Literatura

Los caminos de un escritor llamado Julio Cortázar

En otoño de 1980, Julio Cortázar aceptó impartir un curso de dos meses en la Universidad de Berkeley, California. El argentino no quiso ofrecer conferencias magistrales, sino una serie de charlas sobre literatura, su experiencia como escritor y la génesis de sus obras. Estos discursos fueron grabados y posteriormente recogidos en «Clases de literatura» (Alfaguara y Debolsillo), un título que deja patente la honestidad intelectual, la imaginación y el rigor del autor de «Rayuela». Cuando se cumplen 40 años de su muerte (en París, el 12 de febrero de 1984), compartimos las primeras páginas de este manual imprescindible, las cuales fluyen bajo el título «Primera clase: Los caminos de un escritor». En las líneas que aquí siguen, Cortázar ofrece un parlamento en el que habla de Buenos Aires y de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, de la República española y de Ortega y Gasset, de Jorge Luis Borges y de Roberto Arlt, de «Los premios» y de Horacio Oliveira, de la literatura por el arte y de la literatura de combate, de Vargas Llosa y de García Márquez y también, en última que es a su vez la primera instancia, del oficio de escritor.

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El argentino no quiso ofrecer conferencias magistrales, sino una serie de charlas sobre literatura, su experiencia como escritor y la g\u00e9nesis de sus obras. Estos discursos fueron grabados y posteriormente recogidos en \u00abClases de literatura\u00bb (Alfaguara y Debolsillo), un t\u00edtulo que deja patente la honestidad intelectual, la imaginaci\u00f3n y el rigor del autor de \u00abRayuela\u00bb. Cuando se cumplen 40 a\u00f1os de su muerte (en Par\u00eds, el 12 de febrero de 1984), compartimos las primeras p\u00e1ginas de este manual imprescindible, las cuales fluyen bajo el t\u00edtulo \u00abPrimera clase: Los caminos de un escritor\u00bb. En las l\u00edneas que aqu\u00ed siguen, Cort\u00e1zar ofrece un parlamento en el que habla de Buenos Aires y de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, de la Rep\u00fablica espa\u00f1ola y de Ortega y Gasset, de Jorge Luis Borges y de Roberto Arlt, de \u00abLos premios\u00bb y de Horacio Oliveira, de la literatura por el arte y de la literatura de combate, de Vargas Llosa y de Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez y tambi\u00e9n, en \u00faltima que es a su vez la primera instancia, del oficio de 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que quede bien claro que, aunque propongo primero los cuentos y en segundo lugar las novelas, esto no significa para m\u00ed una discriminaci\u00f3n o un juicio de valor: soy autor y lector de cuentos y novelas con la misma dedicaci\u00f3n y el mismo entusiasmo. Ustedes saben que son cosas muy diferentes, que trataremos de precisar mejor en algunos aspectos, pero el hecho de que haya propuesto que nos ocupemos primero de los cuentos es porque como tema \u2014lo vamos a ver hoy mismo\u2014 son de un acceso m\u00e1s f\u00e1cil; se dejan atrapar mejor, rodear mejor que una novela por razones obvias sobre las cuales no vale la pena que insista.\u00a0<\/p><p>Tienen que saber que estos cursos los estoy improvisando muy poco antes de que ustedes vengan aqu\u00ed: no soy sistem\u00e1tico, no soy ni un cr\u00edtico ni un te\u00f3rico, de modo que a medida que se me van planteando los problemas de trabajo, busco soluciones. Para empezar a hablar del cuento como g\u00e9nero y de mis cuentos como una continuaci\u00f3n, estuve pensando en estos d\u00edas que para que entremos con m\u00e1s provecho en el cuento latinoamericano ser\u00eda tal vez \u00fatil una breve rese\u00f1a de lo que en alguna charla ya muy vieja llam\u00e9 una vez \u00abLos caminos de un escritor\u00bb; es decir, la forma en que me fui moviendo dentro de la actividad literaria a lo largo de\u2026 desgraciadamente treinta a\u00f1os. El escritor no conoce esos caminos mientras los est\u00e1 franqueando \u2014puesto que vive en un presente como todos nosotros\u2014 pero pasado el tiempo llega un d\u00eda en que de golpe, frente a muchos libros que ha publicado y muchas cr\u00edticas que ha recibido, tiene la suficiente perspectiva y el suficiente espacio cr\u00edtico para verse a s\u00ed mismo con alguna lucidez. Hace algunos a\u00f1os me plante\u00e9 el problema de cu\u00e1l hab\u00eda sido finalmente mi camino dentro de la literatura (decir \u00abliteratura\u00bb y \u00abvida\u00bb para m\u00ed es siempre lo mismo, pero en este caso nos estamos concentrando en la literatura). 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En lo que voy a decir a continuaci\u00f3n sobre esos tres momentos de mi trabajo de escritor va a surgir por qu\u00e9 utilizo estas palabras, que son para entendernos y que no hay que tomar con la gravedad que utiliza un fil\u00f3sofo cuando habla por ejemplo de metaf\u00edsica.<\/p><p>Pertenezco a una generaci\u00f3n de argentinos surgida casi en su totalidad de la clase media en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/ar\/revista-lengua\/comic\/liniers-gustavo-sala-buenos-aires-en-pelotas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Buenos Aires, la capital del pa\u00eds<\/a><\/span>; una clase social que por estudios, or\u00edgenes y preferencias personales se entreg\u00f3 muy joven a una actividad literaria concentrada sobre todo en la literatura misma. Me acuerdo bien de las conversaciones con mis camaradas de estudios y con los que siguieron siendo amigos una vez que los termin\u00e9 y todos comenzamos a escribir y algunos poco a poco tambi\u00e9n a publicar. Me acuerdo de m\u00ed mismo y de mis amigos, j\u00f3venes argentinos (porte\u00f1os, como les decimos a los de Buenos Aires) profundamente estetizantes, concentrados en la literatura por sus valores de tipo est\u00e9tico, po\u00e9tico, y por sus resonancias espirituales de todo tipo. No us\u00e1bamos esas palabras y no sab\u00edamos lo que eran, pero ahora me doy perfecta cuenta de que viv\u00ed mis primeros a\u00f1os de lector y de escritor en una fase que tengo derecho a calificar de \u00abest\u00e9tica\u00bb, donde lo literario era fundamentalmente leer los mejores libros a los cuales tuvi\u00e9ramos acceso y escribir con los ojos fijos en algunos casos en modelos ilustres y en otros en un ideal de perfecci\u00f3n estil\u00edstica profundamente refinada. 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Viv\u00ed la Segunda Guerra Mundial, entre el a\u00f1o 39 y el a\u00f1o 45, tambi\u00e9n en Buenos Aires. \u00bfC\u00f3mo vivimos mis amigos y yo esas guerras? En el primer caso \u00e9ramos profundos partidarios de la Rep\u00fablica espa\u00f1ola, profundamente antifranquistas; en el segundo, est\u00e1bamos plenamente con los aliados y absolutamente en contra del nazismo. Pero en qu\u00e9 se traduc\u00edan esas tomas de posici\u00f3n: en la lectura de los peri\u00f3dicos, en estar muy bien informados sobre lo que suced\u00eda en los frentes de batalla; se convert\u00edan en charlas de caf\u00e9 en las que defend\u00edamos nuestros puntos de vista contra eventuales antagonistas, eventuales adversarios. A ese peque\u00f1o grupo del que formaba parte pero que a su vez era parte de muchos otros grupos, nunca se nos ocurri\u00f3 que la guerra de Espa\u00f1a nos concern\u00eda directamente como argentinos y como individuos; nunca se nos ocurri\u00f3 que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/futbol-boxeo-y-burdeles-en-los-campos-nazis\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">la Segunda Guerra Mundial<\/a><\/span> nos concern\u00eda tambi\u00e9n aunque la Argentina fuera un pa\u00eds neutral. Nunca nos dimos cuenta de que la misi\u00f3n de un escritor que adem\u00e1s es un hombre ten\u00eda que ir mucho m\u00e1s all\u00e1 que el mero comentario o la mera simpat\u00eda por uno de los grupos combatientes. Esto, que supone una autocr\u00edtica muy cruel que soy capaz de hacerme a m\u00ed y a todos los de mi clase, determin\u00f3 en gran medida la primera producci\u00f3n literaria de esa \u00e9poca: viv\u00edamos en un mundo en el que la aparici\u00f3n de una novela o un libro de cuentos significativo de un autor europeo o argentino ten\u00eda una importancia capital para nosotros, un mundo en el que hab\u00eda que dar todo lo que se tuviera, todos los recursos y todos los conocimientos para tratar de alcanzar un nivel literario lo m\u00e1s alto posible. Era un planteo est\u00e9tico, una soluci\u00f3n est\u00e9tica; la actividad literaria val\u00eda para nosotros por la literatura misma, por sus productos y de ninguna manera como uno de los muchos elementos que constituyen el contorno, como hubiera dicho <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/6182-jose-ortega-y-gasset\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Ortega y Gasset<\/span><\/a> \u00abla circunstancia\u00bb, en que se mueve un ser humano, sea o no escritor.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"37of7vl\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>El escritor no conoce esos caminos mientras los est\u00e1 franqueando \u2014puesto que vive en un presente como todos nosotros\u2014 pero pasado el tiempo llega un d\u00eda en que de golpe, frente a muchos libros que ha publicado y muchas cr\u00edticas que ha recibido, tiene la suficiente perspectiva y el suficiente espacio cr\u00edtico para verse a s\u00ed mismo con alguna 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todas maneras, aun en ese momento en que mi participaci\u00f3n y mi sentimiento hist\u00f3rico pr\u00e1cticamente no exist\u00edan, algo me dijo muy tempranamente que la literatura \u2014incluso la de tipo fant\u00e1stico m\u00e1s imaginativa\u2014 no estaba \u00fanicamente en las lecturas, en las bibliotecas y en las charlas de caf\u00e9. Desde muy joven sent\u00ed en Buenos Aires el contacto con las cosas, con las calles, con todo lo que hace de una ciudad una especie de escenario continuo, variante y maravilloso para un escritor. Si por un lado las obras que en ese momento publicaba alguien como <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/borges-y-bioy-casares-alias\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Jorge Luis Borges<\/a><\/span> significaban para m\u00ed y para mis amigos una especie de cielo de la literatura, de m\u00e1xima posibilidad en ese momento dentro de nuestra lengua, al mismo tiempo me hab\u00eda despertado ya muy temprano a otros escritores de los cuales citar\u00e9 solamente uno, un novelista que se llam\u00f3 Roberto Arlt y que desde luego es mucho menos conocido que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/borges-en-estados-unidos\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Jorge Luis Borges<\/a><\/span> porque muri\u00f3 muy joven y escribi\u00f3 una obra de dif\u00edcil traducci\u00f3n y muy cerrada en el contorno de Buenos Aires. Al mismo tiempo que mi mundo estetizante me llevaba a la admiraci\u00f3n por escritores como Borges, sab\u00eda abrir los ojos al lenguaje popular, al lunfardo de la calle que circula en los cuentos y las novelas de Roberto Arlt. Es por eso que, cuando hablo de etapas en mi camino, no hay que entenderlas nunca de una manera excesivamente compartimentada: me estaba moviendo en esa \u00e9poca en un mundo est\u00e9tico y estetizante pero creo que ya ten\u00eda en las manos o en la imaginaci\u00f3n elementos que ven\u00edan de otros lados y que todav\u00eda necesitar\u00edan tiempo para dar sus frutos. Eso lo sent\u00ed en m\u00ed mismo poco a poco, cuando empec\u00e9 a vivir en 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he escrito sin saber demasiado por qu\u00e9 lo hago, movido un poco por el azar, por una serie de casualidades: las cosas me llegan como un p\u00e1jaro que puede pasar por la ventana. En Europa continu\u00e9 escribiendo cuentos de tipo estetizante y muy imaginativos, pr\u00e1cticamente todos de tema fant\u00e1stico. Sin darme cuenta, empec\u00e9 a tratar temas que se separaron de ese primer momento de mi trabajo. En esos a\u00f1os escrib\u00ed un cuento muy largo, quiz\u00e1 el m\u00e1s largo que he escrito, \u00abEl perseguidor\u00bb \u2014del que hablaremos m\u00e1s en detalle llegado el momento\u2014, que en s\u00ed mismo no tiene nada de fant\u00e1stico pero en cambio tiene algo que se convert\u00eda en importante para m\u00ed: una presencia humana, un personaje de carne y hueso, un m\u00fasico de jazz que sufre, sue\u00f1a, lucha por expresarse y sucumbe aplastado por una fatalidad que lo persigui\u00f3 toda su vida. (Los que lo han le\u00eddo saben que estoy hablando de Charlie Parker, que en el cuento se llama Johnny Carter.) Cuando termin\u00e9 ese cuento y fui su primer lector, advert\u00ed que de alguna manera hab\u00eda salido de una \u00f3rbita y estaba tratando de entrar en otra. Ahora el personaje se convert\u00eda en el centro de mi inter\u00e9s mientras que en los cuentos que hab\u00eda escrito en Buenos Aires los personajes estaban al servicio de lo fant\u00e1stico como figuras para que lo fant\u00e1stico pudiera irrumpir; aunque pudiera tener simpat\u00eda o cari\u00f1o por determinados personajes de esos cuentos, era muy relativo: lo que verdaderamente me importaba era el mecanismo del cuento, sus elementos finalmente est\u00e9ticos, su combinatoria literaria con todo lo que puede tener de hermoso, de maravilloso y de positivo. En la gran soledad en que viv\u00eda en Par\u00eds de golpe fue como estar empezando a descubrir a mi pr\u00f3jimo en la figura de Johnny Carter, ese m\u00fasico negro perseguido por la desgracia cuyos balbuceos, mon\u00f3logos y tentativas inventaba a lo largo de ese 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Cada vez m\u00e1s deseoso de ahondar en ese campo de la psicolog\u00eda de los personajes que estaba imaginando, surgieron en m\u00ed una serie de preguntas que se tradujeron en dos novelas, porque los cuentos no son nunca o casi nunca problem\u00e1ticos: para los problemas est\u00e1n las novelas, que los plantean y muchas veces intentan soluciones. La novela es ese gran combate que libra el escritor consigo mismo porque hay en ella todo un mundo, todo un universo en que se debaten juegos capitales del destino humano, y si uso el t\u00e9rmino destino humano es porque en ese momento me di cuenta de que yo no hab\u00eda nacido para escribir novelas psicol\u00f3gicas o cuentos psicol\u00f3gicos como los hay y por cierto tan buenos. El solo hecho de manejar elementos en la vida de algunos personajes no me satisfac\u00eda lo suficiente. 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etapa que llamo metaf\u00edsica a falta de mejor nombre se fue cumpliendo sobre todo a lo largo de dos novelas. La primera, que se llama <em>Los premios<\/em>, es una especie de divertimento; la segunda quiso ser algo m\u00e1s que un divertimento y se llama<em> <\/em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><em><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/tematicas\/163741-ebook-rayuela-edicion-conmemorativa-9789877382099\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Rayuela<\/a><\/em><\/span>. En la primera intent\u00e9 presentar, controlar, dirigir un grupo importante y variado de personajes. Ten\u00eda una preocupaci\u00f3n t\u00e9cnica, porque un escritor de cuentos \u2014como lectores de cuentos, ustedes lo saben bien\u2014 maneja un grupo de personajes lo m\u00e1s reducido posible por razones t\u00e9cnicas: no se puede escribir un cuento de ocho p\u00e1ginas en donde entren siete personas ya que llegamos al final de las ocho p\u00e1ginas sin saber nada de ninguna de las siete, y obligadamente hay una concentraci\u00f3n de personajes como hay tambi\u00e9n una concentraci\u00f3n de muchas otras cosas (eso lo veremos despu\u00e9s). La novela en cambio es realmente el juego abierto, y en<em> Los premios<\/em> me pregunt\u00e9 si dentro de un libro de las dimensiones habituales de una novela ser\u00eda capaz de presentar y tener un poco las riendas mentales y sentimentales de un n\u00famero de personajes que al final, cuando los cont\u00e9, resultaron ser dieciocho. \u00a1Ya es algo! Fue, si ustedes quieren, un ejercicio de estilo, una manera de demostrarme a m\u00ed mismo si pod\u00eda o no pasar a la novela como g\u00e9nero. Bueno, me aprob\u00e9; con una nota no muy alta pero me aprob\u00e9 en ese examen. Pens\u00e9 que la novela ten\u00eda los suficientes elementos como para darle atracci\u00f3n y sentido, y all\u00ed, en muy peque\u00f1a escala todav\u00eda, ejercit\u00e9 esa nueva sed que se hab\u00eda posesionado de m\u00ed, esa sed de no quedarme solamente en la psicolog\u00eda exterior de la gente y de los personajes de los libros sino ir a una indagaci\u00f3n m\u00e1s profunda del hombre como ser humano, como ente, como destino. En <em>Los premios<\/em> eso se esboza apenas en algunas reflexiones de uno o dos personajes.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"nxas69l\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Horacio Oliveira es el hombre preocupado por elementos ontol\u00f3gicos que tocan al ser profundo del hombre: \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 ese ser preparado te\u00f3ricamente para crear sociedades positivas por su inteligencia, su capacidad, por todo lo que tiene de positivo, no lo consigue finalmente o lo consigue a medias, o avanza y luego retrocede?<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"98aoi1h\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>A lo largo de unos cuantos a\u00f1os escrib\u00ed <em>Rayuela<\/em> y en esa novela puse directamente todo lo que en ese momento pod\u00eda poner en ese campo de b\u00fasqueda e interrogaci\u00f3n. El personaje central es un hombre como cualquiera de todos nosotros, realmente un hombre muy com\u00fan, no mediocre pero sin nada que lo destaque especialmente; sin embargo, ese hombre tiene \u2014como ya hab\u00eda tenido Johnny Carter en \u00abEl perseguidor\u00bb\u2014 una especie de angustia permanente que lo obliga a interrogarse sobre algo m\u00e1s que su vida cotidiana y sus problemas cotidianos. Horacio Oliveira, el personaje de <em>Rayuela<\/em>, es un hombre que est\u00e1 asistiendo a la historia que lo rodea, a los fen\u00f3menos cotidianos de luchas pol\u00edticas, guerras, injusticias, opresiones y quisiera llegar a conocer lo que llama a veces \u00abla clave central\u00bb, el centro que ya no s\u00f3lo es hist\u00f3rico sino filos\u00f3fico, metaf\u00edsico, y que ha llevado al ser humano por el camino de la historia que est\u00e1 atravesando, del cual nosotros somos el \u00faltimo y presente eslab\u00f3n. Horacio Oliveira no tiene ninguna cultura filos\u00f3fica \u2014como su padre\u2014 y simplemente se hace las preguntas que nacen de lo m\u00e1s hondo de la angustia. Se pregunta muchas veces c\u00f3mo es posible que el hombre como g\u00e9nero, como especie, como conjunto de civilizaciones, haya llegado a los tiempos actuales siguiendo un camino que no le garantiza en absoluto el alcance definitivo de la paz, la justicia y la felicidad, por un camino lleno de azares, injusticias y cat\u00e1strofes en que el hombre es el lobo del hombre, en que unos hombres atacan y destrozan a otros, en que justicia e injusticia se manejan muchas veces como cartas de p\u00f3quer. Horacio Oliveira es el hombre preocupado por elementos ontol\u00f3gicos que tocan al ser profundo del hombre: \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 ese ser preparado te\u00f3ricamente para crear sociedades positivas por su inteligencia, su capacidad, por todo lo que tiene de positivo, no lo consigue finalmente o lo consigue a medias, o avanza y luego retrocede? (Hay un momento en que la civilizaci\u00f3n progresa y luego cae bruscamente, y basta con hojear el Libro de la Historia para asistir a la decadencia y a la ruina de civilizaciones que fueron maravillosas en la Antig\u00fcedad.) Horacio Oliveira no se conforma con estar metido en un mundo que le ha sido dado prefabricado y condicionado; pone en tela de juicio cualquier cosa, no acepta las respuestas habitualmente dadas, las respuestas de la sociedad<em> x<\/em> o de la sociedad <em>z<\/em>, de la ideolog\u00eda <em>a<\/em> o de la ideolog\u00eda <em>b<\/em>.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"40\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"sswwbey\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Cort\u00e1zar durante una reuni\u00f3n de la Confederaci\u00f3n General del Trabajo de los Argentinos, en la que anunci\u00f3 que donar\u00eda los beneficios de su novela Libro de Manuel en favor de los presos pol\u00edticos de la dictadura militar argentina. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"jlmhbjw\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">Julio Cort\u00e1zar durante una reuni\u00f3n de la Confederaci\u00f3n General del Trabajo de los Argentinos, en la que anunci\u00f3 que donar\u00eda los beneficios de su novela <em>Libro de Manuel<\/em> en favor de los presos pol\u00edticos de la dictadura militar argentina. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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etapa hist\u00f3rica supon\u00eda romper el individualismo y el ego\u00edsmo que hay siempre en las investigaciones del tipo que hace Oliveira, ya que \u00e9l se preocupa de pensar cu\u00e1l es su propio destino en tanto destino del hombre pero todo se concentra en su propia persona, en su felicidad y su infelicidad. Hab\u00eda un paso que franquear: el de ver al pr\u00f3jimo no s\u00f3lo como el individuo o los individuos que uno conoce sino verlo como sociedades enteras, pueblos, civilizaciones, conjuntos humanos. Debo decir que llegu\u00e9 a esa etapa por caminos curiosos, extra\u00f1os y a la vez un poco predestinados. Hab\u00eda seguido de cerca con mucho m\u00e1s inter\u00e9s que en mi juventud todo lo que suced\u00eda en el campo de la pol\u00edtica internacional en aquella \u00e9poca: estaba en Francia cuando la guerra de liberaci\u00f3n de Argelia y viv\u00ed muy de cerca ese drama que era al mismo tiempo y por causas opuestas un drama para los argelinos y para los franceses. Luego, entre el a\u00f1o 59 y el 61, me interes\u00f3 toda esa extra\u00f1a gesta de un grupo de gente metida en las colinas de la isla de Cuba que estaban luchando para echar abajo un r\u00e9gimen dictatorial. (No ten\u00eda a\u00fan nombres precisos: a esa gente se los llamaba \u00ablos barbudos\u00bb y Batista era un nombre de dictador en un continente que ha tenido y tiene tantos.) Poco a poco, eso tom\u00f3 para m\u00ed un sentido especial. Testimonios que recib\u00ed y textos que le\u00ed me llevaron a interesarme profundamente por ese proceso, y cuando la Revoluci\u00f3n cubana triunf\u00f3 a fines de 1959, sent\u00ed el deseo de ir. Pude ir \u2014al principio no se pod\u00eda\u2014 menos de dos a\u00f1os despu\u00e9s. Fui a Cuba por primera vez en 1961 como miembro del jurado de la Casa de las Am\u00e9ricas que se acababa de fundar. Fui a aportar la contribuci\u00f3n del \u00fanico tipo que pod\u00eda dar, de tipo intelectual, y estuve all\u00ed dos meses viendo, viviendo, escuchando, aprobando y desaprobando seg\u00fan las circunstancias. Cuando volv\u00ed a Francia tra\u00eda conmigo una experiencia que me hab\u00eda sido totalmente ajena: durante casi dos meses no estuve metido con grupos de amigos o con cen\u00e1culos literarios; estuve mezcl\u00e1ndome cotidianamente con un pueblo que en ese momento se debat\u00eda frente a las peores dificultades, al que le faltaba todo, que se ve\u00eda preso en un bloqueo despiadado y sin embargo luchaba por llevar adelante esa autodefinici\u00f3n que se hab\u00eda dado a s\u00ed mismo por la v\u00eda de la revoluci\u00f3n. Cuando volv\u00ed a Par\u00eds eso hizo un lento pero seguro camino. Hab\u00edan sido invitaciones de pasaporte para m\u00ed y nada m\u00e1s, se\u00f1as de identidad y nada m\u00e1s. En ese momento, por una especie de brusca revelaci\u00f3n \u2014y la palabra no es exagerada\u2014, sent\u00ed que no s\u00f3lo era argentino: era latinoamericano, y ese fen\u00f3meno de tentativa de liberaci\u00f3n y de conquista de una soberan\u00eda a la que acababa de asistir era el catalizador, lo que me hab\u00eda revelado y demostrado que no solamente yo era un latinoamericano que estaba viviendo eso de cerca sino que adem\u00e1s me mostraba una obligaci\u00f3n, un deber. Me di cuenta de que ser un escritor latinoamericano significaba fundamentalmente que hab\u00eda que ser un latinoamericano escritor: hab\u00eda que invertir los t\u00e9rminos y la condici\u00f3n de latinoamericano, con todo lo que comportaba de responsabilidad y deber, hab\u00eda que ponerla tambi\u00e9n en el trabajo literario. Creo entonces que puedo utilizar el nombre de etapa hist\u00f3rica, o sea de ingreso en la historia, para describir este \u00faltimo jal\u00f3n en mi camino de escritor.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"pmj8raq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>En el curso de las \u00faltimas tres d\u00e9cadas la literatura de tipo cerradamente individual que naturalmente se mantiene y se mantendr\u00e1 y que da productos indudablemente hermosos e indiscutibles, esa literatura por el arte y la literatura misma ha cedido terreno frente a una nueva generaci\u00f3n de escritores mucho m\u00e1s implicados en los procesos de combate, de lucha, de discusi\u00f3n, de crisis de su propio pueblo y de los pueblos en conjunto.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"lsyzb8g\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Si han podido leer algunos libros m\u00edos que abarquen esos per\u00edodos, ver\u00e1n muy claramente reflejado lo que he tratado de explicar de una manera un poco primaria y autobiogr\u00e1fica, ver\u00e1n c\u00f3mo se pasa del culto de la literatura por la literatura misma al culto de la literatura como indagaci\u00f3n del destino humano y luego a la literatura como una de las muchas formas de participar en los procesos hist\u00f3ricos que a cada uno de nosotros nos concierne en su pa\u00eds. Si les he contado esto \u2014e insisto en que he hecho un poco de autobiograf\u00eda, cosa que siempre me averg\u00fcenza\u2014 es porque creo que ese camino que segu\u00ed es extrapolable en gran medida al conjunto de la actual literatura latinoamericana que podemos considerar significativa. En el curso de las \u00faltimas tres d\u00e9cadas la literatura de tipo cerradamente individual que naturalmente se mantiene y se mantendr\u00e1 y que da productos indudablemente hermosos e indiscutibles, esa literatura por el arte y la literatura misma ha cedido terreno frente a una nueva generaci\u00f3n de escritores mucho m\u00e1s implicados en los procesos de combate, de lucha, de discusi\u00f3n, de crisis de su propio pueblo y de los pueblos en conjunto. La literatura que constitu\u00eda una actividad fundamentalmente elitista y que se autoconsideraba privilegiada (todav\u00eda lo hacen muchos en muchos casos) fue cediendo terreno a una literatura que en sus mejores exponentes nunca ha bajado la punter\u00eda ni ha tratado de volverse popular o populachera llen\u00e1ndose con todo el contenido que nace de los procesos del pueblo de donde pertenece el autor. Estoy hablando de la literatura m\u00e1s alta de la que podemos hablar en estos momentos, la de Asturias,<a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/fenomenos\/boom-latinoamericano-julio-cortazar-carlos-fuentes-gabriel-garcia-marquez-mario-vargas-llosa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\"> <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">Vargas Llosa, Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez, cuyos libros han salido plenamente de ese criterio de trabajo solitario<\/span><\/a> por el placer mismo del trabajo para intentar una b\u00fasqueda en profundidad en el destino, en la realidad, en la suerte de cada uno de sus pueblos. Por eso me parece que lo que me sucedi\u00f3 en el terreno individual y privado es un proceso que en conjunto se ha ido dando de la misma manera yendo de lo m\u00e1s (c\u00f3mo decirlo, no me gusta la palabra elitista, pero en fin...), de lo m\u00e1s privilegiado, lo m\u00e1s refinado como actividad literaria, a una literatura que guardando todas sus calidades y todas sus fuerzas se dirige actualmente a un p\u00fablico de lectores que va mucho m\u00e1s all\u00e1 que los lectores de la primera generaci\u00f3n que eran sus propios grupos de clase, sus propias \u00e9lites, aquellos que conoc\u00edan los c\u00f3digos y las claves y pod\u00edan entrar en el secreto de esa literatura casi siempre admirable pero tambi\u00e9n casi siempre exquisita.\u00a0<\/p><p>Lo que digo en estos minutos puede servir para cuando, hablando de cuentos y novelas m\u00edos o ajenos, hagamos referencias a sus contenidos y a sus prop\u00f3sitos; ah\u00ed vamos a poder ver con m\u00e1s claridad esto que he intentado decir. Me pregunto si ahora, dadas las condiciones de temperatura que se notan muy bien en la cara de Pepe Durand, quieren ustedes que hagamos un intervalo de cinco, diez minutos y seguimos despu\u00e9s. Pienso que s\u00ed, \u00bfde acuerdo?\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"60\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"hjtci5q\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS\u00a0CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/11-de-septiembre-de-1973-pinochet-salvador-allende-chile\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Chile, 11 de septiembre de 1973: cr\u00f3nica de un pa\u00eds en el abismo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/isabel-allende-bussi-golpe-de-estado-chile-salvador-allende\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">El \u00faltimo abrazo de mi padre: Isabel Allende Bussi a 50 a\u00f1os del golpe de Estado<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/epitafio-romano-un-relato-de-silvina-ocampo-autobiografia-de-irene\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">\u00abEpitafio romano\u00bb, un relato de Silvina Ocampo<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/adolfo-bioy-casares-martin-caparros\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Bioy Casares por Caparr\u00f3s: un escritor de clase<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/Rayuela-Julio-Cortazar-Gabriel-Garcia-Marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\" rel=\\\"noopener\\\">Julio Cort\u00e1zar por Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez: el argentino que se hizo querer de todos<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"9k33hfv\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos
Julio Cortázar en su casa de París el 27 de noviembre de 1978. Crédito: Getty Images.

Julio Cortázar en su casa de París el 27 de noviembre de 1978. Crédito: Getty Images.

Quisiera que quede bien claro que, aunque propongo primero los cuentos y en segundo lugar las novelas, esto no significa para mí una discriminación o un juicio de valor: soy autor y lector de cuentos y novelas con la misma dedicación y el mismo entusiasmo. Ustedes saben que son cosas muy diferentes, que trataremos de precisar mejor en algunos aspectos, pero el hecho de que haya propuesto que nos ocupemos primero de los cuentos es porque como tema —lo vamos a ver hoy mismo— son de un acceso más fácil; se dejan atrapar mejor, rodear mejor que una novela por razones obvias sobre las cuales no vale la pena que insista. 

Tienen que saber que estos cursos los estoy improvisando muy poco antes de que ustedes vengan aquí: no soy sistemático, no soy ni un crítico ni un teórico, de modo que a medida que se me van planteando los problemas de trabajo, busco soluciones. Para empezar a hablar del cuento como género y de mis cuentos como una continuación, estuve pensando en estos días que para que entremos con más provecho en el cuento latinoamericano sería tal vez útil una breve reseña de lo que en alguna charla ya muy vieja llamé una vez «Los caminos de un escritor»; es decir, la forma en que me fui moviendo dentro de la actividad literaria a lo largo de… desgraciadamente treinta años. El escritor no conoce esos caminos mientras los está franqueando —puesto que vive en un presente como todos nosotros— pero pasado el tiempo llega un día en que de golpe, frente a muchos libros que ha publicado y muchas críticas que ha recibido, tiene la suficiente perspectiva y el suficiente espacio crítico para verse a sí mismo con alguna lucidez. Hace algunos años me planteé el problema de cuál había sido finalmente mi camino dentro de la literatura (decir «literatura» y «vida» para mí es siempre lo mismo, pero en este caso nos estamos concentrando en la literatura). Puede ser útil que reseñe hoy brevemente ese camino o caminos de un escritor porque luego se verá que señalan algunas constantes, algunas tendencias que están marcando de una manera significativa y definitoria la literatura latinoamericana importante de nuestro tiempo.

Les pido que no se asusten por las tres palabras que voy a emplear a continuación porque en el fondo, una vez que se da a entender por qué se las está utilizando, son muy simples. Creo que a lo largo de mi camino de escritor he pasado por tres etapas bastante bien definidas: una primera etapa que llamaría estética (ésa es la primera palabra), una segunda etapa que llamaría metafísica y una tercera etapa, que llega hasta el día de hoy, que podría llamar histórica. En lo que voy a decir a continuación sobre esos tres momentos de mi trabajo de escritor va a surgir por qué utilizo estas palabras, que son para entendernos y que no hay que tomar con la gravedad que utiliza un filósofo cuando habla por ejemplo de metafísica.

Pertenezco a una generación de argentinos surgida casi en su totalidad de la clase media en Buenos Aires, la capital del país; una clase social que por estudios, orígenes y preferencias personales se entregó muy joven a una actividad literaria concentrada sobre todo en la literatura misma. Me acuerdo bien de las conversaciones con mis camaradas de estudios y con los que siguieron siendo amigos una vez que los terminé y todos comenzamos a escribir y algunos poco a poco también a publicar. Me acuerdo de mí mismo y de mis amigos, jóvenes argentinos (porteños, como les decimos a los de Buenos Aires) profundamente estetizantes, concentrados en la literatura por sus valores de tipo estético, poético, y por sus resonancias espirituales de todo tipo. No usábamos esas palabras y no sabíamos lo que eran, pero ahora me doy perfecta cuenta de que viví mis primeros años de lector y de escritor en una fase que tengo derecho a calificar de «estética», donde lo literario era fundamentalmente leer los mejores libros a los cuales tuviéramos acceso y escribir con los ojos fijos en algunos casos en modelos ilustres y en otros en un ideal de perfección estilística profundamente refinada. Era una época en la que los jóvenes de mi edad no nos dábamos cuenta hasta qué punto estábamos al margen y ausentes de una historia particularmente dramática que se estaba cumpliendo en torno de nosotros, porque esa historia también la captábamos desde un punto de vista de lejanía, con distanciamiento espiritual.

Viví en Buenos Aires, desde lejos por supuesto, el transcurso de la guerra civil en que el pueblo de España luchó y se defendió contra el avance del franquismo, que finalmente habría de aplastarlo. Viví la Segunda Guerra Mundial, entre el año 39 y el año 45, también en Buenos Aires. ¿Cómo vivimos mis amigos y yo esas guerras? En el primer caso éramos profundos partidarios de la República española, profundamente antifranquistas; en el segundo, estábamos plenamente con los aliados y absolutamente en contra del nazismo. Pero en qué se traducían esas tomas de posición: en la lectura de los periódicos, en estar muy bien informados sobre lo que sucedía en los frentes de batalla; se convertían en charlas de café en las que defendíamos nuestros puntos de vista contra eventuales antagonistas, eventuales adversarios. A ese pequeño grupo del que formaba parte pero que a su vez era parte de muchos otros grupos, nunca se nos ocurrió que la guerra de España nos concernía directamente como argentinos y como individuos; nunca se nos ocurrió que la Segunda Guerra Mundial nos concernía también aunque la Argentina fuera un país neutral. Nunca nos dimos cuenta de que la misión de un escritor que además es un hombre tenía que ir mucho más allá que el mero comentario o la mera simpatía por uno de los grupos combatientes. Esto, que supone una autocrítica muy cruel que soy capaz de hacerme a mí y a todos los de mi clase, determinó en gran medida la primera producción literaria de esa época: vivíamos en un mundo en el que la aparición de una novela o un libro de cuentos significativo de un autor europeo o argentino tenía una importancia capital para nosotros, un mundo en el que había que dar todo lo que se tuviera, todos los recursos y todos los conocimientos para tratar de alcanzar un nivel literario lo más alto posible. Era un planteo estético, una solución estética; la actividad literaria valía para nosotros por la literatura misma, por sus productos y de ninguna manera como uno de los muchos elementos que constituyen el contorno, como hubiera dicho Ortega y Gasset «la circunstancia», en que se mueve un ser humano, sea o no escritor. 

El escritor no conoce esos caminos mientras los está franqueando —puesto que vive en un presente como todos nosotros— pero pasado el tiempo llega un día en que de golpe, frente a muchos libros que ha publicado y muchas críticas que ha recibido, tiene la suficiente perspectiva y el suficiente espacio crítico para verse a sí mismo con alguna lucidez.

De todas maneras, aun en ese momento en que mi participación y mi sentimiento histórico prácticamente no existían, algo me dijo muy tempranamente que la literatura —incluso la de tipo fantástico más imaginativa— no estaba únicamente en las lecturas, en las bibliotecas y en las charlas de café. Desde muy joven sentí en Buenos Aires el contacto con las cosas, con las calles, con todo lo que hace de una ciudad una especie de escenario continuo, variante y maravilloso para un escritor. Si por un lado las obras que en ese momento publicaba alguien como Jorge Luis Borges significaban para mí y para mis amigos una especie de cielo de la literatura, de máxima posibilidad en ese momento dentro de nuestra lengua, al mismo tiempo me había despertado ya muy temprano a otros escritores de los cuales citaré solamente uno, un novelista que se llamó Roberto Arlt y que desde luego es mucho menos conocido que Jorge Luis Borges porque murió muy joven y escribió una obra de difícil traducción y muy cerrada en el contorno de Buenos Aires. Al mismo tiempo que mi mundo estetizante me llevaba a la admiración por escritores como Borges, sabía abrir los ojos al lenguaje popular, al lunfardo de la calle que circula en los cuentos y las novelas de Roberto Arlt. Es por eso que, cuando hablo de etapas en mi camino, no hay que entenderlas nunca de una manera excesivamente compartimentada: me estaba moviendo en esa época en un mundo estético y estetizante pero creo que ya tenía en las manos o en la imaginación elementos que venían de otros lados y que todavía necesitarían tiempo para dar sus frutos. Eso lo sentí en mí mismo poco a poco, cuando empecé a vivir en Europa. 

Julio Cortázar en su casa de París el 27 de noviembre de 1978. Crédito: Getty Images.

Julio Cortázar en su casa de París el 27 de noviembre de 1978. Crédito: Getty Images.

Siempre he escrito sin saber demasiado por qué lo hago, movido un poco por el azar, por una serie de casualidades: las cosas me llegan como un pájaro que puede pasar por la ventana. En Europa continué escribiendo cuentos de tipo estetizante y muy imaginativos, prácticamente todos de tema fantástico. Sin darme cuenta, empecé a tratar temas que se separaron de ese primer momento de mi trabajo. En esos años escribí un cuento muy largo, quizá el más largo que he escrito, «El perseguidor» —del que hablaremos más en detalle llegado el momento—, que en sí mismo no tiene nada de fantástico pero en cambio tiene algo que se convertía en importante para mí: una presencia humana, un personaje de carne y hueso, un músico de jazz que sufre, sueña, lucha por expresarse y sucumbe aplastado por una fatalidad que lo persiguió toda su vida. (Los que lo han leído saben que estoy hablando de Charlie Parker, que en el cuento se llama Johnny Carter.) Cuando terminé ese cuento y fui su primer lector, advertí que de alguna manera había salido de una órbita y estaba tratando de entrar en otra. Ahora el personaje se convertía en el centro de mi interés mientras que en los cuentos que había escrito en Buenos Aires los personajes estaban al servicio de lo fantástico como figuras para que lo fantástico pudiera irrumpir; aunque pudiera tener simpatía o cariño por determinados personajes de esos cuentos, era muy relativo: lo que verdaderamente me importaba era el mecanismo del cuento, sus elementos finalmente estéticos, su combinatoria literaria con todo lo que puede tener de hermoso, de maravilloso y de positivo. En la gran soledad en que vivía en París de golpe fue como estar empezando a descubrir a mi prójimo en la figura de Johnny Carter, ese músico negro perseguido por la desgracia cuyos balbuceos, monólogos y tentativas inventaba a lo largo de ese cuento. 

La novela es ese gran combate que libra el escritor consigo mismo porque hay en ella todo un mundo, todo un universo en que se debaten juegos capitales del destino humano, y si uso el término destino humano es porque en ese momento me di cuenta de que yo no había nacido para escribir novelas psicológicas o cuentos psicológicos.

Ese primer contacto con mi prójimo —creo que tengo derecho a utilizar el término—, ese primer puente tendido directamente de un hombre a otro, de un hombre a un conjunto de personajes, me llevó en esos años a interesarme cada vez más por los mecanismos psicológicos que se pueden dar en los cuentos y en las novelas, por explorar y avanzar en ese territorio —que es el más fascinante de la literatura al fin y al cabo— en que se combina la inteligencia con la sensibilidad de un ser humano y determina su conducta, todos sus juegos en la vida, todas sus relaciones y sus interrelaciones, sus dramas de vida, de amor, de muerte, su destino; su historia, en una palabra. Cada vez más deseoso de ahondar en ese campo de la psicología de los personajes que estaba imaginando, surgieron en mí una serie de preguntas que se tradujeron en dos novelas, porque los cuentos no son nunca o casi nunca problemáticos: para los problemas están las novelas, que los plantean y muchas veces intentan soluciones. La novela es ese gran combate que libra el escritor consigo mismo porque hay en ella todo un mundo, todo un universo en que se debaten juegos capitales del destino humano, y si uso el término destino humano es porque en ese momento me di cuenta de que yo no había nacido para escribir novelas psicológicas o cuentos psicológicos como los hay y por cierto tan buenos. El solo hecho de manejar elementos en la vida de algunos personajes no me satisfacía lo suficiente. Ya en «El perseguidor», con toda su torpeza y su ignorancia, Johnny Carter se plantea problemas que podríamos llamar «últimos». Él no entiende la vida y tampoco entiende la muerte, no entiende por qué es un músico, quisiera saber por qué toca como toca, por qué le suceden las cosas que le suceden. Por ese camino entré en eso que con un poco de pedantería he calificado de etapa metafísica, es decir una autoindagación lenta, difícil y muy primaria —porque yo no soy un filósofo ni estoy dotado para la filosofía— sobre el hombre, no como simple ser viviente y actuante sino como ser humano, como ser en el sentido filosófico, como destino, como camino dentro de un itinerario misterioso. 

Julio Cortázar en una imagen de 1974. Crédito: Getty Images.

Julio Cortázar en una imagen de 1974. Crédito: Getty Images.

Esta etapa que llamo metafísica a falta de mejor nombre se fue cumpliendo sobre todo a lo largo de dos novelas. La primera, que se llama Los premios, es una especie de divertimento; la segunda quiso ser algo más que un divertimento y se llama Rayuela. En la primera intenté presentar, controlar, dirigir un grupo importante y variado de personajes. Tenía una preocupación técnica, porque un escritor de cuentos —como lectores de cuentos, ustedes lo saben bien— maneja un grupo de personajes lo más reducido posible por razones técnicas: no se puede escribir un cuento de ocho páginas en donde entren siete personas ya que llegamos al final de las ocho páginas sin saber nada de ninguna de las siete, y obligadamente hay una concentración de personajes como hay también una concentración de muchas otras cosas (eso lo veremos después). La novela en cambio es realmente el juego abierto, y en Los premios me pregunté si dentro de un libro de las dimensiones habituales de una novela sería capaz de presentar y tener un poco las riendas mentales y sentimentales de un número de personajes que al final, cuando los conté, resultaron ser dieciocho. ¡Ya es algo! Fue, si ustedes quieren, un ejercicio de estilo, una manera de demostrarme a mí mismo si podía o no pasar a la novela como género. Bueno, me aprobé; con una nota no muy alta pero me aprobé en ese examen. Pensé que la novela tenía los suficientes elementos como para darle atracción y sentido, y allí, en muy pequeña escala todavía, ejercité esa nueva sed que se había posesionado de mí, esa sed de no quedarme solamente en la psicología exterior de la gente y de los personajes de los libros sino ir a una indagación más profunda del hombre como ser humano, como ente, como destino. En Los premios eso se esboza apenas en algunas reflexiones de uno o dos personajes.

Horacio Oliveira es el hombre preocupado por elementos ontológicos que tocan al ser profundo del hombre: ¿Por qué ese ser preparado teóricamente para crear sociedades positivas por su inteligencia, su capacidad, por todo lo que tiene de positivo, no lo consigue finalmente o lo consigue a medias, o avanza y luego retrocede?

A lo largo de unos cuantos años escribí Rayuela y en esa novela puse directamente todo lo que en ese momento podía poner en ese campo de búsqueda e interrogación. El personaje central es un hombre como cualquiera de todos nosotros, realmente un hombre muy común, no mediocre pero sin nada que lo destaque especialmente; sin embargo, ese hombre tiene —como ya había tenido Johnny Carter en «El perseguidor»— una especie de angustia permanente que lo obliga a interrogarse sobre algo más que su vida cotidiana y sus problemas cotidianos. Horacio Oliveira, el personaje de Rayuela, es un hombre que está asistiendo a la historia que lo rodea, a los fenómenos cotidianos de luchas políticas, guerras, injusticias, opresiones y quisiera llegar a conocer lo que llama a veces «la clave central», el centro que ya no sólo es histórico sino filosófico, metafísico, y que ha llevado al ser humano por el camino de la historia que está atravesando, del cual nosotros somos el último y presente eslabón. Horacio Oliveira no tiene ninguna cultura filosófica —como su padre— y simplemente se hace las preguntas que nacen de lo más hondo de la angustia. Se pregunta muchas veces cómo es posible que el hombre como género, como especie, como conjunto de civilizaciones, haya llegado a los tiempos actuales siguiendo un camino que no le garantiza en absoluto el alcance definitivo de la paz, la justicia y la felicidad, por un camino lleno de azares, injusticias y catástrofes en que el hombre es el lobo del hombre, en que unos hombres atacan y destrozan a otros, en que justicia e injusticia se manejan muchas veces como cartas de póquer. Horacio Oliveira es el hombre preocupado por elementos ontológicos que tocan al ser profundo del hombre: ¿Por qué ese ser preparado teóricamente para crear sociedades positivas por su inteligencia, su capacidad, por todo lo que tiene de positivo, no lo consigue finalmente o lo consigue a medias, o avanza y luego retrocede? (Hay un momento en que la civilización progresa y luego cae bruscamente, y basta con hojear el Libro de la Historia para asistir a la decadencia y a la ruina de civilizaciones que fueron maravillosas en la Antigüedad.) Horacio Oliveira no se conforma con estar metido en un mundo que le ha sido dado prefabricado y condicionado; pone en tela de juicio cualquier cosa, no acepta las respuestas habitualmente dadas, las respuestas de la sociedad x o de la sociedad z, de la ideología a o de la ideología b.

Julio Cortázar durante una reunión de la Confederación General del Trabajo de los Argentinos, en la que anunció que donaría los beneficios de su novela Libro de Manuel en favor de los presos políticos de la dictadura militar argentina. Crédito: Getty Images.

Julio Cortázar durante una reunión de la Confederación General del Trabajo de los Argentinos, en la que anunció que donaría los beneficios de su novela Libro de Manuel en favor de los presos políticos de la dictadura militar argentina. Crédito: Getty Images.

Esa etapa histórica suponía romper el individualismo y el egoísmo que hay siempre en las investigaciones del tipo que hace Oliveira, ya que él se preocupa de pensar cuál es su propio destino en tanto destino del hombre pero todo se concentra en su propia persona, en su felicidad y su infelicidad. Había un paso que franquear: el de ver al prójimo no sólo como el individuo o los individuos que uno conoce sino verlo como sociedades enteras, pueblos, civilizaciones, conjuntos humanos. Debo decir que llegué a esa etapa por caminos curiosos, extraños y a la vez un poco predestinados. Había seguido de cerca con mucho más interés que en mi juventud todo lo que sucedía en el campo de la política internacional en aquella época: estaba en Francia cuando la guerra de liberación de Argelia y viví muy de cerca ese drama que era al mismo tiempo y por causas opuestas un drama para los argelinos y para los franceses. Luego, entre el año 59 y el 61, me interesó toda esa extraña gesta de un grupo de gente metida en las colinas de la isla de Cuba que estaban luchando para echar abajo un régimen dictatorial. (No tenía aún nombres precisos: a esa gente se los llamaba «los barbudos» y Batista era un nombre de dictador en un continente que ha tenido y tiene tantos.) Poco a poco, eso tomó para mí un sentido especial. Testimonios que recibí y textos que leí me llevaron a interesarme profundamente por ese proceso, y cuando la Revolución cubana triunfó a fines de 1959, sentí el deseo de ir. Pude ir —al principio no se podía— menos de dos años después. Fui a Cuba por primera vez en 1961 como miembro del jurado de la Casa de las Américas que se acababa de fundar. Fui a aportar la contribución del único tipo que podía dar, de tipo intelectual, y estuve allí dos meses viendo, viviendo, escuchando, aprobando y desaprobando según las circunstancias. Cuando volví a Francia traía conmigo una experiencia que me había sido totalmente ajena: durante casi dos meses no estuve metido con grupos de amigos o con cenáculos literarios; estuve mezclándome cotidianamente con un pueblo que en ese momento se debatía frente a las peores dificultades, al que le faltaba todo, que se veía preso en un bloqueo despiadado y sin embargo luchaba por llevar adelante esa autodefinición que se había dado a sí mismo por la vía de la revolución. Cuando volví a París eso hizo un lento pero seguro camino. Habían sido invitaciones de pasaporte para mí y nada más, señas de identidad y nada más. En ese momento, por una especie de brusca revelación —y la palabra no es exagerada—, sentí que no sólo era argentino: era latinoamericano, y ese fenómeno de tentativa de liberación y de conquista de una soberanía a la que acababa de asistir era el catalizador, lo que me había revelado y demostrado que no solamente yo era un latinoamericano que estaba viviendo eso de cerca sino que además me mostraba una obligación, un deber. Me di cuenta de que ser un escritor latinoamericano significaba fundamentalmente que había que ser un latinoamericano escritor: había que invertir los términos y la condición de latinoamericano, con todo lo que comportaba de responsabilidad y deber, había que ponerla también en el trabajo literario. Creo entonces que puedo utilizar el nombre de etapa histórica, o sea de ingreso en la historia, para describir este último jalón en mi camino de escritor. 

En el curso de las últimas tres décadas la literatura de tipo cerradamente individual que naturalmente se mantiene y se mantendrá y que da productos indudablemente hermosos e indiscutibles, esa literatura por el arte y la literatura misma ha cedido terreno frente a una nueva generación de escritores mucho más implicados en los procesos de combate, de lucha, de discusión, de crisis de su propio pueblo y de los pueblos en conjunto.

Si han podido leer algunos libros míos que abarquen esos períodos, verán muy claramente reflejado lo que he tratado de explicar de una manera un poco primaria y autobiográfica, verán cómo se pasa del culto de la literatura por la literatura misma al culto de la literatura como indagación del destino humano y luego a la literatura como una de las muchas formas de participar en los procesos históricos que a cada uno de nosotros nos concierne en su país. Si les he contado esto —e insisto en que he hecho un poco de autobiografía, cosa que siempre me avergüenza— es porque creo que ese camino que seguí es extrapolable en gran medida al conjunto de la actual literatura latinoamericana que podemos considerar significativa. En el curso de las últimas tres décadas la literatura de tipo cerradamente individual que naturalmente se mantiene y se mantendrá y que da productos indudablemente hermosos e indiscutibles, esa literatura por el arte y la literatura misma ha cedido terreno frente a una nueva generación de escritores mucho más implicados en los procesos de combate, de lucha, de discusión, de crisis de su propio pueblo y de los pueblos en conjunto. La literatura que constituía una actividad fundamentalmente elitista y que se autoconsideraba privilegiada (todavía lo hacen muchos en muchos casos) fue cediendo terreno a una literatura que en sus mejores exponentes nunca ha bajado la puntería ni ha tratado de volverse popular o populachera llenándose con todo el contenido que nace de los procesos del pueblo de donde pertenece el autor. Estoy hablando de la literatura más alta de la que podemos hablar en estos momentos, la de Asturias, Vargas Llosa, García Márquez, cuyos libros han salido plenamente de ese criterio de trabajo solitario por el placer mismo del trabajo para intentar una búsqueda en profundidad en el destino, en la realidad, en la suerte de cada uno de sus pueblos. Por eso me parece que lo que me sucedió en el terreno individual y privado es un proceso que en conjunto se ha ido dando de la misma manera yendo de lo más (cómo decirlo, no me gusta la palabra elitista, pero en fin...), de lo más privilegiado, lo más refinado como actividad literaria, a una literatura que guardando todas sus calidades y todas sus fuerzas se dirige actualmente a un público de lectores que va mucho más allá que los lectores de la primera generación que eran sus propios grupos de clase, sus propias élites, aquellos que conocían los códigos y las claves y podían entrar en el secreto de esa literatura casi siempre admirable pero también casi siempre exquisita. 

Lo que digo en estos minutos puede servir para cuando, hablando de cuentos y novelas míos o ajenos, hagamos referencias a sus contenidos y a sus propósitos; ahí vamos a poder ver con más claridad esto que he intentado decir. Me pregunto si ahora, dadas las condiciones de temperatura que se notan muy bien en la cara de Pepe Durand, quieren ustedes que hagamos un intervalo de cinco, diez minutos y seguimos después. Pienso que sí, ¿de acuerdo?