Gabriel García Márquez

Un brindis por Gabriel García Márquez: 40 años del Nobel de toda América Latina

«¿Qué hago yo encaramado en esta percha de honor, yo que siempre he considerado los discursos como el más terrorífico de los compromisos humanos?». Sirva esta cita como una suerte de prefacio de «Yo no vengo a decir un discurso» (Random House), una selección de textos escritos por Gabriel García Márquez con la idea de ser pronunciados por él mismo en público, una serie de reflexiones compartidas que arrojan luz sobre su genio a lo largo de prácticamente toda su vida (desde el primero, que escribe a los 17 años para despedir a sus compañeros del curso superior en Zipaquirá, hasta el que lee ante las Academias de la Lengua y los reyes de España al cumplir 80 años). Aprovechando que ahora se cumplen 40 años de su Nobel de Literatura -la Academia Sueca se lo notificó el 21 de octubre de 1982; el acto de entrega tuvo lugar semanas después, el día 10 de diciembre, en Estocolmo-, LENGUA publica los discursos pronunciados por Gabo tanto en la recepción oficial («La soledad de América Latina») como en el posterior banquete de celebración del premio («Brindis por la poesía»).

{"id":834,"id_simpleblog_post":"834","id_simpleblog_category":"53","id_simpleblog_post_type":"1","id_simpleblog_author":"0","author":"Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez","author_url":"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/581-gabriel-garcia-marquez","likes":"0","views":"2395","allow_comments":"2","is_featured":"1","access":"a:5:{i:1;b:1;i:2;b:1;i:3;b:1;i:4;b:0;i:5;b:0;}","cover":"jpg","featured":"jpg","id_product":"26251,36289,29135","id_category_tematica":"116095,58,14,116110,195989","id_category_autor":"581,583,582","id_category_editorial":"11338,11353","id_event":"0","active":"1","title":"Un brindis por Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez: 40 a\u00f1os del Nobel de toda Am\u00e9rica Latina","meta_title":"Un brindis por Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez: 40 a\u00f1os del Nobel de toda Am\u00e9rica Latina","meta_description":"Cuando se cumplen 40 a\u00f1os del Nobel de Literatura de Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez, recuperamos los discursos pronunciados por Gabo tanto en la recepci\u00f3n (\u00abLa soledad de Am\u00e9rica Latina\u00bb) como en el posterior banquete de celebraci\u00f3n (\u00abBrindis por la poes\u00eda\u00bb).","meta_keywords":"Revista LENGUA Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez Premio Nobel de Literatura","short_content":"<p>\u00ab\u00bfQu\u00e9 hago yo encaramado en esta percha de honor, yo que siempre he considerado los discursos como el m\u00e1s terror\u00edfico de los compromisos humanos?\u00bb. Sirva esta cita como una suerte de prefacio de \u00abYo no vengo a decir un discurso\u00bb (Random House), una selecci\u00f3n de textos escritos por Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez con la idea de ser pronunciados por \u00e9l mismo en p\u00fablico, una serie de reflexiones compartidas que arrojan luz sobre su genio a lo largo de pr\u00e1cticamente toda su vida (desde el primero, que escribe a los 17 a\u00f1os para despedir a sus compa\u00f1eros del curso superior en Zipaquir\u00e1, hasta el que lee ante las Academias de la Lengua y los reyes de Espa\u00f1a al cumplir 80 a\u00f1os). Aprovechando que ahora se cumplen 40 a\u00f1os de su Nobel de Literatura -la Academia Sueca se lo notific\u00f3 el 21 de octubre de 1982; el acto de entrega tuvo lugar semanas despu\u00e9s, el d\u00eda 10 de diciembre, en Estocolmo-, LENGUA publica los discursos pronunciados por Gabo tanto en la recepci\u00f3n oficial (\u00abLa soledad de Am\u00e9rica Latina\u00bb) como en el posterior banquete de celebraci\u00f3n del premio (\u00abBrindis por la poes\u00eda\u00bb).<\/p>","full_content":"","content":"[{\"id\":\"fxj4q4y\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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de octubre de 1982. Ciudad de M\u00e9xico. Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez atiende al tel\u00e9fono momentos despu\u00e9s de que la Academia Sueca anunciase su decisi\u00f3n de premiarle \u00abpor sus novelas e historias cortas, en las que lo fant\u00e1stico y lo real se combinan en un mundo ricamente compuesto de imaginaci\u00f3n, lo que refleja la vida y los conflictos de un continente\u00bb. El colombiano viv\u00eda en M\u00e9xico desde su exilio autoimpuesto de Colombia en 1981. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"dt31j5j\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">21 de octubre de 1982. Ciudad de M\u00e9xico. Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez atiende al tel\u00e9fono momentos despu\u00e9s de que la Academia Sueca anunciase su decisi\u00f3n de premiarle \u00abpor sus novelas e historias cortas, en las que lo fant\u00e1stico y lo real se combinan en un mundo ricamente compuesto de imaginaci\u00f3n, lo que refleja la vida y los conflictos de un continente\u00bb. El colombiano viv\u00eda en M\u00e9xico desde su exilio autoimpuesto de Colombia en 1981. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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soledad de Am\u00e9rica Latina\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><em>Palabras pronunciadas por por\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/581-gabriel-garcia-marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez<\/a><\/span> en Estocolmo, Suecia, el 8 de diciembre de 1982, dos d\u00edas antes de la ceremonia de entrega del premio Nobel de Literatura.<\/em><\/p><p>Antonio Pigafetta, un navegante florentino que acompa\u00f1\u00f3 a Magallanes en el primer viaje alrededor del mundo, escribi\u00f3 a su paso por\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/caparros-por-villoro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">nuestra Am\u00e9rica meridional<\/a><\/span> una cr\u00f3nica rigurosa que, sin embargo, parece una aventura de la imaginaci\u00f3n. Cont\u00f3 que hab\u00eda visto cerdos con el ombligo en el lomo y unos p\u00e1jaros sin patas cuyas hembras empollaban en las espaldas del macho, y otros como alcatraces sin lengua cuyos picos parec\u00edan una cuchara. Cont\u00f3 que hab\u00eda visto un engendro animal con cabeza y orejas de mula, cuerpo de camello, patas de ciervo y relincho de caballo. Cont\u00f3 que al primer nativo que encontraron en\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/mapa-de-las-lenguas-2022\/carlos-gamerro-la-jaula-de-los-onas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la Patagonia<\/a><\/span> le pusieron enfrente un espejo y que aquel gigante enardecido perdi\u00f3 el uso de la raz\u00f3n por el pavor de su propia imagen.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"mp5vjhv\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"20\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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libro breve y fascinante, en el cual ya se vislumbran los g\u00e9rmenes de nuestras novelas de hoy, no es ni mucho menos el testimonio m\u00e1s asombroso de nuestra realidad de aquellos tiempos. Los cronistas de Indias nos legaron otros incontables. El Dorado \u2014nuestro pa\u00eds ilusorio tan codiciado\u2014 figur\u00f3 en mapas numerosos durante largos a\u00f1os, cambiando de lugar y de forma seg\u00fan la fantas\u00eda de los cart\u00f3grafos. En busca de la fuente de la Eterna Juventud, el m\u00edtico \u00c1lvar N\u00fa\u00f1ez Cabeza de Vaca explor\u00f3 durante ocho a\u00f1os el norte de M\u00e9xico, en una expedici\u00f3n ven\u00e1tica cuyos miembros se comieron unos a otros y s\u00f3lo llegaron cinco de los seiscientos que la emprendieron. Uno de los tantos misterios que nunca fueron descifrados es el de las once mil mulas cargadas con cien libras de oro cada una, que un d\u00eda salieron del Cuzco para pagar el rescate de Atahualpa y nunca llegaron a su destino. M\u00e1s tarde, durante la Colonia, se vend\u00edan en Cartagena de Indias unas gallinas criadas en tierras de aluvi\u00f3n, en cuyas mollejas se encontraban piedrecitas de oro. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/la-historia-latinoamericana-segun-hilda-sabato-el-siglo-xix-fue-un-momento-de-innovacion-politica\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Este delirio \u00e1ureo de nuestros fundadores nos persigui\u00f3 hasta hace poco tiempo<\/a><\/span>. Apenas en el siglo pasado, la misi\u00f3n alemana encargada de estudiar la construcci\u00f3n de un ferrocarril interoce\u00e1nico en el istmo de Panam\u00e1 concluy\u00f3 que el proyecto era viable con la condici\u00f3n de que los rieles no se hicieran de hierro, que era un metal escaso en la regi\u00f3n, sino que se hicieran de oro.<\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">La independencia del dominio espa\u00f1ol no nos puso a salvo de la demencia. El general Antonio L\u00f3pez de Santa Anna, que fue tres veces dictador de M\u00e9xico, hizo enterrar con funerales magn\u00edficos la pierna derecha que hab\u00eda perdido en la llamada Guerra de los Pasteles. El general Gabriel Garc\u00eda Moreno gobern\u00f3 Ecuador durante diecis\u00e9is a\u00f1os como un monarca absoluto y su cad\u00e1ver fue velado, con su uniforme de gala y su coraza de condecoraciones, sentado en la silla presidencial. El general Maximiliano Hern\u00e1ndez Mart\u00ednez, el d\u00e9spota te\u00f3sofo de El Salvador que hizo exterminar en una matanza b\u00e1rbara a treinta mil campesinos, hab\u00eda inventado un p\u00e9ndulo para averiguar si los alimentos estaban envenenados, e hizo cubrir con papel rojo el alumbrado p\u00fablico para combatir una epidemia de escarlatina. El monumento al general Francisco Moraz\u00e1n, erigido en la plaza mayor de Tegucigalpa, es en realidad una estatua del mariscal Ney comprada en un dep\u00f3sito de esculturas 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once a\u00f1os, uno de los poetas insignes de nuestro tiempo, <a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/540-pablo-neruda\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\">el chileno Pablo Neruda<\/span><\/a>, ilumin\u00f3 este \u00e1mbito con su palabra. En las buenas conciencias de Europa, y a veces tambi\u00e9n en las malas, han irrumpido desde entonces con m\u00e1s \u00edmpetu que nunca las noticias fantasmales de la Am\u00e9rica Latina, esa patria inmensa de hombres alucinados y mujeres hist\u00f3ricas, cuya terquedad sin fin se confunde con la leyenda. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/John-Dinges-Plan-Condor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">No hemos tenido un instante de sosiego<\/a><\/span>. Un presidente prometeico atrincherado en su palacio en llamas muri\u00f3 peleando solo contra todo un ej\u00e9rcito, y dos desastres a\u00e9reos sospechosos y nunca esclarecidos segaron la vida de otro de coraz\u00f3n generoso, y la de un militar dem\u00f3crata que hab\u00eda restaurado la dignidad de su 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y mendigos, guerreros y malandrines, todas la criaturas de aquella realidad desaforada hemos tenido que pedirle muy poco a la imaginaci\u00f3n, porque el desaf\u00edo mayor para nosotros ha sido la insuficiencia de los recursos convencionales para hacer cre\u00edble nuestra vida. \u00c9ste es, amigos, el nudo de nuestra soledad.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"7xul089\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Ha habido cinco guerras y diecisiete golpes de Estado, y surgi\u00f3 un dictador luciferino que en el nombre de Dios llev\u00f3 a cabo <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/John-Dinges-Plan-Condor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el primer etnocidio de Am\u00e9rica Latina en nuestro tiempo<\/a><\/span>. Mientras tanto, veinte millones de ni\u00f1os latinoamericanos mor\u00edan antes de cumplir dos a\u00f1os, que son m\u00e1s de cuantos han nacido en Europa desde 1970. Los desaparecidos\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/santiago-roncagliolo-la-cuarta-espada-abimael-guzman-sendero-luminoso\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">por motivos de la represi\u00f3n<\/a><\/span> son casi ciento veinte mil, que es como si hoy no se supiera d\u00f3nde est\u00e1n todos los habitantes de la ciudad de Upsala. Numerosas mujeres arrestadas encinta dieron a luz en c\u00e1rceles argentinas, pero a\u00fan se ignora el paradero y la identidad de sus hijos, que fueron dados en adopci\u00f3n clandestina o internados en orfanatos por las autoridades militares. Por no querer que las cosas siguieran as\u00ed han muerto cerca de doscientas mil mujeres y hombres en todo el continente, y m\u00e1s de cien mil perecieron en tres peque\u00f1os y voluntariosos pa\u00edses de la Am\u00e9rica Central: Nicaragua, El Salvador y Guatemala. Si esto fuera en los Estados Unidos, la cifra proporcional ser\u00eda de 1.000.600\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/fernando-butazzoni-las-cenizas-del-condor\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">muertes violentas<\/a><\/span> en cuatro a\u00f1os.\u00a0<\/p><p>De Chile, pa\u00eds de tradiciones hospitalarias, ha huido un mill\u00f3n de personas: el diez por ciento de su poblaci\u00f3n. Uruguay, una naci\u00f3n min\u00fascula de dos millones y medio de habitantes que se consideraba como el pa\u00eds m\u00e1s civilizado del continente, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/mapa-de-las-lenguas-2022\/las-cenizas-del-condor-de-fernando-butazzoni-sin-fronteras\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">ha perdido en el destierro a uno de cada cinco ciudadanos<\/a><\/span>. La guerra civil en El Salvador ha causado, desde 1979, casi un refugiado cada veinte minutos. El pa\u00eds que se podr\u00eda hacer con todos los exiliados y emigrados forzosos de Am\u00e9rica Latina tendr\u00eda una poblaci\u00f3n m\u00e1s numerosa que 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Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez sostiene su medalla del Premio Nobel de Literatura instantes despu\u00e9s de la ceremonia de entrega celebrada en Estocolmo, Suecia. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty 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atrevo a pensar que es esta realidad descomunal, y no s\u00f3lo <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">su expresi\u00f3n literaria<\/a><\/span>, la que este a\u00f1o ha merecido la atenci\u00f3n de la Academia Sueca de las Letras. Una realidad que no es la del papel, sino que vive con nosotros y determina cada instante de nuestras incontables muertes cotidianas, y que sustenta un manantial de creaci\u00f3n insaciable, pleno de desdicha y de belleza, del cual este colombiano errante y nost\u00e1lgico no es m\u00e1s que una cifra m\u00e1s se\u00f1alada por la suerte. Poetas y mendigos, guerreros y malandrines, todas la criaturas de aquella realidad desaforada hemos tenido que pedirle muy poco a la imaginaci\u00f3n, porque el desaf\u00edo mayor para nosotros ha sido la insuficiencia de los recursos convencionales para hacer cre\u00edble nuestra vida. \u00c9ste es, amigos, el nudo de nuestra soledad.\u00a0<\/p><p>Pues si estas dificultades nos entorpecen a nosotros, que somos de su esencia, no es dif\u00edcil entender que los talentos racionales de este lado del mundo, extasiados en la contemplaci\u00f3n de su propia cultura, se hayan quedado sin un m\u00e9todo v\u00e1lido para interpretarnos. Es comprensible que insistan en medirnos con la misma vara con que se miden a s\u00ed mismos, sin recordar que los estragos de la vida no son iguales para todos, y que la b\u00fasqueda de la identidad propia es tan ardua y sangrienta para nosotros como lo fue para ellos. <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La interpretaci\u00f3n de nuestra realidad con esquemas ajenos s\u00f3lo contribuye a hacernos cada vez m\u00e1s desconocidos<\/a><\/span>, cada vez menos libres, cada vez m\u00e1s solitarios. Tal vez la Europa venerable ser\u00eda m\u00e1s comprensiva si tratara de vernos en su propio pasado. Si recordara que Londres necesit\u00f3 trescientos a\u00f1os para construirse su primera muralla y otros trescientos para tener un obispo; que Roma se debati\u00f3 en las tinieblas de la incertidumbre durante veinte siglos antes de que un rey etrusco la implantara en la historia, y que a\u00fan en el siglo xvi, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/ficciones\/joel-dicker-un-paseo-por-ginebra\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">los pac\u00edficos suizos de hoy<\/a><\/span>, que nos deleitan con sus quesos mansos y sus relojes imp\u00e1vidos, ensangrentaron a Europa como soldados de fortuna. A\u00fan en el apogeo del Renacimiento, doce mil lansquenetes a sueldo de los ej\u00e9rcitos imperiales saquearon y devastaron Roma, y pasaron a cuchillo a ocho mil de sus habitantes.\u00a0<\/p><p>No pretendo encarnar las ilusiones de Tonio Kr\u00f6ger, cuyos sue\u00f1os de uni\u00f3n entre un norte casto y un sur apasionado exaltaba\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/392-thomas-mann\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Thomas Mann<\/a><\/span> hace cincuenta y tres a\u00f1os en este lugar, pero creo que los europeos de esp\u00edritu clarificador \u2014los que luchan tambi\u00e9n aqu\u00ed por una patria grande m\u00e1s humana y m\u00e1s justa\u2014 podr\u00edan ayudarnos mejor si revisaran a fondo su manera de vernos. La solidaridad con nuestros sue\u00f1os no nos har\u00e1 sentir menos solos mientras no se concrete con actos de respaldo leg\u00edtimo a los pueblos que asuman la ilusi\u00f3n de tener una vida propia en el reparto del mundo.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"kjtmmc1\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>Frente a la opresi\u00f3n, el saqueo y el abandono, nuestra respuesta es la vida. Ni los diluvios ni las pestes, ni las hambrunas ni los cataclismos, ni siquiera las guerras eternas a trav\u00e9s de los siglos y los siglos han conseguido reducir la ventaja tenaz de la vida sobre la muerte.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"wsf9qck\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/caparros-por-villoro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Am\u00e9rica Latina<\/a><\/span>\u00a0no quiere ni tiene por qu\u00e9 ser un alfil sin albedr\u00edo ni tiene nada de quim\u00e9rico que sus designios de independencia y originalidad se conviertan en una aspiraci\u00f3n occidental. No obstante, los progresos de la navegaci\u00f3n que han reducido tantas distancias entre nuestras Am\u00e9ricas y Europa parecen haber aumentado en cambio nuestra distancia cultural. \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 la originalidad que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/juan-villoro-hector-abad-la-tierra-de-la-gran-promesa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">se nos admite sin reservas en la literatura<\/a><\/span> se nos niega con toda clase de suspicacias en nuestras tentativas tan dif\u00edciles de cambio social? \u00bfPor qu\u00e9 pensar que la justicia social que los europeos de avanzada tratan de imponer en sus pa\u00edses no puede ser tambi\u00e9n un objetivo latinoamericano con m\u00e9todos distintos en condiciones diferentes? No: la violencia y el dolor desmesurados de nuestra historia son el resultado de injusticias seculares y amarguras sin cuento, y no una confabulaci\u00f3n urdida a tres mil leguas de nuestra casa. Pero muchos dirigentes y pensadores europeos lo han cre\u00eddo, con el infantilismo de los abuelos que olvidaron las locuras fruct\u00edferas de su juventud, como si no fuera posible otro destino que vivir a merced de los dos grandes due\u00f1os del mundo. \u00c9ste es, amigos, el tama\u00f1o de nuestra soledad. Sin embargo, frente a la opresi\u00f3n, el saqueo y el abandono, nuestra respuesta es la vida. Ni los diluvios ni las pestes, ni las hambrunas ni los cataclismos, ni siquiera las guerras eternas a trav\u00e9s de los siglos y los siglos han conseguido reducir la ventaja tenaz de la vida sobre la muerte. <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Una ventaja que aumenta y se acelera: cada a\u00f1o hay setenta y cuatro millones m\u00e1s de nacimientos que de defunciones, una cantidad de vivos nuevos como para aumentar siete veces cada a\u00f1o la poblaci\u00f3n de Nueva York. La mayor\u00eda de ellos nacen en los pa\u00edses con menos recursos y, entre \u00e9stos, por supuesto, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/La-campana-carlos-fuentes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">los de Am\u00e9rica Latina<\/a><\/span>. En cambio, los pa\u00edses m\u00e1s pr\u00f3speros han logrado acumular suficiente poder de destrucci\u00f3n como para aniquilar cien veces no s\u00f3lo a todos los seres humanos que han existido hasta hoy, sino a la totalidad de los seres vivos que han pasado por este planeta de infortunios. <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Un d\u00eda como el de hoy, mi maestro\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/414-william-faulkner\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">William Faulkner<\/a><\/span> dijo en este lugar: \u00abMe niego a admitir el fin del hombre\u00bb. No me siento digno de ocupar este sitio que fue suyo si no tuviera la conciencia plena de que, por primera vez desde los or\u00edgenes de la humanidad, el desastre colosal que \u00e9l se negaba a admitir hace treinta y dos a\u00f1os es ahora nada m\u00e1s que una simple posibilidad cient\u00edfica. Ante esta realidad sobrecogedora que a trav\u00e9s de todo el tiempo humano debi\u00f3 de parecer una utop\u00eda, los inventores de f\u00e1bulas que todo lo creemos nos sentimos con el derecho de creer que todav\u00eda no es demasiado tarde para emprender la creaci\u00f3n de la utop\u00eda contraria. Una nueva y arrasadora utop\u00eda de la vida, donde nadie pueda decidir por otros hasta la forma de morir, donde de veras sea cierto el amor y sea posible la felicidad, y donde las estirpes condenadas a cien a\u00f1os de soledad tengan por fin y para siempre una segunda oportunidad sobre la Tierra.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"rz34alo\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez, flamante Premio Nobel de Literatura. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"z8p91yr\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\">10 de diciembre de 1982. Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez, flamante Premio Nobel de Literatura. Cr\u00e9dito: Getty Images.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"2\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"10\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"fwr27qn\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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por la poes\u00eda<\/strong><\/p><p><em>Palabras pronunciadas por Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez en Estocolmo, Suecia, el 10 de diciembre de 1982, durante el banquete de celebraci\u00f3n del Premio Nobel de Literatura.<\/em><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Agradezco a la Academia de Letras de Suecia el que me haya distinguido con un premio que me coloca junto a muchos de quienes orientaron y enriquecieron mis a\u00f1os de lector y de cotidiano celebrante de ese delirio sin apelaci\u00f3n que es el oficio de escribir. Sus nombres y sus obras se me presentan hoy como sombras tutelares, pero tambi\u00e9n como el compromiso, a menudo agobiante, que se adquiere con este honor. Un duro honor que en ellos me pareci\u00f3 una simple justicia, pero que en m\u00ed entiendo como una m\u00e1s de esas lecciones con las que suele sorprendernos el destino, y que hacen m\u00e1s evidente nuestra condici\u00f3n de juguetes de un azar indescifrable, cuya \u00fanica y desoladora recompensa suele ser, la mayor\u00eda de las veces, la incomprensi\u00f3n y el olvido. <o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">Es por ello apenas natural que me interrogara, all\u00e1 en ese trasfondo secreto en donde solemos trasegar con las verdades m\u00e1s esenciales que conforman nuestra identidad, cu\u00e1l ha sido el sustento constante de mi obra, qu\u00e9 pudo haber llamado la atenci\u00f3n de una manera tan comprometedora a este tribunal de \u00e1rbitros tan severos. Confieso sin falsas modestias que no me ha sido f\u00e1cil encontrar la raz\u00f3n, pero quiero creer que ha sido la misma que yo hubiera deseado. Quiero creer, amigos, que \u00e9ste es, una vez m\u00e1s, un homenaje que <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/Alejandra-Pizarnik-Cristina-Pina-Patricia-Venti-Luna-Miguel\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">se rinde a la poes\u00eda<\/a><\/span>. A la poes\u00eda por cuya virtud el inventario abrumador de las naves que enumer\u00f3 en su <i>Il\u00edada <\/i>el viejo\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/5805--homero\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Homero<\/a><\/span> est\u00e1 visitado por un viento que las empuja a navegar con su presteza intemporal y alucinada. La poes\u00eda que sostiene, en el delgado andamiaje de los tercetos de Dante, toda la f\u00e1brica densa y colosal de la Edad Media. La poes\u00eda que con tan milagrosa totalidad rescata a nuestra Am\u00e9rica en \u00abAlturas de Macchu Picchu\u00bb de Pablo Neruda, el grande, el m\u00e1s grande, y donde destilan su tristeza milenaria nuestros mejores sue\u00f1os sin salida. La poes\u00eda, en fin, esa energ\u00eda secreta de la vida cotidiana que cuece los garbanzos en la cocina y contagia el amor y repite las im\u00e1genes en los espejos.<o:p><\/o:p><\/p><p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\">En cada l\u00ednea que escribo trato siempre, con mayor o menor fortuna, de invocar los esp\u00edritus esquivos de la poes\u00eda, y trato de dejar en cada palabra el testimonio de mi devoci\u00f3n por sus virtudes de adivinaci\u00f3n y por su permanente victoria contra los sordos poderes de la muerte. El premio que acabo de recibir lo entiendo, con toda humildad, como la consoladora revelaci\u00f3n de que mi intento no ha sido en vano. Es por eso que invito a todos ustedes a brindar por lo que un gran poeta de nuestras Am\u00e9ricas, Luis Cardoza y Arag\u00f3n, ha definido como la \u00fanica prueba concreta de la existencia del hombre: la poes\u00eda. Muchas gracias.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"zqzp87i\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/Gabriel-Garcia-Marquez-Mario-Vargas-Llosa-Dos-soledades\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Un di\u00e1logo \u00fanico entre Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez y Vargas Llosa: para saber qu\u00e9 es la soledad<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/Rayuela-Julio-Cortazar-Gabriel-Garcia-Marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Julio Cort\u00e1zar por Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez: el argentino que se hizo querer de todos<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/caparros-por-villoro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Caparr\u00f3s por Villoro: \u00abNo hablemos de \\\"alephes\\\"\u00bb o c\u00f3mo narrar la totalidad<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/juan-villoro-hector-abad-la-tierra-de-la-gran-promesa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Juan Villoro por H\u00e9ctor Abad Faciolince: el material del que est\u00e1n hechos los sue\u00f1os<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/La-campana-carlos-fuentes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La campa\u00f1a de Carlos Fuentes y las revoluciones latinoamericanas: la aventura contin\u00faa<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/la-historia-latinoamericana-segun-hilda-sabato-el-siglo-xix-fue-un-momento-de-innovacion-politica\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La historia latinoamericana seg\u00fan Hilda S\u00e1bato: \u00abEl siglo XIX fue un momento de innovaci\u00f3n pol\u00edtica\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Gabriel Garc\u00eda M\u00e1rquez. Todo sobre el maestro de Aracataca<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/escritoras-latinoamericanas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Escritoras latinoamericanas. Una detallada biograf\u00eda de un fen\u00f3meno mundial<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"jf6sibs\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos
21 de octubre de 1982. Ciudad de México. Gabriel García Márquez atiende al teléfono momentos después de que la Academia Sueca anunciase su decisión de premiarle «por sus novelas e historias cortas, en las que lo fantástico y lo real se combinan en un mundo ricamente compuesto de imaginación, lo que refleja la vida y los conflictos de un continente». El colombiano vivía en México desde su exilio autoimpuesto de Colombia en 1981. Crédito: Getty Images.

21 de octubre de 1982. Ciudad de México. Gabriel García Márquez atiende al teléfono momentos después de que la Academia Sueca anunciase su decisión de premiarle «por sus novelas e historias cortas, en las que lo fantástico y lo real se combinan en un mundo ricamente compuesto de imaginación, lo que refleja la vida y los conflictos de un continente». El colombiano vivía en México desde su exilio autoimpuesto de Colombia en 1981. Crédito: Getty Images.

La soledad de América Latina 

Palabras pronunciadas por por Gabriel García Márquez en Estocolmo, Suecia, el 8 de diciembre de 1982, dos días antes de la ceremonia de entrega del premio Nobel de Literatura.

Antonio Pigafetta, un navegante florentino que acompañó a Magallanes en el primer viaje alrededor del mundo, escribió a su paso por nuestra América meridional una crónica rigurosa que, sin embargo, parece una aventura de la imaginación. Contó que había visto cerdos con el ombligo en el lomo y unos pájaros sin patas cuyas hembras empollaban en las espaldas del macho, y otros como alcatraces sin lengua cuyos picos parecían una cuchara. Contó que había visto un engendro animal con cabeza y orejas de mula, cuerpo de camello, patas de ciervo y relincho de caballo. Contó que al primer nativo que encontraron en la Patagonia le pusieron enfrente un espejo y que aquel gigante enardecido perdió el uso de la razón por el pavor de su propia imagen.

Este libro breve y fascinante, en el cual ya se vislumbran los gérmenes de nuestras novelas de hoy, no es ni mucho menos el testimonio más asombroso de nuestra realidad de aquellos tiempos. Los cronistas de Indias nos legaron otros incontables. El Dorado —nuestro país ilusorio tan codiciado— figuró en mapas numerosos durante largos años, cambiando de lugar y de forma según la fantasía de los cartógrafos. En busca de la fuente de la Eterna Juventud, el mítico Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca exploró durante ocho años el norte de México, en una expedición venática cuyos miembros se comieron unos a otros y sólo llegaron cinco de los seiscientos que la emprendieron. Uno de los tantos misterios que nunca fueron descifrados es el de las once mil mulas cargadas con cien libras de oro cada una, que un día salieron del Cuzco para pagar el rescate de Atahualpa y nunca llegaron a su destino. Más tarde, durante la Colonia, se vendían en Cartagena de Indias unas gallinas criadas en tierras de aluvión, en cuyas mollejas se encontraban piedrecitas de oro. Este delirio áureo de nuestros fundadores nos persiguió hasta hace poco tiempo. Apenas en el siglo pasado, la misión alemana encargada de estudiar la construcción de un ferrocarril interoceánico en el istmo de Panamá concluyó que el proyecto era viable con la condición de que los rieles no se hicieran de hierro, que era un metal escaso en la región, sino que se hicieran de oro.

La independencia del dominio español no nos puso a salvo de la demencia. El general Antonio López de Santa Anna, que fue tres veces dictador de México, hizo enterrar con funerales magníficos la pierna derecha que había perdido en la llamada Guerra de los Pasteles. El general Gabriel García Moreno gobernó Ecuador durante dieciséis años como un monarca absoluto y su cadáver fue velado, con su uniforme de gala y su coraza de condecoraciones, sentado en la silla presidencial. El general Maximiliano Hernández Martínez, el déspota teósofo de El Salvador que hizo exterminar en una matanza bárbara a treinta mil campesinos, había inventado un péndulo para averiguar si los alimentos estaban envenenados, e hizo cubrir con papel rojo el alumbrado público para combatir una epidemia de escarlatina. El monumento al general Francisco Morazán, erigido en la plaza mayor de Tegucigalpa, es en realidad una estatua del mariscal Ney comprada en un depósito de esculturas usadas. 

Hace once años, uno de los poetas insignes de nuestro tiempo, el chileno Pablo Neruda, iluminó este ámbito con su palabra. En las buenas conciencias de Europa, y a veces también en las malas, han irrumpido desde entonces con más ímpetu que nunca las noticias fantasmales de la América Latina, esa patria inmensa de hombres alucinados y mujeres históricas, cuya terquedad sin fin se confunde con la leyenda. No hemos tenido un instante de sosiego. Un presidente prometeico atrincherado en su palacio en llamas murió peleando solo contra todo un ejército, y dos desastres aéreos sospechosos y nunca esclarecidos segaron la vida de otro de corazón generoso, y la de un militar demócrata que había restaurado la dignidad de su pueblo. 

Poetas y mendigos, guerreros y malandrines, todas la criaturas de aquella realidad desaforada hemos tenido que pedirle muy poco a la imaginación, porque el desafío mayor para nosotros ha sido la insuficiencia de los recursos convencionales para hacer creíble nuestra vida. Éste es, amigos, el nudo de nuestra soledad.

Ha habido cinco guerras y diecisiete golpes de Estado, y surgió un dictador luciferino que en el nombre de Dios llevó a cabo el primer etnocidio de América Latina en nuestro tiempo. Mientras tanto, veinte millones de niños latinoamericanos morían antes de cumplir dos años, que son más de cuantos han nacido en Europa desde 1970. Los desaparecidos por motivos de la represión son casi ciento veinte mil, que es como si hoy no se supiera dónde están todos los habitantes de la ciudad de Upsala. Numerosas mujeres arrestadas encinta dieron a luz en cárceles argentinas, pero aún se ignora el paradero y la identidad de sus hijos, que fueron dados en adopción clandestina o internados en orfanatos por las autoridades militares. Por no querer que las cosas siguieran así han muerto cerca de doscientas mil mujeres y hombres en todo el continente, y más de cien mil perecieron en tres pequeños y voluntariosos países de la América Central: Nicaragua, El Salvador y Guatemala. Si esto fuera en los Estados Unidos, la cifra proporcional sería de 1.000.600 muertes violentas en cuatro años. 

De Chile, país de tradiciones hospitalarias, ha huido un millón de personas: el diez por ciento de su población. Uruguay, una nación minúscula de dos millones y medio de habitantes que se consideraba como el país más civilizado del continente, ha perdido en el destierro a uno de cada cinco ciudadanos. La guerra civil en El Salvador ha causado, desde 1979, casi un refugiado cada veinte minutos. El país que se podría hacer con todos los exiliados y emigrados forzosos de América Latina tendría una población más numerosa que Noruega.

10 de diciembre de 1982. Gabriel García Márquez sostiene su medalla del Premio Nobel de Literatura instantes después de la ceremonia de entrega celebrada en Estocolmo, Suecia. Crédito: Getty Images.

10 de diciembre de 1982. Gabriel García Márquez sostiene su medalla del Premio Nobel de Literatura instantes después de la ceremonia de entrega celebrada en Estocolmo, Suecia. Crédito: Getty Images.

Me atrevo a pensar que es esta realidad descomunal, y no sólo su expresión literaria, la que este año ha merecido la atención de la Academia Sueca de las Letras. Una realidad que no es la del papel, sino que vive con nosotros y determina cada instante de nuestras incontables muertes cotidianas, y que sustenta un manantial de creación insaciable, pleno de desdicha y de belleza, del cual este colombiano errante y nostálgico no es más que una cifra más señalada por la suerte. Poetas y mendigos, guerreros y malandrines, todas la criaturas de aquella realidad desaforada hemos tenido que pedirle muy poco a la imaginación, porque el desafío mayor para nosotros ha sido la insuficiencia de los recursos convencionales para hacer creíble nuestra vida. Éste es, amigos, el nudo de nuestra soledad. 

Pues si estas dificultades nos entorpecen a nosotros, que somos de su esencia, no es difícil entender que los talentos racionales de este lado del mundo, extasiados en la contemplación de su propia cultura, se hayan quedado sin un método válido para interpretarnos. Es comprensible que insistan en medirnos con la misma vara con que se miden a sí mismos, sin recordar que los estragos de la vida no son iguales para todos, y que la búsqueda de la identidad propia es tan ardua y sangrienta para nosotros como lo fue para ellos. La interpretación de nuestra realidad con esquemas ajenos sólo contribuye a hacernos cada vez más desconocidos, cada vez menos libres, cada vez más solitarios. Tal vez la Europa venerable sería más comprensiva si tratara de vernos en su propio pasado. Si recordara que Londres necesitó trescientos años para construirse su primera muralla y otros trescientos para tener un obispo; que Roma se debatió en las tinieblas de la incertidumbre durante veinte siglos antes de que un rey etrusco la implantara en la historia, y que aún en el siglo xvi, los pacíficos suizos de hoy, que nos deleitan con sus quesos mansos y sus relojes impávidos, ensangrentaron a Europa como soldados de fortuna. Aún en el apogeo del Renacimiento, doce mil lansquenetes a sueldo de los ejércitos imperiales saquearon y devastaron Roma, y pasaron a cuchillo a ocho mil de sus habitantes. 

No pretendo encarnar las ilusiones de Tonio Kröger, cuyos sueños de unión entre un norte casto y un sur apasionado exaltaba Thomas Mann hace cincuenta y tres años en este lugar, pero creo que los europeos de espíritu clarificador —los que luchan también aquí por una patria grande más humana y más justa— podrían ayudarnos mejor si revisaran a fondo su manera de vernos. La solidaridad con nuestros sueños no nos hará sentir menos solos mientras no se concrete con actos de respaldo legítimo a los pueblos que asuman la ilusión de tener una vida propia en el reparto del mundo.

Frente a la opresión, el saqueo y el abandono, nuestra respuesta es la vida. Ni los diluvios ni las pestes, ni las hambrunas ni los cataclismos, ni siquiera las guerras eternas a través de los siglos y los siglos han conseguido reducir la ventaja tenaz de la vida sobre la muerte.

América Latina no quiere ni tiene por qué ser un alfil sin albedrío ni tiene nada de quimérico que sus designios de independencia y originalidad se conviertan en una aspiración occidental. No obstante, los progresos de la navegación que han reducido tantas distancias entre nuestras Américas y Europa parecen haber aumentado en cambio nuestra distancia cultural. ¿Por qué la originalidad que se nos admite sin reservas en la literatura se nos niega con toda clase de suspicacias en nuestras tentativas tan difíciles de cambio social? ¿Por qué pensar que la justicia social que los europeos de avanzada tratan de imponer en sus países no puede ser también un objetivo latinoamericano con métodos distintos en condiciones diferentes? No: la violencia y el dolor desmesurados de nuestra historia son el resultado de injusticias seculares y amarguras sin cuento, y no una confabulación urdida a tres mil leguas de nuestra casa. Pero muchos dirigentes y pensadores europeos lo han creído, con el infantilismo de los abuelos que olvidaron las locuras fructíferas de su juventud, como si no fuera posible otro destino que vivir a merced de los dos grandes dueños del mundo. Éste es, amigos, el tamaño de nuestra soledad. Sin embargo, frente a la opresión, el saqueo y el abandono, nuestra respuesta es la vida. Ni los diluvios ni las pestes, ni las hambrunas ni los cataclismos, ni siquiera las guerras eternas a través de los siglos y los siglos han conseguido reducir la ventaja tenaz de la vida sobre la muerte.

Una ventaja que aumenta y se acelera: cada año hay setenta y cuatro millones más de nacimientos que de defunciones, una cantidad de vivos nuevos como para aumentar siete veces cada año la población de Nueva York. La mayoría de ellos nacen en los países con menos recursos y, entre éstos, por supuesto, los de América Latina. En cambio, los países más prósperos han logrado acumular suficiente poder de destrucción como para aniquilar cien veces no sólo a todos los seres humanos que han existido hasta hoy, sino a la totalidad de los seres vivos que han pasado por este planeta de infortunios.

Un día como el de hoy, mi maestro William Faulkner dijo en este lugar: «Me niego a admitir el fin del hombre». No me siento digno de ocupar este sitio que fue suyo si no tuviera la conciencia plena de que, por primera vez desde los orígenes de la humanidad, el desastre colosal que él se negaba a admitir hace treinta y dos años es ahora nada más que una simple posibilidad científica. Ante esta realidad sobrecogedora que a través de todo el tiempo humano debió de parecer una utopía, los inventores de fábulas que todo lo creemos nos sentimos con el derecho de creer que todavía no es demasiado tarde para emprender la creación de la utopía contraria. Una nueva y arrasadora utopía de la vida, donde nadie pueda decidir por otros hasta la forma de morir, donde de veras sea cierto el amor y sea posible la felicidad, y donde las estirpes condenadas a cien años de soledad tengan por fin y para siempre una segunda oportunidad sobre la Tierra.

10 de diciembre de 1982. Gabriel García Márquez, flamante Premio Nobel de Literatura. Crédito: Getty Images.

10 de diciembre de 1982. Gabriel García Márquez, flamante Premio Nobel de Literatura. Crédito: Getty Images.

Brindis por la poesía

Palabras pronunciadas por Gabriel García Márquez en Estocolmo, Suecia, el 10 de diciembre de 1982, durante el banquete de celebración del Premio Nobel de Literatura.

Agradezco a la Academia de Letras de Suecia el que me haya distinguido con un premio que me coloca junto a muchos de quienes orientaron y enriquecieron mis años de lector y de cotidiano celebrante de ese delirio sin apelación que es el oficio de escribir. Sus nombres y sus obras se me presentan hoy como sombras tutelares, pero también como el compromiso, a menudo agobiante, que se adquiere con este honor. Un duro honor que en ellos me pareció una simple justicia, pero que en mí entiendo como una más de esas lecciones con las que suele sorprendernos el destino, y que hacen más evidente nuestra condición de juguetes de un azar indescifrable, cuya única y desoladora recompensa suele ser, la mayoría de las veces, la incomprensión y el olvido.

Es por ello apenas natural que me interrogara, allá en ese trasfondo secreto en donde solemos trasegar con las verdades más esenciales que conforman nuestra identidad, cuál ha sido el sustento constante de mi obra, qué pudo haber llamado la atención de una manera tan comprometedora a este tribunal de árbitros tan severos. Confieso sin falsas modestias que no me ha sido fácil encontrar la razón, pero quiero creer que ha sido la misma que yo hubiera deseado. Quiero creer, amigos, que éste es, una vez más, un homenaje que se rinde a la poesía. A la poesía por cuya virtud el inventario abrumador de las naves que enumeró en su Ilíada el viejo Homero está visitado por un viento que las empuja a navegar con su presteza intemporal y alucinada. La poesía que sostiene, en el delgado andamiaje de los tercetos de Dante, toda la fábrica densa y colosal de la Edad Media. La poesía que con tan milagrosa totalidad rescata a nuestra América en «Alturas de Macchu Picchu» de Pablo Neruda, el grande, el más grande, y donde destilan su tristeza milenaria nuestros mejores sueños sin salida. La poesía, en fin, esa energía secreta de la vida cotidiana que cuece los garbanzos en la cocina y contagia el amor y repite las imágenes en los espejos.

En cada línea que escribo trato siempre, con mayor o menor fortuna, de invocar los espíritus esquivos de la poesía, y trato de dejar en cada palabra el testimonio de mi devoción por sus virtudes de adivinación y por su permanente victoria contra los sordos poderes de la muerte. El premio que acabo de recibir lo entiendo, con toda humildad, como la consoladora revelación de que mi intento no ha sido en vano. Es por eso que invito a todos ustedes a brindar por lo que un gran poeta de nuestras Américas, Luis Cardoza y Aragón, ha definido como la única prueba concreta de la existencia del hombre: la poesía. Muchas gracias.

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