros tan diversos como el cuento, la novela, el teatro, el guion, la poesía y las memorias; dueña de una inteligencia aguda y un gran espíritu crítico, desde muy joven Garro comentó con ironía no solo la historia sino también la política mexicana, especialmente los abusos de los latifundistas y las trampas de la reforma agraria. Desde sus primeras obras de teatro y sus primeros cuentos (dos de los cuales fueron publicados en la Revista de la Universidad de México), Elena Garro obtuvo el reconocimiento de la crítica pero también la indiferencia de sus colegas. Su caso se asemeja al de otras autoras fulgurantes, como Carson McCullers, Sylvia Plath o Zelda Fitzgerald, por mencionar solo algunas, casadas con hombres célebres y poderosos en el ámbito de la literatura, que constantemente vivieron una desvalorización de su trabajo creativo y un menosprecio de su talento no solo por parte de sus esposos sino también de la industria editorial. Gracias al esfuerzo de activistas, escritoras, investigadoras y críticas literarias, por fin podemos descubrir la obra de muchas autoras mujeres que fueron borradas de la historia y del canon literario, denostadas, ninguneadas o silenciadas como Garro.

Dentro de los temas más interesantes que aborda esta novela (junto con el abuso de poder, la circularidad de la historia, la lucha entre el pueblo y el Estado) está justamente la situación de las mujeres. La novela retrata con minuciosidad la desigualdad de género y la violencia doméstica (el general Francisco Rosas golpea con frecuencia a su amante Julia Andrade), los feminicidios y la violación como forma de reprimir y humillar a toda una comunidad.

Desde sus primeras obras de teatro y sus primeros cuentos, Elena Garro obtuvo el reconocimiento de la crítica pero también la indiferencia de sus colegas. Su caso se asemeja al de otras autoras fulgurantes, como Carson McCullers, Sylvia Plath o Zelda Fitzgerald, por mencionar solo algunas, casadas con hombres célebres y poderosos en el ámbito de la literatura.

Isabel Moncada, la protagonista de esta historia, es una mujer inconforme, que toda su vida deseó haber nacido varón para poder ser libre como sus hermanos, estudiar, trabajar y no tener que casarse. Le interesaban el teatro, la política y las luchas sociales. Sin embargo, esos anhelos se vieron muy pronto truncados por las costumbres de su pueblo y los valores de su familia.

En una época en la que ser feminista era aún más heroico que hoy en día, Elena Garro discurre a lo largo de toda su obra acerca de la opresión que vive su género tanto por la sociedad como por sus propias parejas. Los personajes masculinos luchan por convertir a las mujeres en objetos de su propiedad, por controlar sus acciones y sus pensamientos, pero ellas constantemente se liberan del yugo, aunque eso les cueste la vida. En este sentido aparecen en la novela dos figuras muy sugerentes: Julia, la suave, la sigilosa, a la que el general ama con desesperación, mientras que ella lo desprecia y termina abandonándolo, e Isabel Moncada, la de los ojos oscuros y tenaces, la mujer fuerte y obstinada a la que Rosas no consigue repudiar por más que quisiera hacerlo. La fuerza interior de estos dos personajes es de índole casi opuesta, pero en ambos casos representan la búsqueda de la libertad —que tanto Ixtepec como el país entero tanto necesitan por igual— la rebeldía ante las injusticias, los crímenes de Estado y la impunidad. En ese sentido no estamos únicamente ante una historia de abuso y de opresión sino también de resistencia. La primera representada por un Estado «viril» y la segunda por un pueblo organizado por mujeres.

A pesar de vivir una vida más bien doméstica semejante al encierro, las mujeres de Los recuerdos del porvenir se interesan por el mundo que las rodea. No solo protestan públicamente por los crímenes contra los dirigentes campesinos cometidos en su pueblo (como hizo la propia Garro en múltiples ocasiones) sino que comentan la política nacional:

—¿Qué puede esperarse de un turco como Calles…? ¿Y qué me dicen del manco? —agregó, señalando la cara regordeta de Álvaro Obregón.

—No van a tener buen fin —dijo Inés, convencida de sus palabras.

—Pero antes, nosotras tendremos días peores.

Como ella misma lo explica en su conversación con Gabriela Mora, Elena Garro fue feminista antes de asumirse como tal. A pesar de que estaba de acuerdo con la figura del padre como sostén de la familia, su obra está plagada de mujeres inconformes que acaban desafiando el orden patriarcal.

Pero las mujeres no son los únicos seres marginales que cobran una gran importancia en esta novela: el loco Juan Cariño que se cree jefe de Estado y a quien los militares le siguen la corriente; la Luchi, madrota en la «casa de las cuscas», y Dorotea, la indigente cuya casa fue quemada por el ejército, son los héroes de esta historia. Los que no tienen nada están dispuestos a dar la vida por obtener la justicia para todos.

Esa identificación con los marginales no es casual. Durante muchos años se atribuyó a Elena Garro una supuesta locura y se le trató con un desprecio infinito —sobre todo en el entorno de los grupos de Nexos y Vuelta, es decir los caudillos culturales asociados al «ogro filantrópico» del PRI—, igual que a otras escritoras incómodas, brillantes e ingobernables como Rosario Castellanos o Silvina Ocampo, en sus respectivos ambientes culturales.

Elena Garro. Crédito: EFE Visuals.

Elena Garro. Crédito: EFE Visuals.

Aunque el término «realismo mágico» fue acuñado en 1925 por el crítico alemán Franz Roh, el género se hizo mundialmente famoso a partir de la obra de Gabriel García Márquez, que debe mucho —lo reconociera o no— a la de Elena Garro. Hay que recordar que la autora escribió esta novela en 1952 y la publicó antes de que salieran a la luz tanto Cien años de soledad, como Terra Nostra y Casa de campo, consideradas incluso hoy en día como las mayores exponentes del realismo mágico latinoamericano. Es imposible no detectar en Los recuerdos del porvenir fragmento que después retomarían otros escritores. En particular estos dos episodios:

En vano cruzaban los jardines nubes de mariposas amarillas: nadie agradecía sus apariciones repentinas. 

Contó que en el campo ya estaba amaneciendo y al llegar a las Trancas de Cocula se topó con la noche cerrada. Se asustó al ver que solo en Ixtepec seguía la noche. Nos dijo que es más negra rodeada por la mañana.

Elena Garro declaró toda su vida que a ella no le interesaba pertenecer al realismo mágico porque más que tratarse de una verdadera corriente literaria era una estrategia comercial. Habría que ver si alguna vez la invitaron a formar parte del Boom latinoamericano. En ese grupo constituido exclusivamente por hombres, blancos y heterosexuales, la única mujer que figuraba era la agente Carmen Balcells, autora intelectual y principal beneficiaria de este fenómeno. Las declaraciones que algunos integrantes del movimiento han hecho a lo largo de las décadas para denostar la literatura escrita por mujeres o por escritores homosexuales de talento indiscutible, como Manuel Puig, producen vergüenza ajena. También resulta curioso que esa literatura breve y concentrada, intimista y fragmentaria —como la de Josefina Vicens, Juan Rulfo o Jorge Ibargüengoitia— que los escritores del Boom despreciaron sea justamente aquella que el siglo XXI está reivindicando como lo más valioso del anterior y la que más influencia tiene sobre los escritores de hoy.

Los investigadores que se interesan por la relación que existe entre literatura y enfermedad deberían un día detenerse en las condiciones en que fue escrita Los recuerdos del porvenir. Elena Garro había pasado meses en cama por culpa de una mielitis y estaba sometida a un fuerte tratamiento de cortisona. Comenzó la escritura de este libro en la ciudad de Berna, presa del dolor físico pero también de la nostalgia inmensa que sentía por México. En situaciones así, la fantasía y la ilusión son las únicas puertas de escape que encuentran los seres humanos, y son también la única vía posible para los personajes de esta historia. A Ixtepec la ilusión le viene de fuera, el día que Felipe Hurtado llega en tren con un regalo invaluable: el teatro.

[Garro] comenzó la escritura de Los recuerdos del porvenir en la ciudad de Berna, presa del dolor físico pero también de la nostalgia inmensa que sentía por México. En situaciones así, la fantasía y la ilusión son las únicas puertas de escape que encuentran los seres humanos.

Los recuerdos del porvenir es una novela de base histórica centrada en la época apenas posterior a la Revolución mexicana y en los albores de la Guerra Cristera. El pueblo de Ixtepec, inspirado en el de Iguala, donde Garro creció (y escenario de uno de los episodios más aterradores de la historia reciente), es a la vez el narrador y el lugar donde transcurre toda la trama. Sus calles están sitiadas por un grupo de militares encabezado por el general Francisco Rosas, caudillo autoritario y cruel, pero a la vez de psique inestable, atormentado por un amor mal correspondido y por los celos que este le provoca. Secuestrados por el ejército, los habitantes del pueblo viven una constante zozobra. Cada mañana los despiertan las noticias de nuevos ejecutados que suelen aparecer colgando de los árboles o de los puentes para intimidar a la población.

El ejército diseminado por toda la República ejerce sadismo y represión contra el pueblo, en particular sobre los indígenas («¡Ah, si pudiéramos exterminar a todos los indios! ¡Son la vergüenza de México!») y los líderes comunitarios. El país que describe Garro está raptado por una ola de violencia, producto de una guerra intestina y de un constante abuso de poder. La impunidad impera tanto en la ciudad como en el campo. Los crímenes no se persiguen, la justicia es un remedo, una pantomima casi teatral. «Habían establecido la violencia y se sentían en una tierra hostil, rodeados de fantasmas. El orden de terror establecido por ellos los había empobrecido. De ahí provenía mi deterioro», dice el pueblo, narrador de esta historia.

En la época durante la cual escribió Garro el país ya había encontrado cierta paz y estabilidad. Es probable que los primeros lectores, contemporáneos a la publicación de Los recuerdos del porvenir, hayan leído este libro con otros ojos, aquellos de la distancia histórica. En cambio para nosotros, lectores mexicanos del siglo XXI, familiarizados con el contubernio entre el Estado y el crimen organizado, la desprotección de la ciudadanía, la ausencia absoluta de justicia y de observación de los derechos humanos, lo más aterrador de esta novela es su semejanza con nuestra época.

Así volvimos a los días oscuros. El juego de la muerte se jugaba con minuciosidad: vecinos y militares no hacían sino urdir muertes e intrigas. Yo miraba sus idas y venidas con tristeza. Hubiera querido llevarlos a pasear por mi memoria, para que vieran a las generaciones ya muertas: nada quedaba de sus lágrimas y duelos […]. Una generación sucede a la otra y cada una repite los actos de la anterior. Solo un instante antes de morir descubren que era posible soñar y dibujar el mundo a su manera para luego despertar y empezar un dibujo diferente. Y descubren también que hubo un tiempo en que pudieron poseer el viaje inmóvil de los árboles y la navegación de las estrellas […]. Durante unos segundos vuelven a las horas que guardan su infancia y el olor de las hierbas, pero ya es tarde y tienen que decir adiós y descubren que en un rincón está su vida, esperándolos, y sus ojos se abren al paisaje sombrío de sus disputas y sus crímenes y se van asombradas del dibujo que hicieron con sus años. Y vienen otras generaciones a repetir sus mismos gestos y su mismo asombro final.

Esa similitud vuelve a la novela tremendamente actual y necesaria. La historia circular que cuenta el pueblo, es también la nuestra. Nosotros somos la generación futura aquí mencionada, y el porvenir que Ixtepec recuerda no es otra cosa que nuestro presente.

Los recuerdos del porvenir, junto con Pedro Páramo, es probablemente la mejor novela mexicana escrita en el siglo XX. Su estructura equilibrada, el suspenso que despliega, la prosa límpida y a la vez poética, su estilo innovador, la agilidad de sus diálogos, le valieron, tras su publicación en 1963 en la editorial Joaquín Mortiz, comentarios muy elogiosos de la crítica, además de uno de los premios más importantes de la época, el Xavier Villaurrutia. Sin embargo, la historia de la literatura no ha dado aún a la obra de Elena Garro el reconocimiento que le corresponde. Su brillo seguirá emergiendo como lo ha hecho hasta ahora, paulatinamente, y no dudo en afirmar que a la mitad de este siglo estará ya a la cabeza de ese canon literario, constituido por mujeres y hombres, que estamos reconstruyendo.