Entrevistas

Jorge Comensal por Nona Fernández: el escarabajo astrónomo

En un avión, a diez mil kilómetros del suelo y a cientos de kilómetros por hora; sobre las nubes, un lugar donde el tiempo fluye a una velocidad distinta que en la Tierra. Allí leyó la escritora chilena Nona Fernández la nueva novela del mexicano Jorge Comensal, «Este vacío que hierve» (Alfaguara), un relato con un misterio central en torno al cual orbitan temas fundamentales de nuestra realidad: la crisis ambiental, los conflictos familiares, las adicciones, el fanatismo y el vínculo de la humanidad con los demás seres que habitan el planeta. Nada más aterrizar, la propia Nona decidió hablar con Jorge sobre esta lectura de alto vuelo (qué ironía) literario. El resultado es esta conversación que LENGUA comparte en exclusiva, un diálogo sobre recuerdos, identidades, miedos y (oh, sí) escarabajos que se guían por lo que les dicta el universo.

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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/205153-jorge-comensal\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Jorge Comensal<\/a><\/span> hay que leerlo en un avi\u00f3n. Y es que su escritura cruza y enreda tiempos, como pasa cuando estamos viajando en el aire y nos desorientamos en el reloj. El 2017 cay\u00f3 en mis manos <em>Las mutaciones<\/em>, su primera novela. El bueno de Vito D'Onghia, amigo com\u00fan, me la regal\u00f3 en un encuentro en M\u00e9xico y la abr\u00ed en cuanto despeg\u00f3 el vuelo que me regresaba a Chile. La sorpresa de encontrar una escritura que desbordaba creatividad, humor e inteligencia, no solo acort\u00f3 y alegr\u00f3 mi viaje, sino que me hizo quedar atenta a lo que viniera. Hoy, cinco a\u00f1os m\u00e1s tarde, tengo en mi poder <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><\/span><em><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/literatura-contemporanea\/311730-ebook-este-vacio-que-hierve-9786073822725\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Este vac\u00edo que hierve<\/a><\/span><\/em>, el nuevo trabajo de Jorge y, sin planificarlo, movida por el azar, vuelvo a suspenderme en el aire para entrar a su lectura. Otra vez el avi\u00f3n y su par\u00e9ntesis. Otra vez las nubes del otro lado de la ventana y este compa\u00f1ero de viaje acortando el trayecto. Un verdadero <em>d\u00e9j\u00e0 vu<\/em> en sinton\u00eda con esta historia que confunde los tiempos, los detiene, los alarga y los enmara\u00f1a como en un verdadero remolino.\u00a0<\/p><p>Es el futuro pr\u00f3ximo, el a\u00f1o 2030, y el Bosque de Chapultepec ha sido arrasado por un gran incendio. El fuego ha destruido todo, incluyendo al Zool\u00f3gico y al Pante\u00f3n de Dolores, donde se encuentra la tumba de los padres de Karina, una joven f\u00edsica cu\u00e1ntica de 25 a\u00f1os. Es en este contexto de muertos incendiados que Karina se entera de que su abuela Rebeca le oculta algo sobre la muerte de sus padres en el pasado. La inquietud moviliza a Karina a emprender una cacer\u00eda por esta verdad escondida y as\u00ed conoce a Silverio, un vigilante del Pante\u00f3n de Dolores, adicto a internet y padre de Daenerys, quincea\u00f1era furiosamente ambientalista. En esta trama detectivesca, con tientes ecologistas, se despliegan diversos hilos tem\u00e1ticos, referencias y materiales que se nos proponen vertiginosamente. La crisis ambiental, la clonaci\u00f3n de animales, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/luis-jorge-boone-y-la-gran-pregunta-de-la-literatura-mexicana-del-siglo-xxi\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la historia de M\u00e9xico<\/a><\/span>, el universo Otaku, la f\u00edsica cu\u00e1ntica, la relatividad del tiempo, el alcoholismo, la senilidad, las redes sociales, la expansi\u00f3n del universo, contenidos sofisticados y tambi\u00e9n chatarreros, piezas sueltas que se van amarrando y procesando creativamente en el relato, como lo hace una aguda cabeza intervenida por el acelerado ritmo de las redes.\u00a0<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"0\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"vfklj2u\",\"elType\":\"column\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"_inline_size\":null,\"_column_size\":50,\"section_style\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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todo esto es que le escrib\u00ed a Jorge en cuanto mi avi\u00f3n aterriz\u00f3. Ya en tierra, con el tiempo aparentemente organizado, comenzamos esta conversaci\u00f3n que ahora les comparto.\u00a0<br \/><br \/><\/p><p><strong>Nona Fern\u00e1ndez: Algo de eso ocurre en este libro, el tiempo se \u00abdifunde y arremolina\u00bb. Y es que el tratamiento temporal me pareci\u00f3 muy atractivo. La historia ocurre en un futuro cercano, lo que ya es un desaf\u00edo. Pero m\u00e1s all\u00e1 de eso, todo pasa en un tiempo presente acelerado, fragmentado y ca\u00f3tico, usando los hilos de pensamiento, tambi\u00e9n acelerados, fragmentados y ca\u00f3ticos, de cada personaje. Les seguimos en la historia mientras quien narra nos devela lo que hacen, pero a la vez lo que sus mentes van procesando intervenidas por m\u00faltiples est\u00edmulos que se van trenzando en la escritura. Recuerdos, mensajes de WhatsApp, im\u00e1genes televisivas, videos de YouTube, noticias, canciones, todo se mezcla en sus cabezas. A ratos parece una deliciosa locura, pero todo finalmente se conecta y se hilvana. Es un remolino constante de materiales que los personajes van procesando y que se parece tanto a nuestra manera de estar en el mundo en la actualidad. El libro parece contener un\u00a0esc\u00e1ner de nuestras cabezas. \u00bfHay una intensi\u00f3n por escribir ese tiempo acelerado o simplemente es tu ritmo literario?<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Jorge Comensal:<\/strong> La primera vez que me escribiste estabas en un aeropuerto, a punto de abordar un vuelo trasatl\u00e1ntico. Me contaste que hab\u00edas le\u00eddo parte del libro en el aire, lo cual me pareci\u00f3 ideal: en los aviones, a diez mil kil\u00f3metros del suelo y a cientos de kil\u00f3metros por hora, el tiempo fluye a una velocidad distinta que en la Tierra (la gravedad demora el movimiento de las cosas por la dimensi\u00f3n del tiempo). Lo mismo quer\u00eda que sucediera al interior de la novela: en cada cap\u00edtulo la forma del tiempo es diferente y por lo tanto no hay un orden lineal de los sucesos; a veces se adelantan o retrasan con respecto a los que los rodean. Como bien se\u00f1alas, estos efectos de gravitaci\u00f3n textual son efecto de la psicolog\u00eda de los personajes: Karina se desespera por llegar al futuro en el que descubrir\u00e1 el secreto que su abuela le esconde; Rebeca se confunde, por culpa de la edad y la bebida, y cree que su pasado est\u00e1 presente; Silverio vive inmerso en un popurr\u00ed fren\u00e9tico de est\u00edmulos digitales, y su hija Daenerys se comporta de forma escandalosa porque siente que el futuro se est\u00e1 incendiando a su alrededor.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"ou8073u\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abKarina est\u00e1 segura de que el espacio-tiempo no se curva por efecto de las masas sino que se difunde y arremolina como una gran marea de vacuidad\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"l0ra6ej\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Nona Fern\u00e1ndez: Es fascinante el enredo de hilos temporales que armas. La estructura de la trama tambi\u00e9n apuesta a esa idea de un tiempo que se \u00abdifunde y arremolina\u00bb. Los fragmentos de la historia est\u00e1n organizados de manera dislocada, fuera de la linealidad, sumando a la impresi\u00f3n de un tiempo ca\u00f3tico y hecho a pedazos, que se contrae y se extiende. Escenas del futuro dialogan con las del presente y con las del pasado. A ratos parecen realidades paralelas, tiempos paralelos que no necesariamente se reunir\u00e1n en alg\u00fan punto, posibilidades de trama. Y esa sensaci\u00f3n de relato es muy atractiva.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Jorge Comensal:<\/strong> No hab\u00eda pensado hasta ahora en la familiaridad sem\u00e1ntica que existe entre el relato y la relatividad. Tanto en la f\u00edsica como en <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la literatura<\/a><\/span>, el tiempo y el espacio son relativos a la energ\u00eda de los cuerpos que protagonizan el relato. Las historias focalizadas en Karina y en Silverio comienzan desfasadas varios meses y despu\u00e9s de varios nudos terminan por emparejarse en la primavera de 2031. La energ\u00eda textual de una joven activista como Daenerys es muy diferente a la de una anciana como Rebeca: una se precipita hacia el futuro como un asteroide y la otra orbita, rememorando su juventud, el agujero negro del olvido. Cuando mencionas que la forma del relato es \u00abatractiva\u00bb, aparte de alegrarme, vuelvo a la analog\u00eda gravitatoria: al narrar queremos atraer la atenci\u00f3n de alguien hacia una historia. El reacomodo del tiempo tambi\u00e9n aspira a que la conciencia lectora no se salga de la \u00f3rbita del libro y lo abandone.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Nona Fern\u00e1ndez: \u00bfC\u00f3mo es tu relaci\u00f3n con las redes sociales y el mundo virtual? Lo pregunto de curiosa porque, claro, est\u00e1n muy presentes en el relato. Yo vengo pensando en ellas hace un tiempo, en la relaci\u00f3n directa que tienen en nuestra manera de percibir la realidad. Y de vivirla tambi\u00e9n. \u00bfCrees que sean una de las razones de este tiempo acelerado y fragmentado en el que vivimos?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Jorge Comensal:<\/strong> Me preocupa que esa aceleraci\u00f3n fragmentada de la atenci\u00f3n, fomentada por el zapeo constante que nos inculcan las redes sociales con sus peque\u00f1as recompensas, atrofie nuestra capacidad de concentrarnos de manera sostenida en el pobre est\u00edmulo visual de la p\u00e1gina escrita. Lo digo sin a\u00f1oranza por el pasado, m\u00e1s bien con prisa porque aprendamos a domar estas tecnolog\u00edas que por su novedad nos tienen deslumbrados y nos distraen de las virtudes de la literatura. Me gustan muchas cosas del mundo virtual, sobre todo el vasto acervo de curiosidades enciclop\u00e9dicas y v\u00eddeos curiosos, como algunos que evoco en la novela: el apareamiento hermafrodita de las babosas leopardo, la masturbaci\u00f3n de un delf\u00edn con un pescado, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.publico.es\/ciencias\/primer-video-youtube-cumple-17-anos-elefantes-trascendentes-hoy-plataforma.html\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">los elefantes que aparecen en el primer video subido a YouTube<\/a><\/span>. La vida de Silverio, llena de privaciones econ\u00f3micas, afectivas y sociales, se enriquece gracias a los rincones m\u00e1s extravagantes de 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Cr\u00e9dito: Sergio L\u00f3pez Isla.\",\"link_to\":\"none\",\"link\":{\"is_external\":\"\",\"url\":\"\"},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"section_style_image\":\"\",\"space\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"opacity\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"hover_animation\":\"\",\"image_border_border\":\"\",\"image_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_border_color\":\"\",\"image_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"image_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"image\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"1ahwnr5\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p style=\\\"text-align: right;\\\"><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/7782-nona-fernandez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Nona Fern\u00e1ndez<\/a><\/span>. Cr\u00e9dito: Sergio L\u00f3pez Isla.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"\",\"typography_typography\":\"\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"2\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"10\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bdkvme3\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"\",\"layout\":\"boxed\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/7782-nona-fernandez\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Nona Fern\u00e1ndez<\/a><\/span>: Karina busca una pieza suelta del rompecabezas de su identidad. Hay algo en el pasado que desconoce, que se lo han ocultado, y que la determina por completo. Algo que podr\u00eda cambiar su percepci\u00f3n de las cosas y de s\u00ed misma. Esta trama espejea muy bien <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/La-campana-carlos-fuentes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el relato hist\u00f3rico oficial de toda Latinoam\u00e9rica<\/a><\/span>, \u00bfno? Una historia oficial llena de cosas no dichas, de hoyos negros.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Jorge Comensal:<\/strong> En esto mismo pens\u00e9 la primera vez que fui a buscar una tumba en el Pante\u00f3n Civil de Dolores, en la Ciudad de M\u00e9xico. Es un cementerio inmenso y decadente en el que\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/gabriel-garcia-marquez\/gabriel-garcia-marquez-nobel-literatura-america-latina\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la desigualdad extrema de Latinoam\u00e9rica<\/a><\/span> se manifiesta de un modo muy chocante: ah\u00ed se encuentra la Rotonda de las Personas Ilustres, donde el Estado mexicano ha rendido tributo a muchos de sus pr\u00f3ceres, y la fosa com\u00fan de la ciudad, en la que el servicio forense entierra a los que ni siquiera tuvieron deudos. El Pante\u00f3n Dolores no es un camposanto sino un campo laico que se ha llenado con el tiempo de imaginer\u00eda religiosa. Con los panteones civiles del siglo XIX, el Estado liberal trat\u00f3 de quitarle a la iglesia el monopolio sobre la vida y <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/rosa-beltran-radicales-libres\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">la muerte de la sociedad mexicana<\/a><\/span>. En el mismo pante\u00f3n donde est\u00e1n enterrados los presidentes m\u00e1s anticlericales de M\u00e9xico (Sebasti\u00e1n Lerdo de Tejada y Plutarco El\u00edas Calles), tambi\u00e9n hay un oprobioso monumento dedicado por un grupo de ultraderecha a las \u00abv\u00edctimas\u00bb del aborto. El Pante\u00f3n es un s\u00edmbolo del Estado fallido, incapaz de controlar la corrupci\u00f3n burocr\u00e1tica, el crimen (el robo de tumbas, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/anabel-hernandez-emma-coronel-chapo-guzman\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el narcomenudeo<\/a><\/span>) y la pr\u00e1ctica de rituales que dan cuenta de una profunda crisis espiritual en la sociedad. De lo que no se habla en la historia oficial es de esta modernizaci\u00f3n frustrada, y de lo mucho que este fracaso le debe al boicot constante por parte de la Iglesia. El presunto sacrificio de un sacerdote en la fosa com\u00fan del cementerio apunta hacia este conflicto soterrado.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Nona Fern\u00e1ndez: De hecho, el Pante\u00f3n de Dolores, su din\u00e1mica y su organizaci\u00f3n, pareciera ser un resumen de la sociedad mexicana. Y hay algo muy interesante en que Karina realice su cacer\u00eda rob\u00e1ndose una personalidad del mismo Pante\u00f3n. Un alter ego que habla de una posibilidad de s\u00ed misma que quiz\u00e1 no fue, por las condiciones en las que le ocultaron ciertas verdades. Es como que siguieras jugando ah\u00ed con la relatividad del tiempo.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Jorge Comensal:<\/strong> Mientras busca, infructuosamente, la tumba de sus pap\u00e1s, Karina se topa con el monumento dedicado a Leonor Llorente, una soprano yucateca que muri\u00f3 en 1932 y estuvo casada con el presidente El\u00edas Calles, fundador del r\u00e9gimen que gobern\u00f3 M\u00e9xico casi todo el siglo XX. La tumba atrapa su atenci\u00f3n y, a la hora de ocultar su verdadera identidad para descubrir lo que le oculta su abuela, adopta el nombre de Leonor y con \u00e9l queda pose\u00edda por una personalidad ajena a la suya, taimada y desinhibida. Este nombre de soprano le sirve como un disfraz verbal para viajar al pasado sin que la descubran (de ah\u00ed el juego con la relatividad del tiempo).\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Nona Fern\u00e1ndez: Este comentario puede ser un poco obvio, pero no me voy a restar de hacerlo. Todos los personajes de esta historia parecen incompletos, como si les faltara una pieza fundamental, como si cargaran con un hoyo negro. \u00bfSer\u00e1 ese el vac\u00edo que hierve?\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Jorge Comensal:<\/strong> Lo es. Cada quien padece una enorme carencia y el incendio la vuelve insoportable. Karina intenta llenar su vac\u00edo afectivo con la espuma del vac\u00edo c\u00f3smico. Silverio se siente solo, oprimido y culpable por ser un padre ausente. A Rebeca la quema un secreto por dentro e intenta <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/memorias-hunter-biden-cosas-bonitas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">apagar las llamas con alcohol<\/a><\/span>. Daenerys se enfrenta al vac\u00edo de una generaci\u00f3n que se siente privada del futuro.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"bxlb0c9\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abEl pasado es la parte indestructible de la realidad. Atentar contra \u00e9l es una misi\u00f3n suicida\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"lpvbdeq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Nona Fern\u00e1ndez: Los dos escenarios principales que elegiste, el Cementerio y el Zool\u00f3gico, son expresivamente brillantes. Y el incendio en el Zool\u00f3gico es una imagen muy fuerte y dolorosa, pero no est\u00e1 tan lejos de los horrores por los que hacemos pasar a diario al mundo animal. Intuyo en esta capa de la historia todo un discurso animalista.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Jorge Comensal:<\/strong> Los incendios forestales de 2019 en Australia, los de Bolivia en 2021, los de California y Siberia, los koalas y los jaguares malheridos estaban muy presentes en mi memoria cuando el fuego del Pante\u00f3n lleg\u00f3 al zool\u00f3gico. No me imaginaba entonces que en julio de 2022, cuando la novela estaba por publicarse, se tendr\u00eda que evacuar a m\u00e1s de 360 animales del zool\u00f3gico de Arcachon, en Francia, debido a un incendio forestal. Un par de semanas antes del incendio novelesco, Daenerys hab\u00eda ido de paseo escolar al zool\u00f3gico. La frescura de su maravillado encuentro con los animales silvestres la convierte en una fiera animalista. La juventud y su temperamento tormentoso la hacen intransigente, vegetariana, antiespecista radical. Silverio la cuestiona con sentido com\u00fan y sus discusiones dan cuenta de conflictos interiores. En ese ir y venir entre la indiferencia y el fundamentalismo espero que cada quien pueda hallar una postura sensata ante <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/el-cambio-climatico-en-cuatro-preguntas\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">el ecocidio y la extinci\u00f3n masiva<\/a><\/span>.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Nona Fern\u00e1ndez: Osas panda, gorilas, em\u00faes, delfines, el jaguar Tezcatlipoca, ardillas, escarabajos que se orientan con la v\u00eda l\u00e1ctea, un loro loco que habla como abogado, el listado de animales que participan del elenco de este libro es largo. Hubo mucha investigaci\u00f3n ah\u00ed, \u00bfno es cierto? Yo conf\u00edo ciegamente que todas las especificaciones e historias que Silverio y el narrador nos cuentan son reales.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Jorge Comensal:<\/strong> Afortunadamente s\u00ed existen los escarabajos astr\u00f3nomos.<\/p><p><strong>Nona Fern\u00e1ndez:\u00a0Son una verdadera poes\u00eda. En el libro dices que recolectan excremento y luego vuelven a sus casas orient\u00e1ndose por las estrellas. Lo m\u00e1s elevado y lo m\u00e1s terrenal contenido en un solo bichito.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Jorge Comensal:<\/strong> Por desgracia tambi\u00e9n hubo una guerra contra los em\u00faes. El delf\u00edn onanista y la asociaci\u00f3n mitol\u00f3gica entre el jaguar y el nocturno dios Tezcatlipoca de los mexicas son ciertas. La clonaci\u00f3n del oso panda es una posibilidad inminente, ya que se han clonado otros mam\u00edferos en peligro de extinci\u00f3n, como el hur\u00f3n de patas negras y el bucardo (una cabra pirenaica que ya desapareci\u00f3). Escribo sobre fauna desde hace mucho (los primeros textos que me atrev\u00ed a publicar fueron ensayos l\u00edricos sobre abejas, manat\u00edes, anguilas ciegas y tortugas de las Gal\u00e1pagos), as\u00ed que este aspecto de la novela es el m\u00e1s idiosincr\u00e1tico de todos.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Nona Fern\u00e1ndez:\u00a0: Daenerys (am\u00e9 ese nombre) contiene una mirada comprometida con el cuidado de los animales y el planeta. Es una activista ecol\u00f3gica a sus 15 a\u00f1os. Me preocupa que Daenerys hoy, en 2022, tiene solo 7 a\u00f1os.\u00a0<span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/no-ficcion\/marx-en-el-antropoceno-kohei-saito\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00bfAlcanzar\u00e1 este planeta a esperar a esa generaci\u00f3n?<\/a><\/span> \u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Jorge Comensal:<\/strong> La vida es muy poderosa y el apogeo desmedido de la civilizaci\u00f3n industrial no podr\u00e1 acabar con ella por completo. Por eso en la novela hablo del em\u00fa, los caracoles y la misteriosa figura que sobreviven al incendio del Bosque. El planeta no lleva prisa por salvarse, pero nosotros s\u00ed porque la vida humana es breve y si devastamos los ecosistemas actuales no alcanzaremos a ver los que vendr\u00e1n en las pr\u00f3ximas eras geol\u00f3gicas. La biodiversidad es una maravilla c\u00f3smica (no sabemos si hay algo semejante en otros planetas), y destruirla es una vileza indigna de lo que los seres humanos supuestamente aspiramos a ser.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"at1bd8i\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p>\u00abBast\u00f3 que se quemara el pante\u00f3n para que todo el mundo empezara a ver espectros en sus casas, pero a nadie se le ocurri\u00f3 que los cientos de animales muertos en el zool\u00f3gico pudieron haberse convertido en fantasmas\u00bb.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#000000\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"40\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"24\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Vollkorn\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"45\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"30\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"95\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"95\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"30\",\"bottom\":\"50\",\"left\":\"30\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"4ue03md\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Nona Fern\u00e1ndez: Silverio y Karina se parecen mucho. Son inquietos, curiosos, sensibles, pero sus realidades socioecon\u00f3micas generan una brecha entre ellos. Mientras Karina ha podido estudiar f\u00edsica y elaborar sus pensamientos de la realidad, Silverio es un chatarrero. Acumula materiales nobles y bastardos sacados de todo tipo de p\u00e1ginas virtuales y aplicaciones. Me identifica esa manera de retratar la composici\u00f3n de nuestro bagaje cultural.\u00a0<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Jorge Comensal:<\/strong> Es cierto. El malestar que esa injusta brecha social me produce solamente se alivia cuando pienso que Daenerys, gracias a la escuela p\u00fablica y al esfuerzo de su familia materna (porque Silverio, no hay que olvidarlo, ha sido un padre irresponsable), tiene m\u00e1s posibilidades que sus padres, m\u00e1s libertad, una libertad que ella consagra precozmente a la vida silvestre.<\/p><p><strong>Nona Fern\u00e1ndez: Hay algo en Rebeca que me hace querer abrazarla. Imagino que tiene que ver con la propia mirada de Karina hacia ella, pese a todo. Pero tambi\u00e9n con el hecho de que aqu\u00ed instalas un tema al que todas y todos somos tremendamente sensibles y es el cuidado de nuestros viejos. Su incapacidad de cuidarse solos y la falta de herramientas que tenemos para hacerles la vida lo m\u00e1s feliz y digna posible.<\/strong><\/p><p><strong>Jorge Comensal:<\/strong> Karina adora a Rebeca, aunque casi nunca se acuerde de ello. El enorme resentimiento que le produce descubrir que su abuela le oculta un secreto hace que no podamos ver tanto ese afecto en la novela. Pero me alegra saber que lo percibas. Rebeca es el menos imaginario de los personajes. Y justo me hace recordar cu\u00e1nta falta me hace abrazar a mis abuelas. Karina sufre mucho para cuidar sola a su abuela nonagenaria mientras hace su doctorado en f\u00edsica. Con la beca universitaria no le alcanza para pagarle una atenci\u00f3n digna. El Estado no le ofrece alternativas. As\u00ed como sucede con el tema de las pensiones y los derechos laborales, la crisis del bienestar en la tercera edad se seguir\u00e1 agravando en los a\u00f1os por venir.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"nl9kcpo\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_divider\":\"\",\"style\":\"solid\",\"weight\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":1},\"color\":\"\",\"width\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"gap\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":15},\"view\":\"traditional\",\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"divider\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"961ml8l\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p><strong>Enciclopedia <em>Comensaliana<\/em><\/strong><\/p><p><strong>V\u00eda L\u00e1ctea:<\/strong>\u00a0Nuestro planeta orbita alrededor del centro de una galaxia espiral. La velocidad inexplicable con la que giran las galaxias como la nuestra ha obligado a los cosm\u00f3logos a suponer la existencia de una famosa y elusiva materia oscura. Este comod\u00edn de la ciencia astron\u00f3mica no le gusta a Karina. Le parece perezoso y arbitrario. Por eso cree que el enigma de la velocidad de los cuerpos c\u00f3smicos no se explicar\u00e1 con una sustancia oculta al interior de las galaxias, sino gracias al vac\u00edo que hierve a su alrededor.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Wikipedia:<\/strong> La biograf\u00eda de James Joyce dice: \u00abJoyce est\u00e1 enterrado en el Cementerio de Fluntern; desde su tumba se oyen los rugidos de los leones del zoo de Z\u00farich\u00bb. Este detalle zool\u00f3gico s\u00f3lo se encuentra en la Wikipedia en espa\u00f1ol; no lo he hallado en ingl\u00e9s, franc\u00e9s ni portugu\u00e9s. Lo que yo alcanc\u00e9 a escuchar cuando visit\u00e9 la tumba fue a los loros enjaulados a pocos metros del pante\u00f3n.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Memoria:<\/strong> El olvido consciente -el deseo insatisfecho de recordar algo-\u00a0es el peor vac\u00edo que existe.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Alcoholismo:<\/strong> En casi todos los cap\u00edtulos de la novela hay una especie distinta de animales. Los animales aparecen por doquier en nuestras vidas. Cuando Karina encuentra a su abuela completamente ebria, la inexplicable botella que hay sobre la mesa es de whisky Glenfiddich, cuyo nombre significa en escoc\u00e9s \u00abel valle de los ciervos\u00bb.\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Otaku:<\/strong> Para distraerse de su abrumadora realidad, Karina se remonta en su tiempo libre al lugar m\u00e1s remoto que se le ocurre, <span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/el-fixer-narco-miguel-angel-vega\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">al pa\u00eds m\u00e1s diferente de M\u00e9xico que existe<\/a><\/span>. Ese lugar es Jap\u00f3n.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p><p><strong>Fuego:<\/strong> En la novela lo llamo \u00ab\u00e1ngel guardi\u00e1n, voluble y peligroso\u00bb de nuestra especie. Me fascina esa ambivalencia, tan parecido a nuestro propio esp\u00edritu. Hay quien llama Piroceno a nuestra \u00e9poca por la abundancia de incendios que acompa\u00f1an la emergencia clim\u00e1tica. No hay que satanizar al fuego (aunque siempre nos imaginemos el infierno como una hoguera). En la tumba de la gran Tina Modotti, enterrada en el Pante\u00f3n Dolores, est\u00e1 el poema luctuoso que le escribi\u00f3 Pablo Neruda. Termina con estos versos: \u00abCon tu nombre otros nombres callamos y decimos, \/ porque el Fuego no muere\u00bb.<\/p><p><strong>Escarabajo astr\u00f3nomo:<\/strong> Este \u00faltimo t\u00e9rmino es trampa, porque lo escribo yo. Y la idea era terminar contigo como protagonista de todo esto. Pero es que no pod\u00eda cerrar esta conversaci\u00f3n sin decirte que eso de trabajar con las patitas en la tierra, recopilando excremento y mirando el universo para ser guiado por las estrellas, es algo muy parecido a escribir.<\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"65\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"mndg3zq\",\"elType\":\"widget\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_editor\":\"\",\"editor\":\"<p class=\\\"MsoNormal\\\"><strong>OTROS CONTENIDOS DE INTER\u00c9S:<\/strong><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/rosa-beltran-radicales-libres\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Rosa Beltr\u00e1n: las distintas maneras de vivir como mujer (en un pa\u00eds donde matan once por d\u00eda)<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/fernanda-melchor-y-su-viaje-al-paradais-escribir-de-lo-que-a-una-le-interesa-es-suficientemente-feminista\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Fernanda Melchor y su viaje al \u00abP\u00e1radais\u00bb: \u00abEscribir de lo que a una le interesa es suficientemente feminista\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/elmer-mendoza-monica-maristain\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00c9lmer Mendoza: \u00abLa novela negra no es una novela de delito, es una novela de profundo raigambre social\u00bb<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/luis-jorge-boone-y-la-gran-pregunta-de-la-literatura-mexicana-del-siglo-xxi\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Luis Jorge Boone y la gran pregunta de la literatura mexicana del siglo XXI<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/La-campana-carlos-fuentes\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">La campa\u00f1a de Carlos Fuentes y las revoluciones latinoamericanas: la aventura contin\u00faa<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/Cristina-Rivera-Garza-Selva-Almada-Liliana-Rivera-Garza\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Cristina Rivera Garza por Selva Almada: Liliana a nuestro lado<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/literatura\/quien-ha-leido-a-elena-garro\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">\u00bfQui\u00e9n ha le\u00eddo a Elena Garro?<\/a><\/span><\/p><p><span style=\\\"text-decoration: underline;\\\"><a href=\\\"https:\/\/www.penguinlibros.com\/es\/revista-lengua\/entrevistas\/juan-villoro-hector-abad-la-tierra-de-la-gran-promesa\\\" target=\\\"_blank\\\">Juan Villoro por H\u00e9ctor Abad Faciolince: el material del que est\u00e1n hechos los sue\u00f1os<\/a><\/span><\/p>\",\"section_style\":\"\",\"align\":\"\",\"align_tablet\":\"\",\"align_mobile\":\"\",\"text_color\":\"#1a1a1a\",\"typography_typography\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_size\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"18\"},\"typography_font_size_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_size_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_font_family\":\"custom\",\"typography_font_family_custom\":\"Fort-Book\",\"typography_font_weight\":\"\",\"typography_text_transform\":\"\",\"typography_font_style\":\"\",\"typography_line_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"27\"},\"typography_line_height_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_line_height_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"em\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"typography_letter_spacing_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"_section_style\":\"\",\"_margin\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"0\",\"right\":\"0\",\"bottom\":\"58\",\"left\":\"0\",\"isLinked\":false},\"_margin_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_margin_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_tablet\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_padding_mobile\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"\",\"right\":\"\",\"bottom\":\"\",\"left\":\"\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_animation\":\"\",\"animation_duration\":\"\",\"_css_classes\":\"\",\"_section_background\":\"\",\"_background_background\":\"\",\"_background_color\":\"\",\"_background_image\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_background_position\":\"\",\"_background_attachment\":\"\",\"_background_repeat\":\"\",\"_background_size\":\"\",\"_background_video_link\":\"\",\"_background_video_fallback\":{\"url\":\"\",\"id\":\"\"},\"_border_border\":\"solid\",\"_border_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"1\",\"right\":\"1\",\"bottom\":\"1\",\"left\":\"1\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_border_color\":\"\",\"_border_radius\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"top\":\"20\",\"right\":\"20\",\"bottom\":\"20\",\"left\":\"20\",\"isLinked\":true},\"_box_shadow_box_shadow_type\":\"\",\"_box_shadow_box_shadow\":{\"horizontal\":0,\"vertical\":0,\"blur\":10,\"spread\":0,\"inset\":\"\",\"color\":\"rgba(0,0,0,0.5)\"},\"_section_responsive\":\"\",\"responsive_description\":\"\",\"hide_desktop\":\"\",\"hide_tablet\":\"\",\"hide_mobile\":\"\"},\"defaultEditSettings\":[],\"widgetType\":\"text-editor\",\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}}],\"editSettings\":{}},{\"id\":\"mgj9yip\",\"elType\":\"section\",\"isInner\":false,\"settings\":{\"section_layout\":\"\",\"stretch_section\":\"section-stretched\",\"layout\":\"full_width\",\"content_width\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":\"\"},\"gap\":\"default\",\"height\":\"default\",\"custom_height\":{\"unit\":\"px\",\"size\":400},\"column_position\":\"middle\",\"content_position\":\"\",\"structure\":\"10\",\"section_background\":\"\",\"background_background\":\"\",\"background_color\":\"\",\"background_color_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":0},\"background_color_b\":\"\",\"background_color_b_stop\":{\"unit\":\"%\",\"size\":100},\"background_gradient_type\":\"linear\",\"background_gradient_angle\":{\"unit\":\"deg\",\"size\":180},\"background_gradient_position\":\"center 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15 minutos
Jorge Comensal. Crédito: María Gómez de León.

Jorge Comensal. Crédito: María Gómez de León.

Jorge Comensal hay que leerlo en un avión. Y es que su escritura cruza y enreda tiempos, como pasa cuando estamos viajando en el aire y nos desorientamos en el reloj. El 2017 cayó en mis manos Las mutaciones, su primera novela. El bueno de Vito D'Onghia, amigo común, me la regaló en un encuentro en México y la abrí en cuanto despegó el vuelo que me regresaba a Chile. La sorpresa de encontrar una escritura que desbordaba creatividad, humor e inteligencia, no solo acortó y alegró mi viaje, sino que me hizo quedar atenta a lo que viniera. Hoy, cinco años más tarde, tengo en mi poder Este vacío que hierve, el nuevo trabajo de Jorge y, sin planificarlo, movida por el azar, vuelvo a suspenderme en el aire para entrar a su lectura. Otra vez el avión y su paréntesis. Otra vez las nubes del otro lado de la ventana y este compañero de viaje acortando el trayecto. Un verdadero déjà vu en sintonía con esta historia que confunde los tiempos, los detiene, los alarga y los enmaraña como en un verdadero remolino. 

Es el futuro próximo, el año 2030, y el Bosque de Chapultepec ha sido arrasado por un gran incendio. El fuego ha destruido todo, incluyendo al Zoológico y al Panteón de Dolores, donde se encuentra la tumba de los padres de Karina, una joven física cuántica de 25 años. Es en este contexto de muertos incendiados que Karina se entera de que su abuela Rebeca le oculta algo sobre la muerte de sus padres en el pasado. La inquietud moviliza a Karina a emprender una cacería por esta verdad escondida y así conoce a Silverio, un vigilante del Panteón de Dolores, adicto a internet y padre de Daenerys, quinceañera furiosamente ambientalista. En esta trama detectivesca, con tientes ecologistas, se despliegan diversos hilos temáticos, referencias y materiales que se nos proponen vertiginosamente. La crisis ambiental, la clonación de animales, la historia de México, el universo Otaku, la física cuántica, la relatividad del tiempo, el alcoholismo, la senilidad, las redes sociales, la expansión del universo, contenidos sofisticados y también chatarreros, piezas sueltas que se van amarrando y procesando creativamente en el relato, como lo hace una aguda cabeza intervenida por el acelerado ritmo de las redes. 

Los fantasmas del pasado en el futuro

Sobre todo esto es que le escribí a Jorge en cuanto mi avión aterrizó. Ya en tierra, con el tiempo aparentemente organizado, comenzamos esta conversación que ahora les comparto. 

Nona Fernández: Algo de eso ocurre en este libro, el tiempo se «difunde y arremolina». Y es que el tratamiento temporal me pareció muy atractivo. La historia ocurre en un futuro cercano, lo que ya es un desafío. Pero más allá de eso, todo pasa en un tiempo presente acelerado, fragmentado y caótico, usando los hilos de pensamiento, también acelerados, fragmentados y caóticos, de cada personaje. Les seguimos en la historia mientras quien narra nos devela lo que hacen, pero a la vez lo que sus mentes van procesando intervenidas por múltiples estímulos que se van trenzando en la escritura. Recuerdos, mensajes de WhatsApp, imágenes televisivas, videos de YouTube, noticias, canciones, todo se mezcla en sus cabezas. A ratos parece una deliciosa locura, pero todo finalmente se conecta y se hilvana. Es un remolino constante de materiales que los personajes van procesando y que se parece tanto a nuestra manera de estar en el mundo en la actualidad. El libro parece contener un escáner de nuestras cabezas. ¿Hay una intensión por escribir ese tiempo acelerado o simplemente es tu ritmo literario?

Jorge Comensal: La primera vez que me escribiste estabas en un aeropuerto, a punto de abordar un vuelo trasatlántico. Me contaste que habías leído parte del libro en el aire, lo cual me pareció ideal: en los aviones, a diez mil kilómetros del suelo y a cientos de kilómetros por hora, el tiempo fluye a una velocidad distinta que en la Tierra (la gravedad demora el movimiento de las cosas por la dimensión del tiempo). Lo mismo quería que sucediera al interior de la novela: en cada capítulo la forma del tiempo es diferente y por lo tanto no hay un orden lineal de los sucesos; a veces se adelantan o retrasan con respecto a los que los rodean. Como bien señalas, estos efectos de gravitación textual son efecto de la psicología de los personajes: Karina se desespera por llegar al futuro en el que descubrirá el secreto que su abuela le esconde; Rebeca se confunde, por culpa de la edad y la bebida, y cree que su pasado está presente; Silverio vive inmerso en un popurrí frenético de estímulos digitales, y su hija Daenerys se comporta de forma escandalosa porque siente que el futuro se está incendiando a su alrededor.

«Karina está segura de que el espacio-tiempo no se curva por efecto de las masas sino que se difunde y arremolina como una gran marea de vacuidad».

Nona Fernández: Es fascinante el enredo de hilos temporales que armas. La estructura de la trama también apuesta a esa idea de un tiempo que se «difunde y arremolina». Los fragmentos de la historia están organizados de manera dislocada, fuera de la linealidad, sumando a la impresión de un tiempo caótico y hecho a pedazos, que se contrae y se extiende. Escenas del futuro dialogan con las del presente y con las del pasado. A ratos parecen realidades paralelas, tiempos paralelos que no necesariamente se reunirán en algún punto, posibilidades de trama. Y esa sensación de relato es muy atractiva. 

Jorge Comensal: No había pensado hasta ahora en la familiaridad semántica que existe entre el relato y la relatividad. Tanto en la física como en la literatura, el tiempo y el espacio son relativos a la energía de los cuerpos que protagonizan el relato. Las historias focalizadas en Karina y en Silverio comienzan desfasadas varios meses y después de varios nudos terminan por emparejarse en la primavera de 2031. La energía textual de una joven activista como Daenerys es muy diferente a la de una anciana como Rebeca: una se precipita hacia el futuro como un asteroide y la otra orbita, rememorando su juventud, el agujero negro del olvido. Cuando mencionas que la forma del relato es «atractiva», aparte de alegrarme, vuelvo a la analogía gravitatoria: al narrar queremos atraer la atención de alguien hacia una historia. El reacomodo del tiempo también aspira a que la conciencia lectora no se salga de la órbita del libro y lo abandone. 

Nona Fernández: ¿Cómo es tu relación con las redes sociales y el mundo virtual? Lo pregunto de curiosa porque, claro, están muy presentes en el relato. Yo vengo pensando en ellas hace un tiempo, en la relación directa que tienen en nuestra manera de percibir la realidad. Y de vivirla también. ¿Crees que sean una de las razones de este tiempo acelerado y fragmentado en el que vivimos? 

Jorge Comensal: Me preocupa que esa aceleración fragmentada de la atención, fomentada por el zapeo constante que nos inculcan las redes sociales con sus pequeñas recompensas, atrofie nuestra capacidad de concentrarnos de manera sostenida en el pobre estímulo visual de la página escrita. Lo digo sin añoranza por el pasado, más bien con prisa porque aprendamos a domar estas tecnologías que por su novedad nos tienen deslumbrados y nos distraen de las virtudes de la literatura. Me gustan muchas cosas del mundo virtual, sobre todo el vasto acervo de curiosidades enciclopédicas y vídeos curiosos, como algunos que evoco en la novela: el apareamiento hermafrodita de las babosas leopardo, la masturbación de un delfín con un pescado, los elefantes que aparecen en el primer video subido a YouTube. La vida de Silverio, llena de privaciones económicas, afectivas y sociales, se enriquece gracias a los rincones más extravagantes de internet.

Nona Fernández. Crédito: Sergio López Isla.

Nona Fernández. Crédito: Sergio López Isla.

Nona Fernández: Karina busca una pieza suelta del rompecabezas de su identidad. Hay algo en el pasado que desconoce, que se lo han ocultado, y que la determina por completo. Algo que podría cambiar su percepción de las cosas y de sí misma. Esta trama espejea muy bien el relato histórico oficial de toda Latinoamérica, ¿no? Una historia oficial llena de cosas no dichas, de hoyos negros.

Jorge Comensal: En esto mismo pensé la primera vez que fui a buscar una tumba en el Panteón Civil de Dolores, en la Ciudad de México. Es un cementerio inmenso y decadente en el que la desigualdad extrema de Latinoamérica se manifiesta de un modo muy chocante: ahí se encuentra la Rotonda de las Personas Ilustres, donde el Estado mexicano ha rendido tributo a muchos de sus próceres, y la fosa común de la ciudad, en la que el servicio forense entierra a los que ni siquiera tuvieron deudos. El Panteón Dolores no es un camposanto sino un campo laico que se ha llenado con el tiempo de imaginería religiosa. Con los panteones civiles del siglo XIX, el Estado liberal trató de quitarle a la iglesia el monopolio sobre la vida y la muerte de la sociedad mexicana. En el mismo panteón donde están enterrados los presidentes más anticlericales de México (Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada y Plutarco Elías Calles), también hay un oprobioso monumento dedicado por un grupo de ultraderecha a las «víctimas» del aborto. El Panteón es un símbolo del Estado fallido, incapaz de controlar la corrupción burocrática, el crimen (el robo de tumbas, el narcomenudeo) y la práctica de rituales que dan cuenta de una profunda crisis espiritual en la sociedad. De lo que no se habla en la historia oficial es de esta modernización frustrada, y de lo mucho que este fracaso le debe al boicot constante por parte de la Iglesia. El presunto sacrificio de un sacerdote en la fosa común del cementerio apunta hacia este conflicto soterrado. 

Nona Fernández: De hecho, el Panteón de Dolores, su dinámica y su organización, pareciera ser un resumen de la sociedad mexicana. Y hay algo muy interesante en que Karina realice su cacería robándose una personalidad del mismo Panteón. Un alter ego que habla de una posibilidad de sí misma que quizá no fue, por las condiciones en las que le ocultaron ciertas verdades. Es como que siguieras jugando ahí con la relatividad del tiempo.

Jorge Comensal: Mientras busca, infructuosamente, la tumba de sus papás, Karina se topa con el monumento dedicado a Leonor Llorente, una soprano yucateca que murió en 1932 y estuvo casada con el presidente Elías Calles, fundador del régimen que gobernó México casi todo el siglo XX. La tumba atrapa su atención y, a la hora de ocultar su verdadera identidad para descubrir lo que le oculta su abuela, adopta el nombre de Leonor y con él queda poseída por una personalidad ajena a la suya, taimada y desinhibida. Este nombre de soprano le sirve como un disfraz verbal para viajar al pasado sin que la descubran (de ahí el juego con la relatividad del tiempo). 

Nona Fernández: Este comentario puede ser un poco obvio, pero no me voy a restar de hacerlo. Todos los personajes de esta historia parecen incompletos, como si les faltara una pieza fundamental, como si cargaran con un hoyo negro. ¿Será ese el vacío que hierve? 

Jorge Comensal: Lo es. Cada quien padece una enorme carencia y el incendio la vuelve insoportable. Karina intenta llenar su vacío afectivo con la espuma del vacío cósmico. Silverio se siente solo, oprimido y culpable por ser un padre ausente. A Rebeca la quema un secreto por dentro e intenta apagar las llamas con alcohol. Daenerys se enfrenta al vacío de una generación que se siente privada del futuro.

«El pasado es la parte indestructible de la realidad. Atentar contra él es una misión suicida».

Nona Fernández: Los dos escenarios principales que elegiste, el Cementerio y el Zoológico, son expresivamente brillantes. Y el incendio en el Zoológico es una imagen muy fuerte y dolorosa, pero no está tan lejos de los horrores por los que hacemos pasar a diario al mundo animal. Intuyo en esta capa de la historia todo un discurso animalista. 

Jorge Comensal: Los incendios forestales de 2019 en Australia, los de Bolivia en 2021, los de California y Siberia, los koalas y los jaguares malheridos estaban muy presentes en mi memoria cuando el fuego del Panteón llegó al zoológico. No me imaginaba entonces que en julio de 2022, cuando la novela estaba por publicarse, se tendría que evacuar a más de 360 animales del zoológico de Arcachon, en Francia, debido a un incendio forestal. Un par de semanas antes del incendio novelesco, Daenerys había ido de paseo escolar al zoológico. La frescura de su maravillado encuentro con los animales silvestres la convierte en una fiera animalista. La juventud y su temperamento tormentoso la hacen intransigente, vegetariana, antiespecista radical. Silverio la cuestiona con sentido común y sus discusiones dan cuenta de conflictos interiores. En ese ir y venir entre la indiferencia y el fundamentalismo espero que cada quien pueda hallar una postura sensata ante el ecocidio y la extinción masiva

Nona Fernández: Osas panda, gorilas, emúes, delfines, el jaguar Tezcatlipoca, ardillas, escarabajos que se orientan con la vía láctea, un loro loco que habla como abogado, el listado de animales que participan del elenco de este libro es largo. Hubo mucha investigación ahí, ¿no es cierto? Yo confío ciegamente que todas las especificaciones e historias que Silverio y el narrador nos cuentan son reales. 

Jorge Comensal: Afortunadamente sí existen los escarabajos astrónomos.

Nona Fernández: Son una verdadera poesía. En el libro dices que recolectan excremento y luego vuelven a sus casas orientándose por las estrellas. Lo más elevado y lo más terrenal contenido en un solo bichito.

Jorge Comensal: Por desgracia también hubo una guerra contra los emúes. El delfín onanista y la asociación mitológica entre el jaguar y el nocturno dios Tezcatlipoca de los mexicas son ciertas. La clonación del oso panda es una posibilidad inminente, ya que se han clonado otros mamíferos en peligro de extinción, como el hurón de patas negras y el bucardo (una cabra pirenaica que ya desapareció). Escribo sobre fauna desde hace mucho (los primeros textos que me atreví a publicar fueron ensayos líricos sobre abejas, manatíes, anguilas ciegas y tortugas de las Galápagos), así que este aspecto de la novela es el más idiosincrático de todos.  

Nona Fernández: : Daenerys (amé ese nombre) contiene una mirada comprometida con el cuidado de los animales y el planeta. Es una activista ecológica a sus 15 años. Me preocupa que Daenerys hoy, en 2022, tiene solo 7 años. ¿Alcanzará este planeta a esperar a esa generación?  

Jorge Comensal: La vida es muy poderosa y el apogeo desmedido de la civilización industrial no podrá acabar con ella por completo. Por eso en la novela hablo del emú, los caracoles y la misteriosa figura que sobreviven al incendio del Bosque. El planeta no lleva prisa por salvarse, pero nosotros sí porque la vida humana es breve y si devastamos los ecosistemas actuales no alcanzaremos a ver los que vendrán en las próximas eras geológicas. La biodiversidad es una maravilla cósmica (no sabemos si hay algo semejante en otros planetas), y destruirla es una vileza indigna de lo que los seres humanos supuestamente aspiramos a ser.

«Bastó que se quemara el panteón para que todo el mundo empezara a ver espectros en sus casas, pero a nadie se le ocurrió que los cientos de animales muertos en el zoológico pudieron haberse convertido en fantasmas».

Nona Fernández: Silverio y Karina se parecen mucho. Son inquietos, curiosos, sensibles, pero sus realidades socioeconómicas generan una brecha entre ellos. Mientras Karina ha podido estudiar física y elaborar sus pensamientos de la realidad, Silverio es un chatarrero. Acumula materiales nobles y bastardos sacados de todo tipo de páginas virtuales y aplicaciones. Me identifica esa manera de retratar la composición de nuestro bagaje cultural. 

Jorge Comensal: Es cierto. El malestar que esa injusta brecha social me produce solamente se alivia cuando pienso que Daenerys, gracias a la escuela pública y al esfuerzo de su familia materna (porque Silverio, no hay que olvidarlo, ha sido un padre irresponsable), tiene más posibilidades que sus padres, más libertad, una libertad que ella consagra precozmente a la vida silvestre.

Nona Fernández: Hay algo en Rebeca que me hace querer abrazarla. Imagino que tiene que ver con la propia mirada de Karina hacia ella, pese a todo. Pero también con el hecho de que aquí instalas un tema al que todas y todos somos tremendamente sensibles y es el cuidado de nuestros viejos. Su incapacidad de cuidarse solos y la falta de herramientas que tenemos para hacerles la vida lo más feliz y digna posible.

Jorge Comensal: Karina adora a Rebeca, aunque casi nunca se acuerde de ello. El enorme resentimiento que le produce descubrir que su abuela le oculta un secreto hace que no podamos ver tanto ese afecto en la novela. Pero me alegra saber que lo percibas. Rebeca es el menos imaginario de los personajes. Y justo me hace recordar cuánta falta me hace abrazar a mis abuelas. Karina sufre mucho para cuidar sola a su abuela nonagenaria mientras hace su doctorado en física. Con la beca universitaria no le alcanza para pagarle una atención digna. El Estado no le ofrece alternativas. Así como sucede con el tema de las pensiones y los derechos laborales, la crisis del bienestar en la tercera edad se seguirá agravando en los años por venir.

Enciclopedia Comensaliana

Vía Láctea: Nuestro planeta orbita alrededor del centro de una galaxia espiral. La velocidad inexplicable con la que giran las galaxias como la nuestra ha obligado a los cosmólogos a suponer la existencia de una famosa y elusiva materia oscura. Este comodín de la ciencia astronómica no le gusta a Karina. Le parece perezoso y arbitrario. Por eso cree que el enigma de la velocidad de los cuerpos cósmicos no se explicará con una sustancia oculta al interior de las galaxias, sino gracias al vacío que hierve a su alrededor. 

Wikipedia: La biografía de James Joyce dice: «Joyce está enterrado en el Cementerio de Fluntern; desde su tumba se oyen los rugidos de los leones del zoo de Zúrich». Este detalle zoológico sólo se encuentra en la Wikipedia en español; no lo he hallado en inglés, francés ni portugués. Lo que yo alcancé a escuchar cuando visité la tumba fue a los loros enjaulados a pocos metros del panteón. 

Memoria: El olvido consciente -el deseo insatisfecho de recordar algo- es el peor vacío que existe. 

Alcoholismo: En casi todos los capítulos de la novela hay una especie distinta de animales. Los animales aparecen por doquier en nuestras vidas. Cuando Karina encuentra a su abuela completamente ebria, la inexplicable botella que hay sobre la mesa es de whisky Glenfiddich, cuyo nombre significa en escocés «el valle de los ciervos». 

Otaku: Para distraerse de su abrumadora realidad, Karina se remonta en su tiempo libre al lugar más remoto que se le ocurre, al país más diferente de México que existe. Ese lugar es Japón.  

Fuego: En la novela lo llamo «ángel guardián, voluble y peligroso» de nuestra especie. Me fascina esa ambivalencia, tan parecido a nuestro propio espíritu. Hay quien llama Piroceno a nuestra época por la abundancia de incendios que acompañan la emergencia climática. No hay que satanizar al fuego (aunque siempre nos imaginemos el infierno como una hoguera). En la tumba de la gran Tina Modotti, enterrada en el Panteón Dolores, está el poema luctuoso que le escribió Pablo Neruda. Termina con estos versos: «Con tu nombre otros nombres callamos y decimos, / porque el Fuego no muere».

Escarabajo astrónomo: Este último término es trampa, porque lo escribo yo. Y la idea era terminar contigo como protagonista de todo esto. Pero es que no podía cerrar esta conversación sin decirte que eso de trabajar con las patitas en la tierra, recopilando excremento y mirando el universo para ser guiado por las estrellas, es algo muy parecido a escribir.

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